Health Benefits and Uses of Fennel

Health & Wellness

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)Health Benefits of Fennel / Improves Digestive Health: (Stomach Disorders, Indigestion, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Acid Reflux, Flatulence, Constipation, Diarrhea) / Reduces Nausea and Vomit: (Morning Sickness) / Supports Weight Loss: (Reduces Appetite, Metabolism, Obesity) / Supports Cardiovascular Health - Heart Health: (Protects the Heart (Cardioprotective), High Blood Pressure, Blood Circulation, Cholesterol Levels) / Cancer - Treatment and Prevention: / Respiratory Health: (Airway Relaxation, Lung and Respiratory Disorders, Cold and Cough, Bronchitis, Asthma) / Boosts Immune System: / Antioxidant: / Women's Health: (Regulates Menstruation, Induces Periods, Menstrual Pain, Menstrual Disorders, Premenstrual Symptoms (PMS), Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Hot Flashes and Night Sweats, Menopause, Hirsutism, Breast Milk Secretion, Breast Milk Production, Breast Enlargement, Boosts Fertility, Pregnancy and Birth Defects) / Sexual Health: (Male Contraceptive) / Relieves Pain and Cramps: (Arthritis, Reduces Inflammation) / Neurological Health: (Improves Brain Function) / Psychological Benefits: (Anxiety, Oxidative Stress) / Treats Sleep Disorders: / Improves Cognitive Function: (Sharpens Memory, Alzheimer's and Dementia, Parkinson's Diseases) / Improves Eyesight: (Improves Vision, Cataract, Macular Degeneration) / Bone Health: (Osteoporosis) / Kidney Health: (Renal Colic, Diuretic) / Liver Health: (Hepatoprotection) / Lymphatic System: (Edema, Hernia) / Anemia - Prevents and Treats: / Diabetes: (Blood Sugar, Hyperglycemic) / Skin Care: (Skin Aging (Wrinkles), Improves Skin Quality, Glows Skin, Acne, Wounds) / Hair Care: / Children Health: (Infant Colic) / Aids in Dental Care: (Bad Breath) / Eliminates Insects and Pests: (Repellent Mosquitos) / Pet Care: (Effect of Feed Additive on Egg Quality) / Kills Bacterial Infections: (Antimicrobial, Candida, Antifungal, Food Safety and Preservation) / Hydration | Benefits of Fennel Herbal TeaBenefits ofFennel Essential OilBenefits of Fennel SeedsBenefits of Fennel BulbTherapeutic Benefits of Fennel | Uses of Fennel (Traditional Uses of Fennel, Culinary Uses of Fennel, Other Uses of Fennel) | Ayurvedic Uses and Health Benefits of FennelProperties of Fennel Essential Oil

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), also known as Foeniculum officinale, is actually a member of the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) or carrot family, along with Dill (Anethum graveolens), Caraway (Carum carvi ), and Anise (Pimpinella anisum). Fennel is one of the flowering plant species cultivated in many regions throughout the world with numerous health advantages. It is believed that this wonderful vegetable is native to the southern Europe, western Asia, and North Africa, but now it is also cultivated widely all over the world for domestic and commercial purpose. Native to the Mediterranean region, Fennel is a versatile vegetable that plays an important role in the food culture of many European nations, particularly in France and Italy. In some parts of the world, Fennel is ordered as invasive species because it spreads quickly and eliminates native plants. Fennel is a multipurpose plant. Ancient Romans used it to prevent obesity. Ancient Greeks used it as a remedy. Europeans used it to manufacture drink called “Sack”, that was popular during the Shakespearean time. Fennel still has numerous applications, but it is mostly cultivated as a source of food.

Fennel is an erect, aromatic, glabrous, much-branched, biennial herb growing up to 2 m tall. It is normally found growing in well-drained, light, moderately fertile soils, particularly in sandy loams but needs supplemental watering during the dry seasons that provide enough sun. It has a thick, spindle-shaped taproot that produces a pithy, smooth or erect, robust, glabrous stem filled with white spongy pith and is bluish-grey colored. Basal and cauline leaves are up to 15 cm, broadly triangular-ovate in outline; ultimate segments 5–40 × 0.5 mm; petiole 7–14 cm whereas upper leaves are alternate, 2–4 × pinnately divided ultimate segments filiform, 1–6 × 0. 6 mm, petiole broadly sheathing at base. Flowers are pale yellow, tiny, 2 mm across, in compound umbels, 4–10 cm across, bracts and bracteoles are absent.

Fennel (Saunf) is used medically from water retention to maintaining normal blood pressure, Due to various types of Vitamin, Minerals and nutrients, present in the Fennel it has lots of health benefits. Among that some of the health benefits of Fennel preventing the risk of cancer, promotes digestion, prevents anemia, boost immunity, improves skin health, reduce blood pressure, helps to prevent diabetes, removes flatulence, promotes breast enlargement, improves respiratory health and also contains antioxidants properties. It gives a cooling effect on the body. Primarily useful for treating bloating and constipation, these seeds can do wonders for your eye health too. Fennel seeds contain a good amount of dietary fibre that is essential for the body. It not only relieves one of constipation but also increases intestinal motility. The fibre content helps improve digestion in the body.

Fennel contains lots of Vitamin, Minerals and other components. Some of the vitamins Fennel has Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Riboflavin, Thiamin, Folate, Niacin, Pyridoxine, Pantothenic acid and Riboflavin. Fennel also contains essential oil, dietary fiber, sodium and potassium, which have lots of health advantages. Apart from this Fennel also contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese. The best part of the Fennel is, it contains zero cholesterol. It comprises of minerals and vitamins like phosphorous, calcium, sodium, iron riboflavin, thiamine Vitamin C and niacin. Fennel seeds consist of 9.5 percent protein, 6.3 percent moisture, 10 percent fat, 13.4 percent minerals, carbohydrates 42.3 percent, and 18.5 percent fibre. In the essential oil of fennel fatty acids like petroselinic acid and palmitic acid are present.

Fennel bulb (235 g) consists of 212 g of water, 2.91 g of protein, 0.47 g of fat, and 17.2 g of carbohydrate (including 7.28 g of dietary fiber & 9.24 g of sugars). This equals a total of 72.8 kcal of energy. The 235g bulb provides 115 mg of calcium, 1.72 mg of iron, 40 mg of magnesium, 188 mg of phosphorus, 973 mg of potassium, 122 mg of sodium, trace amounts of zinc, copper and selenium. In addition to above it also provides 28.2 mg of vitamin C, as well as choline, several B vitamins, folate, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, and vitamin K.

As you can see, both fennel and fennel seeds are low in calories but provide many important nutrients. Fresh fennel bulb is a good source of vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin critical for immune health, tissue repair, and collagen synthesis. Vitamin C also acts as a potent antioxidant in your body, protecting against cellular damage caused by unstable molecules called free radicals. Both the bulb and seeds contain the mineral manganese, which is important for enzyme activation, metabolism, cellular protection, bone development, blood sugar regulation, and wound healing. Aside from manganese, fennel and its seeds contain other minerals vital to bone health, including potassium, magnesium, and calcium.

Improves Digestive Health:

Fennel has a long history of being used to treat a variety of gut and digestive problems. Fennel stimulates the secretion of digestive juices and enzymes which facilitate the digestive process. They are good for stomach aches, flatulence, diarrhoea, and constipation. Fennel possesses a considerable amount of fiber. Fiber stimulates peristaltic motion and increased secretion of gastric juices, which eases digestion, prevents conditions like constipation, and protects the body from more severe diseases like colorectal cancer. One cup of fennel contains 4g of dietary fiber.

Fennel tea has been utilized like a medication to enhance digestion since the Roman and Egyptian empire age. It provides a enchanting effect on the activity of the stomach as well as intestine. It is just a confirmed fighter towards indigestion and extraction of too much stomach acid. Additionally it is indicated just as one antispasmodic by the scientists. The antispasmodic qualities of Fennel aid you in getting rest from the pain of bowel symptoms.

The components of essential oils present in fennel triggers the secretion of digestive juices and enzymes which in turn paces up the process of digestion. Fennal reduce bloating of the belly due to flatulence (excessive gas formation). Inflammation of the stomach and the intestine is reduced by Fennel and facilitates maximum absorption of nutrients from the digested food.

Fennel seeds are used to treat an array of digestive ailments, including heartburn, intestinal gas and infant gas, bloating, and even colic in infants. The seeds have antispasmodic and carminative effects. The essential of the seeds can help treat other serious digestive ailments like irritable bowel syndrome. Some sources suggest that Fennel seeds may also help treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), diarrhea, constipation, and ulcerative colitis. However, more research is warranted in this regard.

Different studies have been proven that consumption of Fennel on a regular basis can improve the metabolism and it can also prevent various types of stomach related issues. Beside this Fennel also contain high amount of antioxidant, which is very beneficial to prevent free radicals and protect our digestive organ from oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thus reduce the risk of colon cancer and other disease caused by free radicals.

Stomach Disorders:

Fennel has a long history of being used to treat a variety of gut and digestive problems, including stomach aches, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation. However, at this point in time, there is insufficient evidence to support these benefits.

In a study with 121 people who had Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a mixture of Fennel and Curcumin essential oils decreased abdominal pain and improved quality of life.

Anethole, a major component of essential Fennel oil, improved stomach function and emptying in rats. Fennel extract prevented stomach ulcers caused by alcohol in rats.

A small trial that used Fennel in a mixture with Curcumin and a couple of animal studies cannot be considered sufficient evidence that Fennel improves gut discomfort. Larger, well-designed clinical trials are needed to shed light on any potential benefits when it comes to gut health.

Indigestion:

It is a common practice, particularly on the Indian Subcontinent, to chew Fennel seeds after meals. This is done to facilitate digestion and to eliminate bad breath. Some of the components of the essential oils in Fennel are stimulants and they stimulate secretion of digestive and gastric juices, while reducing inflammation of the stomach and intestines, and facilitating proper absorption of nutrients from the food. Furthermore, it can eliminate constipation and thereby protect the body from a wide range of intestinal troubles that can stem from being blocked up. It also has antiacidic, basic properties and is extensively used in antacid preparations. In culinary applications, it is also used as an ingredient of focal point of many appetizers.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS):

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is actually a situation relating to the large intestine which effects lots of people, particularly women. Symptoms differ, yet can lead you to abdominal pain, bloating as well as stomach cramps, challenging bowel motions as well as extreme flatulence.

Tea prepared from Fennel seed is considered very useful to help indigestion, bloating and constipation because of the oils found in these seeds. Fennel seeds contain estragole, fenchone and anethole, which contribute to the plant’s antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties. The volatile oil compounds within it first aid in increasing the creation of gastric juices to get digestion started properly. These same compounds then help in controlling the contractions of the intestines, assisting to reduce intestinal cramps as well as trapped stomach gas. For those with IBS, the volatile oils found in Fennel seeds can help kick start digestion by encouraging the production of gastric enzymes. For its multitude of gastrointestinal benefits, Since the volatile oil content within the Fennel seeds directly affects its usefulness for treating IBS, bloating and flatulence, its worth searching for a tea created with a high volatile oil content. Fennel tea is sure to help the digestive tract be healthy and happy.

A 2000 study "Foeniculum vulgare therapy in irritable bowel syndrome" published in The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 95 by Hassan Amjad, H A Jafary in Ancient writings have reported on the use of Foeniculum vulgare seeds in the treatment of IBS and other functional bowel disorders. IBS is the 2nd important cause of work absenteeism after common colds. In this study five patients were selected for Foeniculum vulgare treatment, using sugar coated Foeniculum vulgare seeds to chew and swallow after meals. Results showed marked improvement in measures of decreased visits, abdominal pain and spasm, excessive bloating and dependence on pain medications. Fennel seed extracts contain essential oils like trans-anethole and fechone which exhibit its spasmolytic effect through plant based Ca-channel blocker. It also has estrogenic and an adrenalin like effect. Study suggest fennel seeds has potential as adjunct therapeutic modality in refractory cases of IBS with significant overall improvement in quality of life.

Acid Reflux:

The carminative property of aspartic acid which is present in fennel seeds makes it a good antiflatulent. Excessive gas formation can cause stomach ache. Having Fennel extract is a good way to get rid of the extra gas. Fennel seeds is suitable for all ages and can be given to both infants and aged people. Fennel also helps in relaxing muscles in the intestines, and relieves constipation. Soothing muscles in the stomach and intestines helps to relieve gassiness because of acid reflux.

Fennel seeds nature is basic. This helps it to neutralise the acidity of the stomach which can sometimes increase due to improper dietary habits, unregulated lifestyle, body weight etc. Acidity causes heart burn and having fennel after meals can reduce chances of it happening. This property of fennel makes it a common ingredient in anti-acidity medications.

Flatulence:

Fennel is extremely popular as an antiflatulent, because of the carminative properties of the aspartic corrosive found in it. Fennel contains aspartic acid, which helps fight excessive gas. Fennel extract can be used to reduce flatulence and to expel excess gas from the stomach, making those meetings less embarrassing.

Many individuals claim that consuming Fennel tea frequently in fact decreases their occurrence of both bloating and flatulence. Once more, it’s the volatile oils that are responsible for this particular advantageous effect on our digestive system. These types of compounds assist relax the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract and may help in decreasing stomach cramps as well as bloating. As both digesting food as well as trapped gases goes through our system more easily, there’s less possibility of foods fermenting as well as putrefying in the large intestine. In this manner, the tea could be a very efficient flatulence remedy, especially for those really smelly farts that may result from undigested food getting stuck within our colon.

Extract of Fennel can be utilized by everybody, from newborn children to the elderly, as an approach to diminish tooting and to remove excess gas from the stomach. It is usually utilized as a part of medicines to decrease indications of non-ulcer dyspepsia and fart in newborn children and youthful kids.

Constipation:

Fennel seeds, mainly in powdered form, can act as a laxative. The roughage helps to clear the bowels, while it’s stimulating effect helps maintain the proper peristaltic motion of the intestines, thus helping promote proper excretion through the stimulation of gastric juices and bile production. Fennel is also commonly found in medicines that treat abdominal pain, diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other intestinal issues. It induces intestinal activity by maintaining peristaltic movements through inducing the secretion of bile and gastric juices.

Diarrhea:

Fennel is helpful in curing diarrhea if it is caused by bacterial infection, because some components of the essential oil in fennel such as anetol and cineole have disinfectant and antibacterial properties. Some amino acids, such as histidine, can aid in digestion and the proper functioning of the digestive system, thereby helping to eliminate diarrhea due to indigestion. Fennel has long been used by indigenous cultures as a way to eliminate diarrhea.

Reduces Nausea and Vomit:

Morning Sickness:

Fennel seeds may be used to calm the stomach and offer quick relief from morning sickness. Chewing fennel seeds or having fennel tea may help. Fennel seeds may also prevent stomach gas and encourage the expulsion of gas. They may help treat nausea as well. However, research is lacking in this regard.

Supports Weight Loss:

Fennel seeds are rich in fiber and may aid weight loss and keep hunger pangs at bay. The seeds may also decrease fat storage and improve nutrient absorption. However, more research is warranted in this regard. Fennel seeds can help you lose weight, by boosting metabolism. Adding a cup of Fennel seed water to your diet can help you keep your weight in check. This is one of the major health benefits of fennel seeds. Fennel seeds have diuretic properties. They increase urine output and flush out the excess fluid from the body. This also may contribute to weight loss. However, this weight loss induced by fennel seeds could be a direct consequence of water loss and not fat loss.

Reduces Appetite:

Fennel seeds may not only add depth and flavor to your recipes but also help curb appetite. One of the lesser known benefits of Fennel seeds is that it helps curb the appetite and aids in weight loss. Anethole, a major component of Fennel essential oil, may be behind the appetite-suppressing qualities of the plant. A Korean study proved that the intake of Fennel tea could suppress appetite in overweight people.

A study in 9 healthy overweight women demonstrated that those who drank 250 ml of tea made with 2 grams of Fennel seeds before eating lunch felt significantly less hungry and consumed fewer calories during the meal than those who drank a placebo tea. Anethole, might be the primary component exhibiting this property.

Another study in 47 women found that those who supplemented with 300 mg of Fennel extract daily for 12 weeks gained a small amount of weight, compared to a placebo group. They also did not experience reduced appetite.

However, this study is small and insufficient to draw any conclusions. Research in this area is conflicting, and more studies are needed to fully understand the potential appetite-suppressing properties of Fennel.

Metabolism:

Fennel tea facilitates weight loss in two major ways, by detoxifying the body of toxic compounds and avoiding water retention within the body (it’s a diuretic which boosts the frequency of urination) in addition to by improving the metabolic processes as well as harnessing the appetite enough to lessen gluttony.

The herb tea may also boost metabolic process throughout weight loss and may assist in eliminating toxins as well as excessive water through the body. It enhances metabolism and weight loss may result from consuming Fennel tea frequently.

Obesity:

A 2011 study "Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fruits in Obesity and Associated Cardiovascular Disorders Demonstrated in High Fat Diet Fed Albino Rats" published in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (JPBMS) by Dr. Chanchal Garg, Prof. S. H. Ansari, Prof. S. A. Khan, Dr. Munish Garg evaluated Foeniculum vulgare fruit extracts in high fat diet fed albino rats for their possible role in obesity and associated cardiovascular disorders. Maximum activity was noted with the methanol fraction of the drug which contained maximum amount of phenolic (48.37 mg/g) and flavonoidal (21.44 mg/g) contents. The antioxidant compounds may play a vital role in management and control of obesity via their effects in natural antioxidant defense and lipid metabolism. However, other mechanisms may be involved in the observed activity. 

Supports Cardiovascular Health - Heart Health:

Foods which are high in fiber have been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease. Fennel seeds is enriched with nutrients like magnesium, potassium, and calcium. These nutrients also promote good heart health. A cup, 87 grams serving of raw Fennel bulb packs 3 grams of fiber. It is 11% of the Daily Reference Value (DRV). Due to high amount of dietary fiber present in Fennel, consumption of Fennel on a regular basis is very good for cardiovascular health because it helps to reduce the bad cholesterol level of our body, such as LDL cholesterol and increase the good cholesterol level of our body, such as HDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is the main cause of various chronic heart diseases. Apart from this Fennel is highly rich in Vitamin C, which is a strong antioxidant, it fights against free radicals and stabilized them to do any kinds of oxidative damage to our cardiovascular cells and tissues. Diets high in fiber have been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease.

A review of 22 studies associated a greater dietary fiber intake with a lower risk of heart disease. For every additional 7 grams of fiber consumed per day, heart disease risk decreased by 9%.

Fennel and its seeds also contain nutrients like magnesium, potassium, and calcium, which play important roles in keeping your heart healthy. For example, including rich sources of potassium in your diet may help reduce high blood pressure, a risk factor for heart disease.

Protects the Heart (Cardioprotective):

Fennel is a great source of fiber, as mentioned above, but besides the advantages to digestion that fiber provides, it also helps to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol in the blood stream. This means that it can stimulate the elimination damaging LDL cholesterol, which is a major factor in heart disease, artherosclerosis, and strokes.

A 2007 study "Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis" published in Pharmacological Research 56 by Massimiliano Tognolini, Vigilio Ballabeni, Simona Bertoni, Renato Bruni, Mariannina Impicciatore, Elisabetta Barocelli about anethole, Foeniculum vulgare essential oil, and its main component anethole, showed safe antithrombotic activity that may be due to its broad spectrum of antiplatelet activity, clot stabilizing effect and vasorelaxant action.

High Blood Pressure:

Due to the presence of the fibre, magnesium and potassium content in Fennel, it is very good in lowering blood pressure and preventing various types of blood pressure related issues, such as hypertension. One tablespoon of Fennel contains 97 milligrams of potassium, compared to just 5.1 milligrams of sodium. This helps the blood vessels relax and maintains appropriate blood pressure. Potassium acts as a vasodilator, which mean, it helps to reduce the strain from the blood vessels and provide smooth passage to blood through arteries, thus reduce the pressure from cardiovascular system and lower the blood pressure. Health benefits of Fennel seeds are highly effective for the overall health of your heart.

High blood pressure is connected to a wide range of health issues, including heart attack, stroke, and artherosclerosis. Also, for diabetic patients, blood pressure issues can make management of their insulin and glucose levels very difficult, and can be the cause of many potentially lethal complications. A cup of fennel bulb in your daily diet will pump you full of potassium and all the benefits that come along with it.

Research published in the Journal of Food Science, found that chewing on Fennel seeds helped increased the nitrite content in saliva, making it wonderful natural way to keep a check on blood pressure levels.

A diet high in potassium can decrease systolic blood pressure by 5.5 points when compared to a high sodium diet. However don’t expect lower blood pressure immediately, it takes nearly four weeks of consuming a high potassium diet to see a drop in blood pressure.

Blood Circulation:

Health benefits of Fennel seeds and through the essential oils and fibre that are very useful to flush out toxins and sludge from our bodies, thus helping to cleanse the blood and clear the skin.

Cholesterol Levels:

The fibre present in fennel seeds makes it a good option for keeping cholesterol levels low in the blood. High levels of cholesterol can be harmful for the body as it causes various health problems such as heart attacks, strokes and artherosclerosis. It is extremely essential to maintain suitable levels of cholesterol and fennel is a good solution to this problem.

In mice with high cholesterol, fennel extract decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol), while it increased HDL-cholesterol (good cholesterol). Another study noticed the increase in HDL-cholesterol in rats.

The methanol extracts of fennel were found to reduce cholesterol levels in mice. They also could reduce the deposition of fats (triglycerides) in the coronary arteries. However, these effects have only been reported in rodents so far, so it’s an open question whether this herb will have as dramatic an effect on cholesterol in human users.

Cancer - Treatment and Prevention:

Fennel has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine to deal with inflammatory conditions like insect bites or sore throat. Fennel contains oil called anethole that has been shown in certain research to be a natural cancer remedy, helping to reducing the growth of breast cancer cells. It is supposed that anethole reduces inflammation that may lead to the development of cancer, though further research is necessary to determine how it can be used exactly.

The raw vegetable itself hasn’t been extensively studied in regards to cancer protection, but the fennel seed extract has, and the findings regarding cancer protection are quite impressive. It shows that the extract can not only inhibit the growth of tumors, thanks to its concentrations of flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols, but that it can even be somewhat chemo-protective against the harmful effects of radiation during cancer treatment. Fennel seed extract has been found to be preventative of various breast cancer and liver cancer strains.

Fennel seeds reduced the growth of skin and stomach tumors in mice. They increased the content or activities of phase I and phase II detox enzymes and the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Fennel tea is very beneficial for the cancer patients. After the chemotherapy session, the cancer patients feel unpleasant within their stomach. Fennel tea can help with the stomach irritation. It may also help to restore their taste as well as urge for food.

Some test-tube studies showed that anethole suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in human breast cancer cells. Animal studies also suggest that extract from the seeds may protect against breast and liver cancer.

Although these results are promising, human studies are needed before Fennel or its extract can be recommended as an alternative treatment for cancer.

"Study of anticancer and antibacterial activities of Foeniculum vulgare, Justicia adhatoda and Urtica dioica as natural curatives" published in Cellular and Molecular Biology, Vol 63, No 9 by R. Batool, H. Salahuddin, T. Mahmood, M. Ismail evaluated Foeniculum vulgare, J. adhatoda and U. dioica for antibacterial activity and anticancer effect against MCF-7 cell line. Ethanol extracts of the three tested plants exhibited growth inhibitory effect against K. pneumonia, S. marcescens, and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The ethanol extract of FV exhibited significant inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

A 2014 study "Apoptotic induction of crude extract of Foeniculum vulgare extracts on cervical cancer cell lines" publihed in Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci by V.Devika and S.Mohandass evaluated the apoptotic activity of crude methanolic extract of leaves in cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). Results suggest apoptosis on cervical cancer cell line and inhibition of cell proliferation through DNA fragmentation.

Another 2008 study "In-vitro Cytoprotection Activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Helicteres isora in Cultured Human Blood Lymphocytes and Antitumour Activity against B16F10 Melanoma Cell Line" in Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 1 by Madhulika Pradhan, S Sribhuwaneswari, D Karthikeyan, Sunita Minz, Pavani Sure, Atul N Chandu, Umesh Mishra, K Kamalakannan, A Saravanankumar and T Sivakumar evaluated the in-vitro activity of methanolic extract of F. vulgare and Helicteres isora against human blood lymphocytes and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line. Foeniculum vulgare showed good antitumor activity at 200µg/ml. Fennel can be considered to be both antitumor and cytoprotective to normal cells.

Respiratory Health:

Due to the high amount of antibacterial and antiviral properties found in Fennel, it is very beneficial to our respiratory health. Different studies have been proven that consumption of Fennel on a regular basis can reduce the phlegm and mucus formation in our respiratory tract and it also helps to prevent the bacterial and viral infection in the respiratory tract. Beside this Fennel is highly rich in antioxidant, which helps to prevent the oxidative damage to our respiratory tract cells caused by free radicals.

Airway Relaxation:

Dopamine is well known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the brain, but it also plays other roles in the body, such as relaxing the airways to improve airflow to the lungs (bronchodilation). Anethole, one of the ingredients of fennel, may mimic the effects of dopamine on the respiratory system, thereby achieving a similar effect. Fennel extract and essential oil showed an ability to relax the airways (trachea) of guinea pigs.

Lung and Respiratory Disorders:

Fennel is useful in respiratory disorders such congestion, bronchitis, and cough due to the presence of Cineole and Anetol which are expectorant in nature, among their many other virtues. Fennel seeds and powder can help to break up phlegm and prompt loosening of the toxins and buildup of the throat and nasal passages for elimination from the body and quicker recovery from respiratory conditions.

Several researches suggest taking manganese along with minerals like selenium and zinc can help people suffering from lung disorders, like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxidative stress is supposed to be a key mechanism for smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders, thus manganese’s ability to help lower inflammation and oxidative stress through the production of SODs makes it beneficial for those in need of lung healing.

Cold and Cough:

Fennel seeds have been demonstrated to be a natural expectorant as well as stimulant in addition to include fever fighting natural compounds just like potassium, calcium along with other vitamins. A cupful of fennel tea might help with a cough simply by losing up mucous so as to ‘cough it up’ and get if off your chest. With the additional anti-bacterial qualities, that is certainly an excellent natural option to helping fight which pesky common cold.

Bronchitis:

A study "Relaxant effect of Foeniculum vulgare on isolated Guinea pig tracheal chains" showed bronchodilator effects of the ethanol extract and essential oil from Fennel.

Asthma:

The phytonutrients in fennel seeds help clear sinuses. This may help relieve asthma symptoms. The expectorant properties of the seeds heal other respiratory ailments like bronchitis, cough, and congestion.

A study explored the relaxant effects of Fennel seeds on guinea pig tracheal chains. It concluded the seeds could offer bronchial relaxation. However, we need more research to understand the same effect in humans.

Fennel seeds may instead cause asthmatic symptoms in some individuals. Hence, talk to your doctor if you are vulnerable to asthma.

Boosts Immune System:

The high amount of Vitamin C and Vitamin A present in Fennel is very beneficial for our immune system. All these above vitamins contain antioxidant properties, which is very helpful in protecting our body from foreign invaders such as bacteria and virus by improving the production of white blood cells in our body and it also helps to prevent the oxidative damage to our cells. Studies have been proven that consumption of Fennel on a regular basis can improve our immunity and prevent various types of common disease such as cold, cough, flu, etc.

A cup of Fennel bulb contains nearly 11.56% of the daily requirement of vitamin-C, which makes Fennel quite a rich source of this beneficial element of our diet. Vitamin-C plays an important role in improving general immune system health, produces and repairs skin tissue, helps to form collagen, and also protects the blood vessel walls as an antioxidant against the harmful effects of free radicals that can often lead to heart disease.

Phosphorous found in Fennel bulb helps to remove minor health problems like muscle weakness, numbness, fatigue as well as similar ailments. Normal levels of phosphorous in the body are a great way to remain fit and active.

According to experts and from suggestions of various health practitioners, a normal amount can be about 1200 mg for adults. Apart from that sexual weakness can also be cured with healthy supplementation of phosphorous into the body, so issues like loss of libido, impotence, frigidity, and sperm motility can be boosted by having a sufficient supply of phosphorus in your system.

A 2018 study "The immunoinhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of Foeniculum vulgare on human peripheral blood lymphocytes" published in Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences by Salimeh Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Seyedeh Parvin Khazraei, and Zahra Amirghofran evaluated the immunomodulatory and apoptosis-inducing effects of various fractions of Fennel. The dichlormethane fraction of F. vulgare showed capability of inducing apoptosis in activated lymphocytes, while the butanol fraction reduced cell activation and cytokine secretion. Results suggest further studies for its potential benefits on immune-mediated diseases.

Antioxidant:

Perhaps the most impressive benefits of fennel and fennel seeds come from the antioxidants and potent plant compounds they contain. This herb is an abundant source of antioxidants such as caffeoylquinic acid, quercetin, and other phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Essential oil of the plant has been shown to contain more than 87 volatile compounds. Polyphenol antioxidants are potent anti-inflammatory agents that have powerful effects on your health. Fennel possesses a good amount of manganese, which is an essential cofactor in some enzymes essential in antioxidant defenses. They prevent many diseases that can get serious at a later stage. Some of the antioxidants in these seeds are kaempferol and quercetin. These prevent degenerative reactions. They are also useful in fighting the signs of ageing as well.

Studies suggest that people who follow diets rich in these antioxidants have a lower risk of chronic conditions like heart disease, obesity, cancer, neurological diseases, and type 2 diabetes. What’s more, over 28 compounds have been identified in Fennel seeds, including anethole, fenchone, methyl chavicol, and limonene.

Animal and test-tube studies note that the organic compoundanethole has anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Finally, the plant compound limonene helps combat free radicals and has been shown to protect rat cells from damage caused by certain chronic diseases. Three weeks of Fennel supplementation increased the activity of important antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in rats.

A 2017 study "Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Leaf of Foeniculum vulgare (Ensilal)" published in World Journal of Agricultural Sciences by Abebie Beyazen, Engeda Dessalegn and Wondimagegn Mamo evaluated various extracts of leaves for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. An aqueous:methanol (20:80) extract showed highest TPC (24.3 ± 0.99 mg GAE/g) and TFC (18.92 ± 0.34 µg CE/mg, along with highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 69.68 ± 2.28 µg/mL) and strongest reducing ability (0.82 ± 0.06 nm). A chloroform extract exhibited highest total antioxidant capacity. Of the extracts, the aqueous/methanol extract showed highest inhibition zone (8.74 ± 0.12 mm) against Bacillus megaterium. Results suggest a potential source of natural antioxidants in food preservation, as well as prevention of oxidative stress mediated human disorders. 

A 2015 study "The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats" in Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. by Esrafil Mansouri, Wesam Kooti, Maryam Bazvand, Maryam Ghasemi Boroon, Ashraf Amirzargar, Reza Afrisham, Mohammad Reza Afzalzadeh, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Nasrin Jalali evaluated the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract on some hematological indices in male rats. Results showed increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity and reduced negative effect of free radicals on blood cells.

Another 2009 study "Systematic evaluation of the antioxidant potential of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare from Portugal" published in Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 10 by Lillian Barros, Sandrina A. Heleno, Ana Maria Carvalho, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira showed the antioxidant potential of the herb might explain some of its empirical uses in folk medicine. The study found the shoots to have the highest radical-scavenging activity and lipid-peroxidation capacity in agreement with the highest phenolic and ascorbic acid contents in this part. The shoots also showed a high concentration of tocopherols and were the only part plants found to have flavonoids.

Free Radicals:

A 2014 study "Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts" published in Biomed Research International by Nandini Goswami and Sreemoyee Chatterjee evaluated the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative damage preventive activity of traditionally uses spices, Trachyspermum ammi (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Seed extracts of both spices showed comparatively high amount of total phenolics. The seed extracts have potential as highly significant bioresource of antioxidants for day-to-day use and food and pharmaceutical industry applications. 

Women's Health:

A lot of women have problems with extreme pain during the time of their period. The existence of higher amounts of potassium in Fennel tea can enhance the muscle cramps in the course of period. Fennel has got enchanting effects on the manufacture of milk in breastfeeding. Additionally, it guarantees healthy menstruation process for ladies. It encourages producing hormones just like estrogen, that are in charge of a healthy sexual life.

Regulates Menstruation:

Fennel is likewise an emmenagogue, implying that it facilitates and manages feminine cycle by appropriately controlling hormonal activity in the body. Besides, Fennel is utilized as a part of various items to decrease the impacts of PMS, and it is additionally utilized customarily as a mitigating torment reliever and relaxing agent for menopausal ladies.

Induces Periods:

Fennel works well to induce menstruation. Chew on some fennel seeds to have a regular and proper menstrual flow on time. Irregular menses can be a problem faced by many women. The fast life, lack of sleep, bad food habits, stress have all added to such irregularities in body functions.

Menstrual Pain:

Women struggling with menstrual cramps may also utilize Fennel tea to relax their muscles and offer rest from the pain, as well as puffiness from infections may be treatable with a compress that contains the tea. Medicine to assist stomach problems could be costly, as can menstrual cramp pain relievers. Plus they may cause other side effects which are just as serious as the discomfort which led you to take them. Practically each and every kitchen spice rack includes a container of Fennel seeds, because of their common inclusion in lots of recipes. Rather than simply utilizing them to spice up a dish at dinnertime, try using them to brew a tea should you suffer from digestion problems, cramps, along with other typical health conditions. It is really an effortless, safe, and efficient home cure whose results might easily surprise you.

Fennel seeds help in reducing menstrual pains, alleviates symptoms of menopause, shorten the length of the menstruation cycle, reduced period-related nausea due to the presence of oestrogen. Painful periods or dysmenorrhoea are a common problem for many women, who often use over-the-counter medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat the pain.

Many turn to alternative or complementary treatments instead, and a 2012 study suggested that Fennel can be helpful in this regard. Researchers speculate that Fennel helps keep the uterus from contracting, which is what prompts the pain reported by women with dysmenorrhea.

Fennel was found to alleviate menstrual pain in 30 women reporting particularly dysmenorrhea. This effect kicked in between 30 – 120 minutes after taking it. However, 5 women withdrew from this study due to finding its odor unpleasant, and one woman reported a mild increase in the amount of menstrual flow.

A combination of Fennel extract / vitamin E was more effective than ibuprofen in decreasing the intensity of menstrual pain in a study with 68 female students.

In a study of 80 young women, Fennel capsules reduced period-related nausea and improved subjective well-being compared to placebo.

However, roughly 10-20% of women who suffer from severe cramping and discomfort during their period do not find relief through this approach.

In a 2007 study "Clinical effects of Foeniculum vulgare extract on primary dysmenorrhea" published in Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, Volume 8, Issue 1 by Sh. Torkzahrani et al results suggest Foeniculum vulgare extract can be effective in reducing the severity of dysmenorrhea.

Studies are promising but few and of low quality. Larger trials are needed to establish if Fennel is beneficial when it comes to alleviating menstrual pain.

Menstrual Disorders:

Fennel is also an Emenagogue, which means it comforts and normalizes menstruation by properly regulating hormonal action in the body. Additionally, fennel is used in a number of products to reduce the effects of PMS, and it is also used traditionally as a soothing pain reliever and relaxing agent for menopausal women.

Premenstrual Symptoms (PMS):

There is a single study in which this herb reduced the severity of symptoms in 90 young women with moderate to severe PMS.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS):

The study "Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats" published in Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine by Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi and Farah Farokhi evaluated an aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare in experimental (PCOS) polycystic ovary syndrome in female rats. Results showed the extract had beneficial effect on renal function in PCOS rats.

Hot Flashes and Night Sweats:

Preliminary studies have confirmed that fennel is safe and effective for easing menopause symptoms. It is also a known emmenagogue. The phytoestrogenic properties of fennel seeds may also help treat menstrual symptoms like cramps and hot flashes and night sweats.

Menopause:

Menopause is often accompanied by symptoms such as hot flashes, sweating, heart discomfort, sleep problems, depression, irritability, fatigue, anxiety, sexual problems, and joint and muscle discomfort. Fennel, an Anise-flavored herb, used for cooking, has long been known for its health benefits for a variety of health issues, including digestion and premenstrual symptoms.

A review of 10 studies noted that Fennel may improve sexual function and satisfaction in menopausal women, as well as relieve hot flashes, vaginal itching, dryness, pain during sex, and sleep disturbances.

In a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 90 women, Fennel effectively reduced menopausal symptoms without serious side effects. However, more studies are needed to confirm Fennel is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms.

A 2018 protocol for systematic reviewof randomized controlled trials "Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on management of menopausal symptoms" published by Lee, Hye, Won, Lim, Hyun-Ja, RN, Jun, Ji, Hee, MSc, Lim, Hyun-Suk, RN, Lee, Myeong, Soo said that Fennel is often used in women's health care to treat dysmenorrhea, increased milk supply, and symptoms of menopause. Review reports on the current evidence on the efficacy of fennel for the management of menopausal symptoms.

Hirsutism:

Sometimes, women with regular menstrual cycles and normal levels of male hormones can experience unwanted hair growth, a condition known as hirsutism, for example, inappropriate facial hair growth. While the underlying causes are not yet known, Fennel has shown potential in reversing this distressing condition. 

Fennel gels and creams applied directly to the affected areas of the skin reduced hair growth and hair thickness in a DB-RCT of 44 women and in another study of 38 women. However, larger, well-designed trials are needed to establish that fennel is beneficial for this condition.

A 2014 randomized placebo controlled clinical trial "The effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) gel 3% in decreasing hair thickness in idiopathic mild to moderate hirsutism" published in Caspian J Intern Med. by Ozra Akha, Khadijeh Rabiei, Zahra Kashi, Adele Bahar, Elham Zaeif-Khorasani, Mehrnoush Kosaryan, Majid Saeedi, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, and Omid Emadian evaluated the effect of 3% Fennel gel in decreasing hair thickness in idiopathic mild to moderate hirsutism in women. Results showed the 3% Fennel gel was effective in treating idiopathic hirsutism and did not have notable side effects. The mechanism of action could be due to an anti-androgenic effect of trans-anethole and di-anethole. 

A 2003 double-blind placebo controlled study "Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare)" published in Phytomedicine by Javidnia K, Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, Nasiri A. about idiopathic hirsutism is the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women with normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. A double-blind placebo controlled study evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. A 2% Fennel cream showed better efficacy than 1% cream, and was more potent than placebo.

Breast Milk Secretion:

Fennel has been shown to have galactogenic properties, meaning it helps increase milk secretion. Lactating mothers can consume Fennel seeds to ensure a steady flow of milk to the suckling infant. Fennel stimulates the flow of milk during breast feeding. It is essential for babies to consume breast milk in their initial days and Fennel helps to ease this for both the mother and the child. 

Research suggests that specific substances found in anethole, such as dianethole and photoanethole, are responsible for the galactogenic effects of the plant. Fennel may increase milk secretion and blood levels of prolactin, a hormone that signals the body to produce breast milk.

However, other studies found no effect on milk secretion or infant weight gain. Negative side effects, such as poor weight gain and difficulty feeding, have also been reported in infants whose mothers drank lactation teas containing Fennel. No clinical evidence supports the use of Fennel for any of these conditions. It is a summary of the existing human, animal, and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit. For these reasons, breastfeeding women should consult their healthcare provider before using fennel to stimulate milk production.

"Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology" published in Biomed Res Int. 2014 by Shamkant B. Badgujar, Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar, Foeniculum vulgare has been used for millenia to increase milk secretion. Its main constituent, anethole, which has structural similarities to dopamine, seems to be responsible for its galactogenic activity. Dopamine inhibits the secretion of milk-producing hormone prolactin.

Breast Milk Production:

Fennel has been traditionally used by breastfeeding mothers to increase breast milk production. However, there are no studies that directly tested the effects of fennel on milk production.

In theory, dopamine blocks prolactin, a hormone that stimulates breast milk production, and anethole, found in Fennel, may compete with dopamine at dopamine receptors, thereby blocking the inhibitory action of dopamine on prolactin. This could potentially result in more milk production. A study of 46 women showed that Fennel capsules increased blood prolactin levels.

A 2014 study "The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fennel Seed on Breast Milk Sufficiency Signs and Growth Parameters of Iranian Infants" published in Shiraz E Medical Journal by Vida Ghasemi, Masoomeh Kheirkhah, Leila Neisani Samani and Mohsen Vahedi evaluated the effect of herbal tea containing Fennel seed on breast milk sufficiency and growth parameters of Iranian infants. After four weeks, fennel significantly increased weight, head circumference, number of wet diapers, frequency of defecation, and number of breastfeeding times. There was no effect on height. Results suggest herbal tea containing fennel seed improved breast milk sufficiency signs.

Another 2014 study "Histological Study of Fennel'’s (Foeniculum Vulgare) Effect on Female Rats’ Mammary Glands" published in Med J Islamic World Acad Sci. by Noori M Al-Sudany, Salem R Al-Oubaedei, Olfat Q Abdul-Jabbar evaluated the effect of fennel on female Norwegian white rats' mammary glands in three physiological conditions i.e., virgins, pregnant, and lactating. Results showed increase in number of alveoli and slight expansion in cavities of alveoli's mammary glands for virgin and pregnant rats, expansion in cavities of alveoli's mammary glands for lactating rats, and slight increase in secretory substances for pregnant and lactating rats.

Breast Enlargement:

The flavonoids content found in fennel seeds helps to increase the measure of estrogen, thus it act as a stimulant and tonic. Fennel seeds help the growth the size of the breasts as it helps in the formation of new cells and tissues in the breast.

There is limited research in this regard. Fennel is a popular ingredient in most "bust enhancing" herbal products. This could be because it mimics the properties of human estrogen. Talk to your doctor before using Fennel seeds for this purpose.

Boosts Fertility:

Fennel, being rich in phytoestrogens which mimic the female hormone oestrogen, helps in stimulating and regulating the menstrual cycle. Anecdotal evidence suggests that these properties may also boost fertility. However, more research is warranted in this regard.

"Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Estrogen, Progesterone and Prolactin in Mouse" published in Crescent Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1 in 2015 by Nahid Sadeghpour, Amir Afshin Khaki, Alireza Najafpour, Homayun Dolatkhah, Azadeh Montaseri evaluated the effects of fennel extracts on serum level of estrogen, progesterone,, and prolactin in female virgin albino mice. Data analysis showed a significant difference in mean levels of the hormones (p<0.001) compared with the control group. Results showed increase in serum levels of estrogen, progesterone and prolactin and suggest potential as novel medicine for treatment of infertility.

Pregnancy and Birth Defects:

Regular consumption of fennel bulb is one of the best methods for limiting defects during pregnancy and the birth of a child as it consists of considerable amount of Vitamin B9. Pregnant women having a diet deficient of this vitamin cannot deliver a healthy child. Birth defects caused by its deficiency include neural tube defects. Therefore, fennel bulb effectively improves the chances of giving birth to a healthy, happy child.

Sexual Health:

Male Contraceptive:

A 2016 study "Anti-fertility effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) seed in male Wistar rats" by Esrafil Mansouri, Majid Asadi-Samani, Wesam Kootiwesamkooti et al. evaluated the anti-fertility effect of Fennel seed extract in male rats. Results showed significant decrease in spermatogonia. The number of spermatocytes and sperm count decreased significantly, along with thickening of basement membrane, cell apoptosis, and irregular arrangement of the germinal epithelium. Study suggest the hydroalcoholic Fennel seed extract can reduce reproductivity and has antifertility activity in male rats.

Relieves Pain and Cramps:

Fennel is also considered helpful for pain relief. Fennel, particularly its ingredient anethole, decreased pain in animals without causing sedation. It may work by decreasing inflammatory mediators, which can worsen the sensation of pain.

A study from Bangladesh found that Fennel extract reduced indications of pain at a level close to that provided by aspirin.

Fennel can help to eliminate the cytokines that is accountable for arthritic pain and helps to heal the fractured bones. It’s also utilized as a fast treatment for serious headache or even migraine. Consuming a cup of Fennel tea can be quite beneficial to get rid of these types of pain instantly.

Arthritis:

Copper found in Fennel bulb is extremely beneficial in reducing the symptoms of arthritis. Copper work as a home cure for arthritis, store water in a copper container overnight to accumulate copper traces. It is also beneficial in strengthening the muscular system, so drink the water when you wake in the morning. You will feel energized and active for the day, because your metabolism will have a good source of copper for its daily processes. Fennel bulb consists of 0.057 mg of copper which is 6.33% of the daily recommended value so consume Fennel on a regular basis.

Reduces Inflammation:

The powerful antioxidants in fennel, such as vitamin C and quercetin, can help reduce inflammation and levels of inflammatory markers. Fennel seeds contain anethole and fenchone which act as anti inflammatory agents and help reduce inflammation. Anethole is a major component of Fennel essential oil. It may soothe the swelling or irritation in the intestines.

Fennel contains several major ingredients that are inhibitors of 5-LOX, an enzyme that causes inflammatory and allergic responses in the body by producing leukotrienes. Fennel’s ability to inhibit these enzymes may make it useful for preventing inflammatory and allergic reactions. Fennel extract has shown significant anti-inflammatory effects in rats and mice. It also prevented slow allergic reactions (type IV allergic hypersensitivity). 

This herb suppressed inflammation in mice with lung injury, by decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and the inflammatory agents MMP9 and nitric oxide (NO). Anethole, found in fennel, decreased inflammatory in a rat model of periodontitis (inflammation of the gums).

A 2010 study "Secondary metabolites and pharmacology of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Subsp. Piperitum" published in Rev. latinoam. quím vol.38 no.2 Naucalpan de Juárez ago. by Mahmoud I. Nassar, El–sayed A. Aboutabl, Yousrya A. Makle, Ezzel–DIN A. El–Khrisy, Abeer F. Osman about antinociceptivecrude, hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity.

Fennel tea is powerful enough to fight inflammation together with the manufacture of mucus within the upper respiratory tract region, an ailment clinically referred to as catarrh. This particular tea in fact allows for the ejection of the mucus from the bronchial outlet by inducing expectoration. It’s got anti-inflammatory qualities and it will benefit individuals struggling with joint pain as well as arthritis.

Neurological Health:

Fennel Seeds is an essential source of potassium which is extremely important for the body. Potassium regulates the water balance as well as the acid-base balance in our body. Fennel also plays an integral role to pass on nerve impulses from one end of the body to the other. It reduces the tension on the blood vessels by dilating them. This results in reduction of blood pressure. Having high pressure can be dangerous for the health as it may cause heart attacks and strokes among various other health problems. Potassium also improves brain functions and hence having Fennel seeds shall help you to improve your mental functioning and cognitive abilities.

Improves Brain Function:

Potassium, found in high levels in fennel bulbs and seeds, is an electrolyte, and helps to facilitates increased electrical conduction throughout the body. This includes connections within the brain, which is an authentic switchboard of electric currents. Potassium helps increase brain function and cognitive abilities through this quality. Also, Fennel is a vasodilator, which means more oxygen reaches the brain and neural activity can work at optimal functionality.

Studies have been proven that consumption of vitamin C rich food such as Fennel is good for our brain health and improves the neuron activity in the brain. Vitamin C helps to prevent the risk of Alzheimer or other brain related issues.

Psychological Benefits:

Anxiety:

Animal studies have found that Fennel extract may reduce aging-related memory deficits. Fennel essential oil decreased anxiety in mice. Further human studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm whether Fennel has any actual effect on these conditions.

A 2012 study "Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare in mice model" published in International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Issue 3 by R. Naga Kishore, N. Anjaneyulu, M. Naga Ganesh and N. Sravya investigated the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare fruit by elevated plus maze, rota rod, open field, and hole board test models. Results suggest anxiolytic activity. There was also a skeletal muscle relaxant effect on the rota rod testing. 

Oxidative Stress:

"Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress" published in Crescent Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences 2015 by Nahid Sadeghpour, Azadeh Montaseri, Alireza Najafpour, Homayun Dolatkhah, Asghar Rajabzadeh, Amir Afshin Khaki of Fennel extracts showed it can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice and can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility.

Treats Sleep Disorders:

Fennel can help individuals sleep with its high content of magnesium, which is a mineral that is directly linked to improving the quality, duration, and tranquility of sleep. Fennel also helps regulate the metabolism, to help reduce sleep disorders and the occurrence of insomnia.

Improves Cognitive Function:

Sharpens Memory:

Fennel extract prevented the deficits in memory in rats and mice caused by aging and scopolamine, a drug that causes amnesia by blocking acetylcholine. It blocked acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, in mice. This increases acetylcholine and improves the creation of memories.

Alzheimer's and Dementia:

The amount of iron in Fennel leads to increased hemoglobin production and increases blood flow. Proper amounts of oxygen and iron in the brain lead to improved cognitive performance and a decrease in cognitive disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Parkinson's Diseases:

A 2018 study "Evaluation of the Effects of Foeniculum vulgare Essence on Behavioral-Motor Disorders of Parkinson’s Disease induced by Reserpine in Ovariectomized and Non Ovariectomized Rats" published in Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products by Mohammad Nemati, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Hossein Najafzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri and Mohammad Javad Khodayar evaluated the effects of various doses of F. vulgare essence on behavioral motor dysfunction in reserpine-induced model of Parkinson's disease in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats. Various doses of E) (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) significantly increased amounts of estrogen. Motor disorders of the treated groups were reduced. Results affirmed that essential oil of fennel improve Parkinson's in animal models. Author suggests further studies for effect of Fennel essential oil on individuals with Parkinson's disease and postmenopausal women.

Improves Eyesight:

Using Fennel in food helps protect the eyes from inflammation, as well as helping to reduce disorders related to premature aging and macular degeneration. This is due to the high abundance of antioxidants, vitamin C and amino acids like arginine which are very beneficial for rejuvenation of tissues and the prevention of aging, detoxifiers and stimulants. They are more specifically in Fennel essential oil, as well as minerals like cobalt and magnesium.  Finally, the juice of Fennel leaves and the plant itself can be externally applied on the eyes to reduce irritation and eye fatigue.

Fennel is also a rich source of flavonoids, which are very useful in protecting against pigment cells dying due to oxidative-stress-induced death. By protecting against this destruction of the pigment cells, Fennel can safely be classified as effective in eye health for numerous reasons.

Fennel is highly rich in beta-carotene and vitamin A, which is very good for our eye health, It helps to prevent the retina damage and antioxidant properties helps to prevent the free radicals to do any oxidative damage to our eye cells, which is the main cause of age related eye problem and macular degeneration.

Make a cup of Fennel tea, soak a cotton ball within it and place it over your eye lids of 10 minutes. It’s quite rejuvenating and it will not just decrease puffiness, it also treats eye infections just like conjunctivitis.

Improves Vision:

Fennel seed oil is used to improve eyesight and treat cloudy eyes since ancient times. Sometimes right after a bad night’s sleep, you might wake up along with swollen as well as sore eyes. However, you may feel lured to go straight back to bed, know that Fennel infusions may help you.

Fennel bulb consists of 42 µg of Vitamin A which is 6.00% of the daily recommended value. Vitamin A is extremely important for your eye health. Consuming sufficient amount of vitamin A ensures the health of your eyes and improves your vision. Vitamin A helps to keep eyes moist and improves your night vision. Vitamin A prevents common conditions like dry eyes, by helping the formation of visual purple in your eyes. Regular consumption of Fennel bulb helps to increase rigidity to brightness and darkness.

A 2008 article published in PubMed states that Fennel extract is found to be effective in treating rabbits with glaucoma, further research is yet to be done in its application for human beings.

Cataract:

Fennel, being a rich source of vitamin A, promotes healthy vision. The anethole compound found in Fennel seeds is known to improve the protein content of the lens, slowing down the progression of cataract. In addition, it also helps in treating watery and inflamed eyes. Different studies have been proven that consumption of Fennel can improve our eyesight and prevent various types of eye related issues, such as cataract.

A 2008 study "Oculohypotensive effects of Foeniculum vulgare in experimenta models of Glaucoma" published in Indian J Physiol Pharmacol by Renu Agarwal, Suresh Kumar Gupta et al. Aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare possess significant oculohypotensive activity, comparable to timolol. Further studies are warranted before Fv finds its place in the arsenal of antiglaucoma drugs.

Macular Degeneration:

Macular degeneration is one of the leading causes of age-related vision loss. Though the exact cause is unknown, antioxidants that reduce inflammation like certain flavonoids, vitamin C, and zinc may help improve vision or slow the progress of the disease. Fennel consists of considerable amount of vision-saving nutrients. Due to its high flavonoid, vitamin C, and mineral content it help reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, and may help prevent macular degeneration.

Bone Health:

Fennel bulb consists of higher calcium content that help to maintain bone strength and health. Bulb contains about 43 mg of calcium or about 4.30% of the RDA which help increase calcium in your diet, especially for those who do not consume enough from other sources. Calcium isn’t the only bone-strengthening nutrient found in the bulb, Fennel also contains magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin K, which all play a role in maintaining bone strength.

Osteoporosis:

Fennel is known to be anti-osteoporotic in nature. The presence of phytoestrogens, which mimic the hormone oestrogen, plays a crucial role in bone health. Fennel seed prevented bone tissue from being broken down, leading to improved bone density and bone mineral content in mice. Further studies with longer durations are needed to examine the potential benefit of this herb on bone density in humans.

Kidney Health:

Renal Colic:

Polymeric and heavy molecules are useful in the treatment of renal colic. Such polymers, also called phytoestrogens, are found in anethole, a component of the essential oil in Fennel. This attribute of Fennel makes it quite helpful in the treatment of renal colic. Fennel has certain antispasmodic qualities which also help it relax smooth muscles and reduce the discomfort associated with the condition.

Diuretic:

A 1996 study "Pharmacological and Toxicological Investigations on Foeniculum vulgare Dried Fruit Extract in Experimental Animals" published in Phytotherapy Research Vol 10 by M. Tanira, A. H. Shah, A. Mohsin, A. M. Ageel, S. Qureshi showed the ethanol extract of ripe fruit contained ingredients that were active as diuretic, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, and mitodepressive, with an active principle that enhanced bile flow.

Liver Health:

Fennel decreased levels of liver-damage markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. Fennel essential oil protected against liver injury and drug-induced liver damage.

In one 2011 study, Fennel seeds inhibited liver cancer cells and increased the activity of certain antioxidant cells in the liver. The selenium in Fennel seeds may also improve the function of liver enzymes. However, more research is warranted in this regard. Some sources suggest that Fennel seeds may also help relieve urinary tract infections.

Hepatoprotection:

"Investigation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Fixed Oil in Rats" study investigation the hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare fixed oil in rats. Results indicate that Fennel fixed oil has a potential hepatoprotective action against induced liver fibrosis in rats.

A 2018 study "Hepatoprotective properties of fennel seeds extract" published in MOJ Food Processing & Technology by Agarwal D, Saxena SN, Vishal MK, Sharma LK, Dubey PN, Agarwal A, Lal G. evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Fennel seed extracts in 3-month old male Wistar rats. Results showed hepatoprotective effect as evidenced by reduction in increased levels of enzyme markers. Hexane extract showed more effectivity than methanol seed extract. A significant genotypic variation was observed in fennel genotypes for essential and fatty oil, constituents and phenolic contents.

Another 2018 study "Toxico-Pathological Studies of Foeniculum vulgare Plant in Mice" published in Open Journal of Pathology by F. A. Al-Hizab, Y. A. Hussein, M. M. Hasseeb, S. E. M. Barakat, M. S. Moqbel aimed to determine the LD50 of aerial parts of F. vulgare in albino mice, together with its toxico-pathological effects. Results showed an LD50 of Foeniculum vulgare juice was 9.772 mg/kbw. Histopathological changes included hepatocytic degeneration and necrosis, perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrations and peribiliary mononuclear cell aggregations, degenerated renal tubular epithelial cells, peribronchial congestion, among others. Results suggest Foeniculum vulgare juice is toxic to mice when administered in a dose of 9.772 mg/kbw. The recommended dose for treatment could be less than 0.98 ml/kbw (1/10 of LD50) of FV juice. 

Another 2004 study "Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil: A carbon-tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis model in rats" published in Scand. J. Lab. Anim. Sci. No. 1, Vol. 31 by Hanefi Özbek, Serdar Ug ̆ras, Irfan Bayram, Ismail Uygan, Ender Erdog ̆an, Abdurrahman Öztürk, Zübeyir Huyut evaluated essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare in hepatotoxicity in chronic carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis model in rats. Histopathological findings suggested Foeniculum vulgare essential oil prevents development of chronic liver damage.

Lymphatic System:

Edema:

Edema is the swelling of tissues in the body due to excess fluid. Anecdotal evidence supports the efficacy of Fennel seeds in treating edema. The anethole in Fennel seeds may help in this regard.

Hernia:

Some sources mention the use of Fennel seeds by traditional Chinese medicine for treating hernia. However, we need more research to confirm if they can be used in mainstream hernia treatment.

Anemia - Prevents and Treats:

People with a deficiency of iron can lead to anemia, fatigue, and muscular weakness making their days harder to navigate. Fennel seeds is a good source of iron and an amino acid called histidine. These help in the manufacture of haemoglobin. The main component of haemoglobin is iron. Histidine on the other hand stimulates the manufacture of haemoglobin and the other constituents of blood. Iron, copper and histidine are found in a considerable amount in Fennel bulb is helpful in treatment of anemia.

Diabetes:

A 2011 study "Antidiabetic Activities of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Essential Oil in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats" published in University Ss Kiril and Metodij by Neveen Abou El-Soud, Nabila El-Laithy, Gamila El-Saeed, Mohamed Salah Wahby, Mona Khalil, Fatma Morsy and Nermeen Shaffie evaluated the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare for hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Essential oil corrected the hyperglycemia and pathological abnormalities in STZ-induced diabetic rats, partly through its antioxidative effect and restoring of redox homeostasis.

Blood Sugar:

The regulation level of blood sugar as well as insulin could be successfully taken care by Fennel tea. Fennel is really a diuretic agent. Having a diuretic nature, Fennel tea will cause regular urination that can help the body to get rid of additional sugar and salts. On the other hand it will help our body to get rid of the excess fluid which will help to keep our blood flow in the normal level. Many herbalists and complementary healthcare practitioners recommend Fennel tea as a way to regulate blood sugar.

Fennel essential oil reduced blood sugar levels in rats with diabetes by nearly 50%. It also prevented diabetes-induced damage to kidneys and pancreas.

A study in Bangladesh, in which mice were treated with an extract made from mentholated Fennel seeds, found that, at some dosage levels, this extract reduced blood glucose levels at a rate comparable to that of standard antihyperglycemic medications.

A 2008 study found that Fennel essential oil may lower blood sugar levels in diabetic rats. Fennel seeds are also a good source of Vitamin C. Intake of the nutrient may lower blood sugar levels, though more research is needed to further understand this mechanism.

Another 2008 study "The Effect Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel) Essential Oil on Blood Glucose in Rats" published in Plant Sciences Research by S Javad, M Ilkhnipour, R Heidari and V Nejati in rats compared the hypoglycemic effect of water-distilled essential oil and Estradiol valerate. Results showed Fennel essential oil at 250 mg/kg reduced blood glucose more than 500 mg/kg essential oil and Estradiol. Results suggest estrogenic activity and dose dependent effect. The effect of the essential oil on blood glucose may be due to trans-anethole.

The beta-carotene in Fennel seeds may also reduce cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Also, Fennel seeds have a low glycemic index. Hence, they can be a good addition to a diabetes diet.

Hyperglycemic:

A 2015 study "Antihyperglycemic, analgesic activity and acute toxicity studies with mathanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare seeds" published in World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences by Mirza Nipa Monalisa and Mohammed Rahmatullah evaluated the antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare by OGTT and decreased abdominal writhings in intraperitoneally acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results showed dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose levels, with glibenclamide as standard. In analgesic testing, the extract significantly reduced the number of abdominal constrictions, with aspirin as standard. 

Another 2003 study "Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Effects of Foeniculum vulgare Miller Seed Fixed Oil Extract in Mice and Rats" published in Eastern Journal of Medicine by Hanefi Ozbek, Mustafa Ozturk, Irfan Bayram, Serdar Ugras, Gülcin Saltn Citoglu evaluated Foeniculum vulgare fixed oil for hypoglycemic effect in mice and hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride induced injury in rats. Results showed no potent hepatoprotective or hypoglycemic action in the test animals. The LD50 of the seed fixed oil was 5.52 mL/kg.

Skin Care:

Due to the high amount of Vitamin C and beta-carotene content found in Fennel, it is very good for our skin health. As we already discussed all these above vitamins are strong antioxidant, which prevent the oxidative damage in our skin cells caused by free radicals, these free radicals are the main cause of various types of skin related issues, such as wrinkles, dark spots, signs of aging, etc.

Fennel extract may prevent the visible effects of skin aging that come from sun exposure. For example, it increased the production of collagen, elastin, and TGF-beta1 levels in mice exposed to UVB radiation. Furthermore, it dose-dependently decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing Nrf2 and antioxidants such as GSH.

Cell studies have also found that Fennel and trans-anethole also lighten the skin and may prevent skin blemishes by blocking UV-induced melanin production (melanogenesis). Additional, preferably larger human studies are needed to explore the potential benefits of fennel on skin health.

Skin Aging (Wrinkles):

Anti-aging dermatological skin care creams with Fennel extracts have been formulated that help in protecting the skin from free radical damage and improve skin cell longevity.

A cream containing Fennel extract improved skin texture and increased skin water content in 11 volunteers.

Improves Skin Quality:

To tone your skin, you can take a handful of Fennel seeds and add them to boiling water. Allow to cool. Add a few drops of Fennel essential oil to the mixture. Filter it. Dab it to your face with the help of cotton balls as many times as you can throughout the day. Your skin will feel toned and thoroughly refreshed.

You can also use Fennel seed steam facial for enhanced skin texture. Add a tablespoon of Fennel seeds to one liter of boiling water. Lean over it and cover your head and neck with a towel for 5 minutes. Do this twice a week to clean the pores and make your skin glow.

You can also use a face mask. Prepare a Fennel seed infusion by adding a tablespoon of Fennel seeds to half a cup of boiling water. Wait for 30 minutes and add a tablespoon each of oatmeal and honey to it. Make a smooth paste and apply it to your face. Leave it on for 20 minutes. Wash off with lukewarm water.

Glows Skin:

Due to its anti-microbial properties, Fennel has been used since ancient times to treat various skin issues. Its antioxidant properties help combat the free radicals that attack healthy skin. It revitalizes and adds radiance to the skin. Fennel also possesses anti-ageing properties which help in reducing wrinkles and fine lines.

Acne:

Fennel seeds when consumed on a regular basis provide the body with valuable minerals like zinc, calcium and selenium. These minerals are considered helpful to balance hormones and in helping up the oxygen balance. When consumed, Fennel has a cooling effect on the skin. Regular consumption of the Fennel seed is beneficial for skin health and can cure acne.

Wounds:

Two key ingredients of fennel, fenchone, and limonene improved wound healing in rats. They act as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents and also increase collagen production.

A 2015 study "Wound healting activity of Foeniculum vulgare in sprague dawley rats" published in World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research by Rajkumari Sahane, Mitali Gokhale, Priyanka Nalawade evaluated the wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare on Sprague-Dawley rats using an excision wound model. Vaseline was used as control, and Mupirocin as standard. Results showed significant decrease in wound area and % wound contraction. The ointment form showed healing property in 2% and 7% concentration. The wound healing effect may be due to reduction of inflammatory phase and reduction in reoccurrence of infection, along with the presence of tannins.

Hair Care:

The antioxidants, nutrients and antimicrobial properties in Fennel seeds and Fennel powder strengthen the roots of your hair and may help treat a host of hair ailments. The seeds may help treat dandruff, scalp itchiness, hair breakage, and hair fall.

First, prepare Fennel seed tea. You can pound three tablespoons of Fennel seeds. Alternatively, you may choose to invest in readymade Fennel seed powder. Boil two cups of water and add it to the powdered seeds. Keep the solution aside for about 15 minutes. Use it as the last rinse after you have shampooed and conditioned your hair. This may boost hair health and prevent hair breakage and hair fall.

You may also use a Fennel seed-vinegar solution. You can use apple cider vinegar and glycerin along with fennel seeds to prepare a solution to treat an itchy and dry scalp. Boil a cup of water. Pour it over a spoon of crushed fennel seeds placed in a small bowl. Wait for 30 minutes. Add a spoon of vegetable glycerin and apple cider vinegar. Filter the solution with a cheesecloth. Massage the mixture into your scalp and hair and leave it on for some time. Rinse. The best part is that this tonic can be stored in a glass container for weeks.

Children Health:

Infant Colic:

It is a term that refers to when young children cry or are in a state of distress for several hours a day. The causes are unknown, but it is widely believed that stomach cramps and other digestive issues play a key role. One of the significant benefits of fennel is its anti-spasmodic qualities. Because of this, some people believe that Fennel tea may also play a role in reducing the symptoms of colic in infants. Infant colic, although it is a relatively benign medical condition, it may have a major impact on new parents. Most parents of a colicky infant would perhaps try nearly anything to calm their crying child.

Dicyclomine hydrochloride is a medicine used for colic have some serious side effects and may not be reliably effective. Researchers have found that Fennel seed oil effective to reduce pain and increase motility in the small intestine, making it can excellent natural remedy for colic. Therefore including fennel seed is also one of the best options to cure this problem. The safest way to use it to treat infant colic is for a breastfeeding mother to drink Fennel tea.

A meta-analysis of 17 studies and a review of 14 clinical trials of supplements for gut disorders concluded that Fennel, either as an oil, a tea, or an herbal compound was effective in treating babies with infantile colic.

In a study with 125 infants, Fennel seed oil eliminated colic in 65% of infants, compared to an improvement of only 24% in the placebo group.

A 2003 randomized, placebo-controlled study "The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic" published in Altern Ther Health Med. by Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E, Sidorova T, Shushunov S. evaluated the effect of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic. Fennel seed oil reduced intestinal spasms and increase small intestinal motility. Study on Fennel seed emulsion was superior to placebo in decreasing intensity of infantile colic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Fennel seed oil emulsion in infantile colic. Results showed the use of Fennel oil emulsion eliminated colic, according to the Wessel criteria, in 65% (40/62) of infants in the treatment group. No side effects were reported in the trial. 

Aids in Dental Care:

Bad Breath:

Fennel seeds contain a specific aromatic essential oil that possesses antibacterial properties that help to freshen your breath. Anecdotal evidence suggests that chewing fennel seeds may freshen your breath. The seeds have the flavor of Anise or Licorice. The sweet Fennel seeds increase the secretion of Saliva, which helps to kill the harmful bacteria.

Fennel tea is extremely active towards bacteria. Its anti-bacterial qualities can fight as well as demolish the bacteria’s contained in our mouth which in turn causes foul breath. Additionally, it eliminates any kind of bad smell from the mouth. So just in case if you’re feeling odd for foul breath, a cupful of fennel tea can help.

Simply munching on 5 to 10 fennel seeds could freshen your breath. The seeds are believed to increase the production of saliva and may wash out the bacteria that cause bad breath. The essential oil of fennel has antibacterial properties that help fight the germs that cause bad breath. The longer you chew the seeds, the more refreshing you could feel.

Eliminates Insects and Pests:

Repellent Mosquitos:

IP Research & Communities of FPO, "Mosquito repellent isolated from Foeniculum vulgare fruit" suggest that the fennel oil and E-9-octadecenoic acid are used as insect repellent components due to its lack of human toxicity.

Pet Care:

Effect of Feed Additive on Egg Quality:

A 2015 study "Effect of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.) Used as a Feed Additive on The Egg Quality of Laying Hens Under Heat Stress" published in Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic. by H Gharaghani, F Shariatmadari, MA Torshizi evaluated the effect of Fennel as feed additive on egg quality of laying hens under heat stress. Results showed Fennel fruit influenced egg yolk cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and because of antioxidant properties, it may alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on laying hens.

Kills Bacterial Infections:

Antimicrobial:

   Historically, Fennel has been used as a remedy for many infectious disorders. It also contains components which make it act like an antimicrobial agent. It has antibacterial properties and antifungal qualities. Fennel extract prevents the growth of several harmful bacteria in the laboratory, such as staph infection and tuberculosis-causing bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella and harmful molds (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum.

"Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from the South West Region of Iran (Yasouj)" published in Nat Prod Chem Res, 2017 by Mehrzad Kocheki Shahmokhtar and Samira Armand about GC-MS analysis of essential oil yielded yielded 32 compounds, with high percentages of T-anethol (15.1), a-pinene (11.4), D-limonene (5.6), a-fenchone (4.4), estragol (4.5), fenchyl acetate (4.7), and cis-anethol 7.5), among others. Aqueous extract of Fennel showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with no antifungal activity.

"Comparative study of in vitro antimicrobial activities of Foeniculum vulgare extract" published in OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences 2013 by Khadija Dahak and Moha Taourirte evaluated the antimicrobial effect of organic and aqueous leaves extracts of Foeniculum vulgare against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirea, E. coli, and Candida albicans. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. The aqueous extract was more effective on Candida albicans.

Candida:

The antioxidants in fennel seeds can help treat candida. The seeds also possess antibacterial and antifungal properties. They may be effective against Candida albicans. Taking a tablespoon of Fennel seeds along with breakfast may help ease symptoms. You can crush them and add to your breakfast. You can also consume Fennel tea by steeping the seeds in hot water and taking the infused tea in the morning.

Antifungal:

"Studies on In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Spolage Fungi" published in Global Journal of Bio-Sciience and Biotechnology, 2013 by Neetu Thakur, Niketa Sareen, Bansuli Shama & Kritika Jagota evaluated aqueous and alcoholic seed extracts of Foeniculum vulgare for antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Mucor rouxii and Aspergillus flavus. The aqueous extract of fennel seeds was found very effective against A. alternata, the alcoholic extract adequately effective against M. rouxii, and both were ineffective against A. flavus. Results suggest potential for the development of environmentally safer alternatives to protect spoilage of food products from pathogenic and lipolytic fungi.

A 2006 study "Chemical constituents, antifungal and antioxidative potential of Foeniculum vulgare volatile oil and its acetone extract" published in Food Control 17 by Gurdip Singh, Sumitra Maurya, M.P. de Lampasona, C. Catalan yielded 35 components, the major component of which was trans-anethole 70.1%. An acetone extract yielded nine components 68.9% with major components of linoleic acid 54.9%, palmitic acid 5.4%, and oleic acid 5.4%. Both volatile oil and extract showed strong antioxidant activity. The volatile oil showed strong inhibition against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium grainearum and F. monoliforme. 

  Food Safety and Preservation:

Fennel has the power of driving away fleas and its powder is used in kennels and stables. It is used as a preservative in pickles and also in the preservation of fruits and vegetables mainly because of its anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, disinfectant cleaners and dental products for its antiseptic and aromatic properties.

Hydration

Staying well hydrated is important for overall health, so one of the more direct benefits of Fennel tea is that it provides individuals with a tasty, caffeine-free beverage.

Extract of Fennel seeds is not the same thing as Fennel tea. Fennel tea is less processed and more likely to be pure and the measurable, beneficial impacts of Fennel tea suggest multiple reasons for drinking it.

Fennel can be an aromatic plant also is referred to as Foeniculum vulgare. Fennel is a crucial herb which has been utilized securely for a lot of thousands of years in Chinese, Indian, Arabian and Western medications. Apart from its value in cooking like a spice, it’s been traditionally utilized as an aid to digestion and contains numerous health advantages. It really is widely used for therapeutic objective. Mainly the seeds of Fennel are utilized in Indian as well as Middle Eastern cooking. It’s got numerous health advantages.

Fennel tea is a common preparation for consuming it. It really is created by boiling crushed Fennel seeds along with other normal tea making proceeding. These types of seeds are abundant with essential volatile oil compounds just like anethole, fenchone and estragole, which are considered to be in charge of its antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory as well as antibacterial/anti-microbial qualities. The benefits of Fennel tea are both culinary and curative. Fennel is used in many different cuisines, from Indian to Italian, to contemporary fusion, and all parts of the plant are used, including the leaves, seeds, and bulb. According to herbalists, Fennel tea may aid healthy digestion, and treat bloating, gas, or cramps, and may also act as a diuretic. In fact, tinctures or teas made from fennel seeds can be used to treat stomach muscle spasms caused by irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and other conditions affecting the gastrointestinal system.

Fennel seeds are very gentle, but there are rare cases in which fennel causes allergic reactions in the skin and respiratory tract. Fennel seeds are not considered dangerous; however, the essential oil can be toxic in high doses. Fennel essential oil is extracted from the its seeds through steam distillation and is highly concentrated and volatile. Fennel essential oil like other essential oil should always be diluted with a carrier oil (Olive oil or Coconut oil) before topical use. Fennel seed essential oil use should be avoided during pregnancy. It has been reported to have estrogen-like activities; therefore, internal consumption of the essential oil should be avoided by individuals with estrogen-sensitive conditions (reproductive cancers, tumors, or cysts). Internal use of the essential oil should be avoided by lactating women and children under the age of ten. Fennel essential oil has long been included in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes. The essential oil or spirits may be used internally with caution, in a one- to two-drop dose range. The essential oil can overexcite the nervous system, and may cause convulsions in sensitive individuals. Avoid use with existing nervous system conditions such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s, or multiple sclerosis. An overdose of the essential oil can cause skin irritation, allergy, nausea, vomiting, seizures, or pulmonary edema.

Fennel seed is often utilized in cooking and also as an alternate medication remedy. It features a distinctive taste and, nutritionally, is an excellent source of potassium, magnesium, calcium as well as vitamins B and C. Therapeutically, certainly one of its most typical applications is always to reduce gastrointestinal distress. Fennel seed has got effective antioxidant properties as well as combats free-radicals as well as irritation. Fennel also offers a number of noted traits which have result in its distinction like a advantageous accessory for weight loss efforts. The aroma of Fennel seed essential oil is revitalizing, energizing, and helps to increase self motivation. It’s useful to reduce sluggishness and lethargy, and to improve energy levels. Incorporated into facial creams for mature skin, it refines the complexion. It has spasmolytic and mucolytic actions for the digestive and respiratory tract. It also reduces nausea, gas, and bloating. Fennel seed oil serves as an excellent source of various healing attributes such as carminative, digestive, stomachic, diuretic, emmenagogue, antispasmodic, antiseptic, depurative, expectorant, galactogogue, anti-diabetic, analgesic, estrogenic, anti-toxic and tonic.

Fennel seed oil comprises of numerous chemical constituents of which the majority is anethole. According to the 2nd edition of The European Pharmacopoeia Monograph, sweet fennel contains not less than 2.0% v/m of essential oil. The essential oil is constituted mainly by anethole (80%) (a substance with supposed anticancer properties), it contains not more than 10% estragole and not more than 7.5% fenchone. The other components include α-Pinene, Camphene, Sabinene, β-Pinene, Myrcene, phellandrene, o-Cymene, Limonene, Eucalyptol, Terpinene, Fenchone, Linalool, Camphor, Estragole, Fenchyl acetate, Cumic aldehyde and p-Anisaldehyde. Sweet Fennel contains other non volatile constituents such as flavonoids and coumarins.

Fennel seed is the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare, a flowering plant in the Carrot family. Native to the Mediterranean, these aromatic seeds are used in several cuisines around the world. Fennel seed has an oval shape and once dried takes on a greenish-brown color, which gradually fades to gray as the seeds age. Due to their similar sweet as well as subtle Licorice-like taste, Fennel seed is often confused with Anise. It is said that Roman soldiers used to chew fennel seeds for strength. It is used both as a spice for beverages and veggie preparations and as a post-meal digestive aid and refreshment. Fennels leaves are also used in curries in many parts of India.

Health benefits of Fennel seeds help in improving overall immunity. Fennel has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral properties. These health benefits help to improve your overall immunity. They keep you safe from bacterial infections, fever, cold and other common ailments. Consumers of Fennel seeds don’t fall sick often. Fennel can also provide you with quick recovery from wounds and injuries, and reduce further inflammation. Fennel seed is believed to be a digestive aid. It’s used to make tea and capsules sold for this purpose, and in India and Pakistan, Fennel seed is commonly roasted and eaten after a meal with fresh breath as an added benefit.

Fennel bulb is sweet flavored vegetable often used as ingredient in Mediterranean cooking. Its juicy puffy bulb imparts distinctive Anise like, sweet flavor to the recipes. Fennel bulb is grown as a vegetable due to its attractive, squatted stems in numerous regions in the southern Europe, mainly in Italy. It is also known as Florence Fennel, Finocchio, Sweet Fennel, etc. Fennel bulb is a cool season perennial herb but grown in all seasons of the year. Fennel is a small plant, growing up to only 2 m in height. As the plant grows, its compact lower leaves overlie one above the other to form a swollen, bulb like arrangement just above the ground. At fully grown Fennel bulb measures about 3-5 inches wide and about 3 inches in long. As the plant grows, oftentimes, surrounding soil is pulled around the stem base to make a mound to obtain long lightened fronds.

Fennel is certainly an aromatic and also delicious herb which has numerous cookery as well as other therapeutic uses. You may enjoy the health benefits of the licorice-tasting herb simply by using in egg recipes, omelet, with grilled fish and cooked on fish dishes and bouillons, stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas and in various soups and sauces, adding fresh fennel roots in sautéed vegetables.

  • Blood Clots: With your doctor’s support, think about using fennel oil topically, internally, or even aromatically utilizing the many ideas listed below.
  • Bruises: Carefully massage 1-2 drops over the area of concern, diluting when needed.
  • Courage: Inhale from the bottle or diffuse through the entire room as preferred. Massage into solar plexus.
  • Detoxing: Add 1-2 drops to water or food daily, or even massage over the area of concern or reflex points of the feet.
  • Digestive Support: Dilute 1 drop of fennel essential oil along with 3 drops carrier oil and massage inside a clockwise rotation within the abdomen. / Add 1 drop to water, food, or perhaps an empty veggie capsule.
  • Flatulance: Think about using daily or even with meals, 1-2 drops internally when needed.
  • Gastritis: Add 1-2 drops to water daily or consume in an empty veggie capsule. Also think about a digestive blend.
  • Hormonal Balancing: Consider massaging 1-2 drops in the reflex points of the feet, or breathing in the aroma through the bottle daily.
  • Integrity: Massage 1 drop over the solar plexus and after that breathe in from the palm of the hand. Also think about diffusing regularly.
  • Kidney Stones: Massage 1-2 drops (diluted for sensitive skin) within the area of concern 1-2 times a day or as desired.
  • Lactation: Dilute as suggested and apply 1-2 drops over the breasts. Don’t use more than 10 days, and prevent peppermint as it might slow milk production.
  • Liver Support: Massage 1-2 drops over the area of concern or massage in the reflex points of the feet. Consider taking internally once daily.
  • Menstrual Cramps: Dilute as suggested and massage within the area of concern.
  • Motivation: Diffuse throughout times of stress and overpower or even include a drop to the shirt collar or car vent.
  • Nausea: Breathe in through the bottle. If at all possible, include a drop to water, mix well and sip slowly.
  • Overwhelm: Place a drop in the hands and cup within the nose and mouth, or breathe in through the bottle.
  • Pancreatic Support: Massage 1-2 drops within the area of concern or in the reflex points of the feet.
  • Parasites, Intestinal: Take 1-2 drops with water every day. Also think about a digestive cleanse or even use oregano or Thyme.
  • PMS: Dilute fennel essential oil and apply topically in the soles of the feet or over the lower abdomen or even areas of concern just before and throughout cycle.
  • Prostate Support: Massage 1-2 drops within the area of concern or in the reflex points of the feet as desired.
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dilute as suggested and massage 1-2 drops in to the reflex points of the feet daily. Think about taking with food as well.
  • Responsibility: Place 1-2 drops on the cotton ball to stick in car, home, or office vents. Diffuse as desired or include a drop to the shirt collar.
  • Skin Revitalization: Add up to 1 drop of fennel essential oil to the cleaning or moisturizing regime.
  • Stomach Cramps: Dilute as suggested and massage 1-2 drops in the reflex points of the feet and lower stomach and back.
  • Strength: Place 1 drop on your hands, cup over the nose and mouth, and breathe deeply as wanted.
  • Urinary Stones: Massage 1-2 drops over the area of concern or in the reflex points of the feet. Think about taking 1-2 drops internally with food.
  • Wrinkles: Add up to 1 drop of fennel essential oil to the cleaning or even moisturizing routine.

Traditional Uses of Fennel:

  • Seeds, leaves and roots are used medicinally, but the seeds are most active medicinally and are the part commonly used.
  • Fennel is an excellent stomach and intestinal remedy which relieves flatulence and colic whilst also encouraging the digestion and appetite.
  • In the Philippines, infused fruit is carminative.
  • In Madras, fruits used for venereal diseases.
  • In Mexico, decoction is used as galactagogue.
  • In Antilles, used as a stimulant.
  • Fennel water is given in colic and flatulence of children in India.
  • Hot infusion of the fruit is beneficial in amenorrhoea and in cases where the lacteal secretion is suppressed.
  • Oil is useful in flatulence.
  • Oil of seeds used for intestinal deworming in 3-4 ml doses.
  • Roots employed as aperative; also as purgative.
  • Infusion of fruit used for flatulence.
  • Shoots of young plant used as carminative and respiratory.
  • Juice of fruit used to improve eyesight.
  • Decoction is gargled as a breath freshener or applied as an eyewash.
  • Decoction of seeds help regulate menses.
  • Used as diuretic and emmenagogue.
  • Juice of the fennel fruit has been used to increase the eye-sight and a paste of the seeds is used in a cooling drink in fevers and in scalding urine.
  • Extracts of fennel seed have been shown to have a probable use in the treatment of glaucoma.
  • Fennel seed are use in venereal diseases in Madras.
  • Decoction of fennel seeds is used as a galactagogue in Mexico are used as a stimulant in Antilles.
  • It has calming effect on bronchitis and coughs.
  • It is used to flavor cough remedies.
  • It helps to increase the flow of milk in nursing mothers.
  • Externally the oil comforts muscular and rheumatic pains.
  • Infusion may be used as an eye wash or compress to treat conjunctivitis and inflammation of the eyelids.
  • Crushed seeds are inhaled for fainting.
  • Fennel is widely used in Egyptian traditional medicine for its estrogenic, lactagogue, diuretic, antioxidant, immune booster and its usefulness in dyspepsia.
  • Fennel is used as a digestive stimulant in Lebanese traditional societies.
  • It is an ancient common herb and spice known to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, traditionally used as a carminative, a weak diuretic and lactation stimulant.
  • Fennel and anise are used to increase milk secretion, encourage menstruation, facilitate birth, ease the symptoms of the male climacteric, and increase libido.
  • The leaves are also reported to be diuretic, increasing the secretion of urine and perspiration and the shoots of the young plant as carminative and respiratory.
  • Roots are used as an aperative and purgative and used to treat urinary disorders.
  • An infusion of the roots is given for toothache and to relieve pains following childbirth in India.
  • Poultice has been used to relieve breast swelling in nursing mothers.
  • Infusion of seeds used for stomatitis, abdominal cramps, colic, flatulence.
  • Fennel water (aqua foeniculi) used for colic and flatulence in children.
  • Hot infusion of fruit used for amenorrhea and suppressed lacteal secretion.
  • Infusion of roots given for toothaches and postpartum pains.
  • Hot infusion of roots given for amenorrhea
  • Infusion of seeds used for flatulence in babies.
  • Infusion of root used for urinary disorders.
  • An essential oil obtained from the seed is used in aromatherapy.
  • Essential oil is bactericidal, carminative and stimulant but should not be administered to pregnant women.
  • An infusion is used in the treatment of indigestion, colic, abdominal distension, stomach cramps.
  • An ingredient of "gripe water" used for infantile colic.
  • Infusion is used in the treatment of kidney stones and, when combined with other urinary disinfectant makes an effective treatment for cystitis.
  • It can be used as a gargle for sore throats and as eyewash for sore eyes and conjunctivitis.
  • Fennel is used in home beauty cosmetics often with buttermilk and honey, as a cleansing lotion and skin freshener and in toothpaste.
  • An infusion of the ground seeds is used as a facial steam bath.
  • Fennel along with other ingredients is used as anticellulite massage oil.
  • Fennel is basis of weight loss recipes.
  • Paste of seeds or fruit used in cooling drinks for fevers.
  • Also used for increasing breast milk production, easing childbirth, soothing cough.
  • Tea made from ground fennel seeds is supposed to be good for snake bites, insect bites, food poisoning, and soothing a sore throat.
  • People in India and Pakistan chew sugar-coated seed of fennel after meal to ease digestion and eliminate bad breath.
  • Used to enhance libido.

Culinary Uses of Fennel:

  • Fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves, shoots, stems, sprouted seedlings, essential oil together with the swollen petiole bases and swollen roots are all edible.
  • Tender shoots, leaves and stems are used in snacks, salads, soups, stews, or as spices.
  • Tender shoots, leaves and stems are usually used in egg recipes, omelet, with grilled fish and cooked on fish dishes and bouillons, stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas and in various soups and sauces.
  • The fruit, seeds and young leaves are used for flavoring sweets, dishes and dainties.
  • The young leaves, raw or cooked, used as flavoring.
  • The seeds have an anise-like flavor; used in the preparation of salted meats.
  • They are used fresh or dried in brochettes and herbal teas.
  • These plant parts are also used to aromatize olive brines, fig preserves and brandy.
  • Young leaves serve as flavoring or as a garnish on raw or cooked dishes and make a very pleasant addition to salad.
  • Inflorescences and flowers are used to flavor beverages and spirits and also used as a spice.
  • Yellow flowers are used with desserts or cold soups, or as a garnish with entrees or in fennel and watercress soup.
  • Fruit of sweet fennel are used for flavoring fish and other sea food dishes and can be used to make a pleasant-tasting herbal tea.
  • Fruits and seeds are used for flavoring bread, sweets, cakes, stuffing ordinary dishes, biscuits, stews and dainties.
  • Fruit mericarp is a common spice used in Malaysian cuisine such as dried grounded prawn curry powder, satay peanut sauce, and in chicken curries.
  • Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages, meatballs and northern European rye bread.
  • Sprouted seeds are added to salads.
  • An essential oil from the fully ripened and dried seed is used as a food flavoring in similar ways to the whole seed.
  • Swollen, fleshy petiole bases of Florentine fennel are eaten cooked or raw as an accompaniment to cheese in England.
  • It forms a key ingredient in several Italian and German salads, often mixed with avocado and chicory.
  • It can also be braise, or blanched or marinated and cooked in risotto.
  • Sliced Fennel with avocados and oranges make for a delightful salad.
  • Sliced Fennel is often added to the traditional toppings of lettuce and tomato in sandwiches.
  • Finely sliced fennel slices are eaten with plain yogurt and mint leaves.
  • Fennel combines well with salmon and braised fennel is a wonderful complement to scallops.
  • Healthy sautéed Fennel and onions make a wonderful side dish.
  • Thick roots are cooked and eaten.
  • Florence Fennel is one of three ingredients used in the preparation of absinthe, a popular alcoholic beverage in Europe especially in the nineteenth century.

Other Uses of Fennel:

  • Essential oil extracted from fennel seeds is used in toothpastes, soaps, perfumery, air fresheners etc.
  • Dried plant is an insect repellent while the crushed leaves are effective for keeping dogs free of fleas.
  • Yellow and brown dyes are obtained from the flowers and leaves combined.
  • Insect repellent.
  • Crushed leaves used for dog fleas.
  • Infusion of ground seeds as a steam facial.
  • Used as mouthwash and toothpaste.
  • Used in skin-care products.
  • Anticellulite massage oil: In a dark bottle, 8 drops of fennel, 8 drops of juniper, 10 drops of grapefruit, 5 tsps of sweet almond oil and 5 drops of jojoba oil; massage to affected area daily.

Uses of Fennel Bulb:

  • Fresh fennel bulb is available in the market in spring season.
  • In the United States it can be available year around.
  • The bulbs are labeled as “anise” in the markets, because of their anise like flavor.
  • To crop the fennel, gently pull it from the ground as it firmly holding the bulb base.
  • Remove the roots and cut the top green leaves.
  • To select fennel from stores choose fresh, creamy white fennel having attractive anise like sweet flavor.
  • Buy medium sized fennels weighing about 5-10 ounces.
  • Avoid dried out, shriveled bulbs and those with yellow discoloration, spots, splits, and bruise.
  • Store fennel in refrigerator holding in plastic bag stays 3 to 5 days, after it loses its nutrients.
  • Fennel is a sweet flavored vegetable used in many dishes.
  • It is generally used in salads, soups and stews.
  • To prepare recipes with fennel cut its base, leaves and remove outer layers also like Endive, Cabbage.
  • And cut the bulb as slices, sticks, cubes as you like for recipes.
  • Thin sliced layers are added to salads.
  • This Fennel is baked, steamed, and added to various dishes.
  • Fennel bulb can be added to flavor meat, fish, pork, and poultry recipes.
  • Colic: Fennel is supposed to be one of the safest herbs to relieve colic in babies. It can be used along with other herbs like crushed caraway seeds and peppermint. To relieve colic in babies, a teaspoon of fennel seeds should be boiled in a cup of water and allowed to steep for some time. The water should be strained and allowed to cool. This water can be given to the babies for relief from colic.
  • Digestive Disorders: Fennel has been used as a digestive aid in India since ages. It is often eaten after a meal which will support digestion. A tablespoon of fennel seeds boiled in 100 ml of water is useful in relieving biliousness, indigestion, constipation, flatulence and atonic dyspepsia. Chewing the seeds prevents bad breath, vomiting, indigestion and constipation.
  • Eye Disorders: Application of the leaf extract along with honey on the eyes will relieve conjunctivitis. Herbalists advice, to wash the eyes with fennel tea for relief from soreness and inflammation.
  • Menstrual Disorders: Fennel seeds are useful in regulating menstrual periods. For relief from painful menstruation, an infusion of fennel seeds can be used.
  • Respiratory Disorders: leaves of fennel plant are effective in relieving bronchitis and asthma. Fennel seeds when eaten with fig fruit will work on bronchitis, cough and lung abscesses.

Anemia:

Iron and histidine, an amino acid present in fennel, both are useful in management of anemia. Whereas iron is the chief constituent of hemoglobin, histidine encourages production of hemoglobin and in addition assists with the formation of numerous other components of the blood.

Antiseptic:

The essential oil of fennel has got particular compounds that play a role in its germ killing qualities. Due to this property, Fennel Oil can safeguard wounds from becoming septic. Additionally it is discovered to be efficient at avoiding incisions from becoming septic or getting infected with tetanus, especially after surgeries, caesarian deliveries along with other more severe wounds. It is good for treating the infections formed in different parts of the body, it is specially used for curing respiratory system infections, healing cuts and wounds. It prevents the formation of septic in wounds and also prevents tetanus. It is observed that the use of fennel pacify toothache, earache and is also protective against urinary tract infection.

Antispasmodic:

Spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction or convulsive movement in muscles, respiratory tract, intestines or nervous system. The use of  fennel eases the respiratory system, muscles and nerves resulting in the prevention of spasms. Spasms could be deadly if not treated effectively. Spasms are unwanted as well as abnormal contractions in respiratory tracts, intestines, muscles, or nerves, leading to continuous coughing, hiccups, acute pain as well as pulling sensation within the intestines, cramps, muscle pulls, convulsions, or epileptic attacks. If not handled in time, an individual might have serious pain within the intestines or even might run out of breath in cases of coughs as well as hiccups and may even die. Fennel essential oil features a relaxing effect on nerves, muscles, intestines and also the respiratory system as well as pacifies spasmodic attacks, providing fast relief for the previously mentioned situations.

Aperitif:

Aperitif is really a similar property to purgative, however a little milder. An aperitif acts more on the intestinal peristaltic motion, instead of adding to the majority of bowel. Fennel oil may help to clear the bowels and cure constipation.

Appetite Suppressor:

It is believed that fennel seeds were being used by people in the middle ages as an appetite suppressant during fasting days  and by soldiers during battles. Due to this property fennel is useful in weight loss and Greeks were the first to recognize this as a slimming agent.

Carminative:

As a carminative, Fennel oil makes gases escape from intestines and may provide a individual immense rest from problems like indigestion, restlessness, pain within the abdomen, stomach, and chest, in addition to lessen hypertension. Additionally, it has got another advantage of not letting additional gases form. It is extremely great for individuals with long-term gas trouble. Chewing Fennel seeds after a meal has been a common practice from centuries for improving digestion in Chinese and Indian cultures. Recent studies have shown that fennel is useful for eliminating intestinal gases and prevent the digestive system from the formation of additional gases. It is helpful in relieving constipation, stomach pain, abdominal pain and also reduces hypertension.

Cosmetic:

Fennel Oil is ideal for the skin. It’s got powerful cleansing as well as toning qualities. It tones facial muscles as well as restores moisture to the skin. This particular firms up the skin, decreases wrinkles and also eye bags on the face. It may also help the skin recover rapidly from bruises, cuts and eruptions.

Depurative:

Fennel Oil does the work of the detoxifier and purifies the blood, and is also therefore regarded as a depurative. Actually it will help blood empty itself of blood urea, uric acid as well as particular unwanted hormones that are the primary toxins present in our bloodstream. Aside from this, additionally, it balances sodium level within the blood and helps within the elimination of various other toxic substances which gets into blood from external sources.

Detoxifier:

It is useful in eliminating body toxin, inert fluids and fats. It helps in boosting blood circulation resulting in eliminating excess water and minimizing cellulite (a type of fat causing dimpling of skin). It assists the body in the expulsion of body toxins through urine and is effective for arthritis and gout relief.

Diuretic:

Fennel Oil boosts the regularity of urination and also the quantity of urine, therefore assisting not just eliminate excessive water, sodium, uric acid, bile salts along with other toxic elements from the body, but additionally reducing blood pressure, cleaning the kidneys and decreasing fat. There is certainly just one thing to remember; if you’re not struggling with swelling or even accumulation of water in the body, then you need to consume more water whenever taking fennel oil, since very frequent urination may cause dehydration. Water retention is a condition in which body cells starts storing extra water which results in body swelling, and the use of these seeds eliminates the accumulation of water from the body by increasing the frequency of urination. It is good for the elimination of uric acid and other toxins from the body and also restrains the formation of uric acid crystals and toxins in the body. With the diuretic property of fennel it also cleanses kidneys, lowers the body blood pressure and lowers the body fats.

Enhances Mental Strength:

Fennel Oil features a calming as well as strengthening effect on an individual’s mental and emotional state. It will help you find your personal strength and courage in bad times. It will help drive away stress, panic and anxiety. Additionally it is recognized to raise the sex drive.

Emmenagogue:

Ladies who have problems with irregular, blocked or even painful menstruation can usually benefit from the emmenagogue property of fennel oil. It doesn’t only assist to clear obstructed menses and make them regular, additionally; it provides rest from the other symptoms related to periods like headaches, pain within the abdominal area, dizziness, as well as mood swings. It may also help to avoid untimely or even premature menopause. Due to the anti-spasmodic property of fennel it is effective against menstrual cramps and other complexities with irregular menstrual cycles. Sweet fennel is helpful in regulating menstrual cycles and relieving from other symptoms caused by fitful menses.

Expectorant:

Fennel oil has shown to be effective in offering rest from the depositions of mucus and phlegm that cause congestion of the nasal tract, larynx, pharynx, bronchi and lungs because of cold and viral infection. It really is especially great at dealing with frequent or even long-term coughs. Fennel seeds are being used for curing cold, flu and respiratory viral infections. It prevents the formation of mucus and phlegm which otherwise cause congestion in the respiratory tract. It is also used for treating persistent cough.

Galactogogue:

This particular oil can play a huge role for breast feeding mothers. It may increase the amount of milk in them simply by enhancing manufacture of a hormone known as estrogen. This particular benefits the baby along with the mother. This particular milk additionally inherits a few of the carminative as well as digestive qualities of fennel oil and safeguards the baby from flatulence, indigestion and gas, that are common in babies.

Laxative:

These seeds are also used to improve the function of digestive system and is helpful for easing constipation naturally with no side effects. Get soothing, gentle relief from occasional constipation. Fennel oil is an excellent laxative as well as benefits both in chronic and acute constipation. However, unlike synthetic laxatives, it’s got no side effects and could be utilized frequently.

Splenic:

Just like stomachic means something is wonderful for the stomach; splenic means something that is wonderful for the spleen. The spleen plays an important role in our body since it is involved in the production of lymphocytes and red blood cells. A healthy spleen results in a good level of red blood cells along with a more healthy and active life. Fennel oil helps you to maintain your spleen and keeps it toned. Additionally, it safeguards it from numerous infections.

Stimulant:

The properties of fennel oil just like emenagogue, galactogogue and diuretic are due to a single property of the oil, its revitalizing quality. As being a stimulant, it encourages all of the activities going on in the body. It energizes the brain as well as neural activity, nervous system, secretions from endocrine and exocrine glands (including the secretion of milk, sebum, sweat, tears, urine and discharges during menses), digestive system and excretory system. This particular stimulating effect likewise helps to beat exhaustion, dizziness as well as depressive disorders.

Stomach Protector:

Being a stomach protector it assists the stomach in maintaining its normal function  and the secretion of all the stomach acids and bile. It also prevents the formation of stomach ulcers and infections.

Stomachic:

As being a stomachic only denotes as being a protector of the stomach. Fennel oil assists in keeping the stomach healthy as well as functioning properly, as well as retains the normal function of all of the secretions of digestive acids and bile. Furthermore, it safeguards the stomach from infections and ulcers, therefore ensuring the all-around health as well as wellness of the stomach.

Tonic:

This means an agent that tones and boosts health. Fennel oil functions as a tonic by toning all of the systems which function in the body, such as the respiratory, digestive, nervous as well as excretory systems, whilst assisting the absorption of nutrition within the body, therefore increasing strength as well as improving immunity.

Vermifuge:

Fennel oil is an efficient worm destroyer. It kills the worms as well as their spores within the intestines and also the excretory tracts. This really is ideal for children, who most often suffer from parasitic worms, and may avoid malnourishment or even slower growth. Fennel seeds are beneficial in getting rid of parasitic worms found in the intestines and excretory tracts thus preventing bulimia and runtish growth.

Weight Loss:

Fennel seed essential oil might have a positive role in supporting weight-loss as both a metabolic enhancer as well as an appetite suppressant. Increased metabolic output burns more energy and may speed up fat loss. Fennel has got the added benefit with regards to fat reduction in that it will help “break up” fat deposits within the bloodstream for use as energy. Utilizing energy sources the body already has stored can help to eliminate the cravings for food. A study carried out in the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture in Germany, discovered that dieters who supplemented along with fennel seed oil ate less food.

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