Health Benefits and Uses of Dill (Sowa)

Health & Wellness

Dill (Anethum graveolens) || Health Benefits of Dill

Dill, scientifically called Anethum graveolens, have been used for hundreds of years for culinary and medicinal purposes. In writing, it dates back to about 3000 B.C. and was mentioned in Egyptian medical texts. Dill is a member of the large Apiaceae group, it shares the same family of Carrot, Celery and Parsley, which contains 3,700 species across 434 genera, being a sole species of its genus. It is native to Western Asia and Eastern Mediterranean region. The Dill herb can be clearly classified into two types, the European Dill and the Indian Dill. The European Dill is mostly cultivated in England, Pomania, Turkey, Germany, USA and Russia while the Indian Dill is mainly found growing in the northern part of India. This early popularity of Dill for the dual reasons of medicinal and culinary purposes allowed its popularity to spread throughout the world and remain a widely-consumed herb. The Ancient Egyptians used Dillweed as a soothing medicine, and it was also used in aphrodisiacs and to ward off witches. The Greeks used it as a symbol of wealth. The Romans believed that dillweed brought good fortune. The Romans also used the leaves in the wreaths they made to recognize athletes and heroes. In ancient times soldiers would apply burnt Dill seeds to wounds to help them heal. Dillweed has been found in the tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II, dating to around 1400 BC. It was also later found in the Greek city of Samos, around the 7th century BC, and mentioned in the writings of Theophrastus (371–287 BC). Native to the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, Dill has been used worldwide as an aromatic spice and a healing herb. Ancient Greeks and Romans considered it as a sign of health and wealth and carried the twig of this herb in the belief that it would protect them from curses. Few sources state that a lot of superstitions prevailed in the medieval period that Dill was used to prepare potions for casting spells and protecting one from the ill effects of witchcraft and evil spirits. Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine used Dill seeds in his medications for oral cleansing. Ancient warriors applied the extract from Dill seeds and twigs onto burns for quick healing. Dill seeds have exclusive carminative properties. It is for this reason that Emperor Charles the Great ordered the presence of Dill on his banquet tables to benefit his guests who indulged too much. During the Middle Ages, Dill was believed to protect against witchcraft, and people would hang it over their threshold to ward off evil spirits. This belief was held for many years, and it is mentioned in Michael Drayton's 1627 mock-epic poem Nymphidia: Or The Court of Faery, in which the lines read: "Therewith her vervain and her Dill, that hindereth witches of their will". It was also once thought that Dill could stimulate the flow of milk in lactation, and so it was administered to women and cattle who were having difficulties nursing. The term Dill was derived from old Norse word "Dylla" which means "to soothe" or "lull".

Dill is an annual, erect and glabrous herb which grows from 40 to 60 cm (16 to 24 in). The stems are subterete, much branched which measures about 12 mm in diameter. Leaves are sheathed, alternate and decompound. An inflorescence is a compound umbel which measures 4 to 16 cm in diameter. Flowers are bisexual and actinomorphic. It bears lens shaped schizocarp like fruit. The plant is grown in a region where there is 1000 to 1700 ml annual rainfall. Being a summer crop, it suits full sunlight. It prefers the temperatures between 10⁰C and 25⁰C. Though it could be grown easily from seed but could not be transplanted once sown. The stem of Dill plant are slender and the leaves are divided finally into thread like structures. The colour of the flowers of this plant range from white to yellow and can be anything in between. It is used widely in cuisines across the globe for its aroma and also because of its medicinal properties.

Its green leaves are wispy and fernlike and have a soft texture with pleasant anise aroma and sweet taste. Dill seeds are light brown in color, oval in shap, aromatic, sweet and citrous, but also slightly bitter. Both its springs leaves and seeds are used as food and for medical purpose for hundreds of years. It is used as a herb for different purposes in almost all countries. Primarily Dill can be used for making pickles and used dry as a topping for a number of eatables. It is also used to produce soaps, perfumes, detergents, creams and lotions. Fresh Dill is available in summer whereas dried Dill is available throughout the year. The dried fruits of Dill are known as seeds which are used as a spice. It possesses strong pungent and bitter taste so it is used to flavor pickles, sauces and to make Dill vinegar. Leaves are called Dill weed and used as herbs due to its distinctive flavor in fresh form. In central and eastern Europe, Scandinavia, the Baltic states, Ukraine, and Russia, Dill is a staple culinary herb along with Chives and Parsley. Fresh, finely cut Dill leaves are used as a topping in soups, especially the hot red borsht and the cold borsht mixed with curds, kefir, yogurt, or sour cream, which is served during hot summer weather and is called okroshka. It also is popular in summer to drink fermented milk (curds, kefir, yogurt, or buttermilk) mixed with dill (and sometimes other herbs).

Dill seed, juice, weeds, leaves, and oil can be used to get various health benefits. Dill leaves have medicinal uses, if you are suffering from cold, cough, nerve pain, and sleepness then you can use the special herb. Dill provides numerous health benefits such as providing relief from insomnia, boost digestion, diarrhea, hiccups, menstrual disorders, dysentery, cancer and respiratory problems. It is used to maintain oral health and could enhance immune system and prevents from degradation of bones. With its anti-inflammatory properties, it could be helpful for the arthritis patients. In addition, it could also lower excess gas. Dill restricts bacteria and prevents cancer. Dill weed contains numerous plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have been anti-oxidant, disease preventing, and health promoting properties. This popular herb contains no cholesterol and low in calories. Nonetheless, it holds many anti-oxidants, vitamins like niacin, pyridoxine, etc., and dietary fibers, which help in controlling blood cholesterol levels. Dill leaves and seeds contain many essential volatile oils such as d-carvone, dillapiol, DHC, eugenol, limonene, terpinene and myristicin. Fresh Dill sprigs are intrinsically blessed with an array of nutrients including Vitamin A, C, D, riboflavin, manganese, folate, iron, copper, potassium, magnesium, zinc and dietary fibres. Thus, imbued with these nutrients and antioxidants, not only does Dill leaves protect the cells against free radical damage but also promote healthy vision, augment skin, boost immune functions, treat digestive anomalies, remedy sleep problems, fortify bone health, relieve respiratory infections, regulate hormonal balance, and enhance reproductive health. The essential oil extracted from seeds and leaves have variety of uses such as medicines, food flavoring and perfuming soaps. Besides tangy and appetizing flavor as well as taste, it possesses various medicinal properties due to the presence of certain compounds known as Monoterpenes, minerals, flavonoids and amino acids. Dill acts as relaxant, promotes urination for elimination of toxins and also increases strength. Moreover, it has an antispasmodic, carminative and antiflatulent activity. It promotes lactation and ensures bone and dental being a great source of calcium.

The lesser-known phrase "chill with dill" comes from Dill's calming energetic reputation. Culpeper, also an astronomer, related the dill plant to the planet Mercury and believed it "strengthens the brain". Likewise, other herbal lore considered it as a talisman for settling mental chatter. The genus word Anethum, which means to "lull or soothe", refers to both its carminative properties as well as its relaxing influence on the mind which are sometimes interrelated. Dill represents innovative ideas and the release of negative thinking in order to make a fresh start. It is said to "calm the air element and help one digest new thoughts coming through". Interestingly, in the Middle Ages, dill was known to be an antidote to sorcery and according to the Modern Herbal was "used by magicians in their spells, and charms against witchcraft". There is evidence of Dill being used in both cooking and medicinal applications in ancient cultures, including Roman, Greek, and Egyptian times. Its value since then has barely diminished, with the plant remaining a very popular natural remedy for many ailments. Scientific investigations suggest that the most remarkable health benefits of Dill are:

  • Relieving stomach cramps: The medicinal properties of Dill help suppress muscle spasms, therefore soothing stomach pain and irritation.
  • Treating flatulence: Dill has historically been used to minimize wind in the human body, and modern science has provided evidence that corroborates its carminative properties.
  • Supporting the immune system: The antioxidant compounds and other nutrients in Dill can help the body to build defenses against bacteria and viruses.

Over 36 components have been identified in the Dill herb, however, α-phellandrene, a terpenoid, is its dominant compound and amounts to 53% of the herb's oil; it is also the phytochemical responsible for the pleasing aroma and most health benefits of Dill. The seeds of Dill also contain hydrochloric acid, which has been shown to act as a muscle relaxant, which may explain Dill benefits for the treatment of stomach cramps. Other terpenoids, such as carvone, Dill ether, limonene, and p-cymene, are also major constituents of Dill oil, which is extracted from the herb's leaves and seeds. Though the exact mechanism of each component has not yet been established, the combined action of these chemicals has shown antibacterial, carminative, and antioxidant effects. Although further research is required, Dill extracts have also been suggested to have antihyperlipidemic effects, which may help reduce the accumulation of fatty compounds that causes high cholesterol. Guelder Rose and Linden are examples of herbs with strong antispasmodic properties, and similar carminative benefits can be found in Cardamom and Fennel.

It is also rich in many vital vitamins, including folic acid, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, ß-carotene, vitamin-C that is essential for optimum metabolism inside the human body. Vitamin-A, and beta carotene are natural flavonoid antioxidants. 100 g of Dill weed sprigs provide 7718 IU or 257% of recommended-daily levels of this vitamin. Vitamin A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin, and is essential for good vision. Consumption of natural foods rich in flavonoids helps the human body to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers. Fresh Dill herb is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin, vitamin-C. 100 g contain about 85 mg or 140% of vitamin C. Vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals. Dill weed is a good source of minerals like potassium (738 mg), calcium (208 mg), manganese (1.3 mg), iron (6.6 mg), phosphorus (66 mg), magnesium (55 mg) and small amounts of sodium, zinc, and copper. Copper is a cofactor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function as cofactors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Zinc is a co-factor in many enzymes that regulate growth and development, digestion and nucleic acid synthesis. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.

Improves Digestive Health:

Apart from being a potent appetizer, Dill leaves characterize excellent digestive qualities. The anti-flatulent property of fresh dill sprigs reduces the formation of gas in the alimentary canal, thus reducing bloating, flatulence, and abdominal distension. The abundance of fiber in the herb helps in stimulating peristaltic motion by expelling wastes out of the body and thus make for a powerful remedy for constipation. Additionally, the antacid property of the herb prevents the formation of excessive acids in the stomach thereby treating indigestion, ulcer, gastritis and promoting better absorption of nutrients in the body. Dill is rich in fatty acids and incorporating it into your diet regularly will help you get some important fatty acids that play lots of roles in your body. Fatty acids are major sources of energy. Most diets contain a great deal of fatty acid in the form of triacylglycerol (esters with glycerol). Some of our dietary carbohydrates are converted to fat and stored as triacylglycerol in adipose tissue. Subsequently, the fatty acids from this fat are released to provide energy for various aerobic tissues. The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and distribution of fatty acids of seed oils determines the final physical properties of the oils and may affect digestion, absorption and metabolism, and physical and technological properties of TAGs.

In a study conducted by Texas Southern University and Agilent Technologies, fixed oils from the fruits of dill, caraway, cumin, coriander, anise, carrot, celery, fennel and Khella, all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% to 82%. This means that including Dill in your diet on a regular basis may help you obtain some important fatty acids.

The essential oil is naturally stimulating from the Dill. It helps to activate the digestive juices and secretion of bile. The essential oil of the dill is also boosting the peristaltic motion of the intestine, which helps to improve the movement of the bowel; it is beneficial to get relief from the indigestion problem, and it provides better relief from constipation. β-phellandrene, α-pinene and other constituents of Dill seed oil attribute to the carminative property of the oil that helps in preventing the formation of gas in your intestines as well as aid in the expulsion of gas. It helps in the secretion of bile, a fluid produced by liver that aids in digestion. Dill seed oil is also stomachic in nature and assists in curing stomach pains that occur during menstrual cycles. It fights against flatulence, constipation, hiccups and colic in infants. As an exclusive antimicrobial, antispasmodic and antifungal oil, Dill seed essential oil is recommended for treating dysentery, diarrhea and food poisoning. It fights against infectious microbes, soothes the digestive system and protects from infections and indigestion. The leaves of Dill provide essential oil and it activated the secretion of bile and digestive juice. It eases the movement of bowels including treat constipation and other problems related to digestion.

A recent research on "Seasonal differences in essential oil composition on Dill seed oil and Parsley oil" has proven that the antimicrobial compounds like α-pinene, cineole and limonene in Dill seed oil have been proved effective against food-borne pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejun. Dill seed oil fights best against the microbes Aspergillus niger and the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans.

Mix 2 drops of Dill oil with 1 ml of sesame oil and gently massage on the stomach and abdomen for treating dysentery, diarrhea, flatulence, hiccups and constipation. In case of infant use, blend 1 drop of Dill oil with 2 ml of sesame oil and massage it gently on their tummy in slow circular movements. You can also add 1 to 2 drops of Dill oil in warm bathing water or in diffuser for relieving from digestive disorders.

Flatulence:

Dill is an amazing carminative. This can help reduce flatulence (formation of excessive gas in the stomach). Gas formation can be an extremely uncomfortable situation as it makes you feel full and bloated. Aside from being an embarrassing condition in public, excess gas can build up and press on delicate organs in your body, especially those of the chest cavity. It may also get painful and dangerous if it starts to push on the delicate internal organs. Dill offers a safe carminative effect that takes the gas downward through the digestive tracts and enables it to leave the body in a safe way.

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

Dill is a well-known carminative; it helps to avoid irritation because of the excessive amounts of gas. It does not only cause discomfort in public, and also the build-up of gas causes a dangerous situation when it presses on the delicate organs of the chest cavity. The carminative of the dill forces down the gas through the digestive tract, and it allows gas excess in a safe way. Moreover, the dill increases the expulsion of gas, and it reduces the formation of gas.

Gastric Mucosal Protection:

A 2002 study "Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice" published in BMC Pharmacology by Hossein Hosseinzadeh et al. suggests that Anethum graveolens seed extracts have significant mucosal protective and antisecretory effects of the gastric mucosa in mice.

Stimulates Appetite:

Dill is a great appetizer and therefore extensively used in culinary applications. This helps enhance the urge to eat which lets you enjoy the meal more. It is used as remedy for digestion. Presence of essential oils in dill stimulates the production of right amount of bile and digestive juices in stomach. The essential oils also stimulate peristaltic motion of the intestine, easing the passage of bowel movements and thus relieving constipation too.

Hiccups:

Hiccups can become pretty annoying. Usually, hiccups are caused by many reasons. The main reason behind this is the trapped gas that tries to move upward in the food pipe repeatedly. Often it also occurs due to some allergies, hyperactivity, hypersensitivity and nervous malfunctioning. Dill’s carminative property that reduces flatulence is the same reason that stops hiccups- expelling the gas. Dill may help in these situations. As a carminative, it might help the expulsion of gases and also reduce gas formation; while as a sedative, dill is thought to help calm down hiccups due to allergies, hyperactivity, or nervous disorders.

Antigiardial Activity:

Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasite of humans that has been known worldwide. Metronidazole is the commonly used drug to treat giardiasis in humans. Low chances of side effects have been looking for to use in children as a safe agent. The plants such as Dill is thought to possess antigiardial effect which have been cultivated in Iraq as a food spice and medicinal agent. Study showed that pediatric patients having giardiasis has been benefited with five days treatment with extract of Dill. It improved the symptom which was comparable to standard pharmacological agent Met. The results found were safe and tolerable to the treatment.

Gastric Ulcer:

"Study on the Effect ofEthanolic Extract of Anethum graveolens L. on Aspirin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Male Guinea Pigs" published in Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology in 2018 by Mariam A Kadhem, Ahlam A Abdul-Niby, Huda K Khassaf evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of Anethum graveolens on aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in guinea pigs. Results showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in gastric ulcer index, gastric volume, total gastric are, serum and tissue MDA, and significant increase (p<0.05) in gastric pH. Higher dosage of extract (300 mg/jg) was superior to cimetidine in its gastroprotective effect.

Diarrhea:

Indigestion and the activities of microbes are two reasons that cause diarrhoea. Dill’s digestive properties help to reduce chances of having loose stools. Also, the monoterpenes and flavonoids found in its essential oils also help to reduce diarrhoea by killing germs and bacteria. Consuming Dill is a curative as well as preventive measure for diarrhea. Moreover, the essential oil from the Dill has flavonoids and monoterpenes, which are bactericidal or germicidal in nature. These properties help to cure diarrhea by inhibiting microbial infection.

Dysentery:

Dill seeds yield a very powerful carminative oil. When these are sauted in ghee with fenugreek seeds in equal numbers, they will serve a specific medicine for diarrhea and acute bacillary dysentery. For optimum results, roasted seeds are powdered and mixed with curd or buttermilk.

Children Health:

Digestive Disorders:

Eating cooked Dill regularly aids digestion and prevents constipation. The herb is specially useful for children. One or two teaspoons of decoction of the fresh leaves given, mixed with each baby feed-will prevent digestive disorders in babies and help them sleep well.

Dill oil, obtained by the distillation of the seeds, is also an effective medicine for hyperacidity, flatulent colic, hiccup and diarrhoea due to indigestion. A drop of  Dill oil, mixed in a teaspoon of honey, should be licked immediately after meals. Similarly, if a drop of it is administered with castor oil to young children it may prevent griping pain in the abdomen and increase purgative action by relaxing the intestines.

Supports Cardiovascular Health - Heart Health:

Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 75% of heart disease cases could be prevented by reducing risk factors like poor diet, smoking, and lack of exercise. Additional risk factors for heart disease include elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, as well as chronic inflammation. Flavonoids, like those found in Dill, have been shown to protect heart health due to their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

An animal studies have suggested that Dill extract may have cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering effects. However, research in humans in more mixed.

One study in 91 people with high total cholesterol and triglyceride levels found that taking Dill extract tablets daily for 2 months significantly improved total cholesterol and triglyceride levels but did not change HDL (good) cholesterol levels.

Another study in 150 people with high cholesterol and triglyceride levels observed no significant changes in cholesterol or triglyceride levels after 6 weeks of daily dill tablet intake.

However, it’s important to note that most studies looking at the effects of Dill on heart health have used extracts. As a result, it’s unclear how fresh or dried Dill in your diet could affect heart health. Overall, while the antioxidants in dill extracts may benefit overall heart health, more studies in humans are needed to assess the effectiveness of dill on cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Protects the Heart (Cardioprotective):

In this modern world, heart disease is the cause of death worldwide. High blood pressure, chronic inflammation, LDL cholesterol level, and triglyceride increase the risk of heart problems. Dill is one of the best herbs to protect heart health. With the ability of Dill leaves to reduce bad cholesterol or LDL, it protects heart from the conditions such as heart attack and stroke. As it is being known, the conditions usually happen due to an excessive amount of LDL. Since then, when the heart is healthy then it influences overall health.

Cholesterol Levels:

Dill weed provides amazing cholesterol-lowering benefits. Through careful studies effect of Dill extract as well as dill tablets on lipid profile, gene expression, liver enzymes and enzymatic activity which was shown positive in hamsters having high cholesterol. The regular dosage of Dill in various forms, it lowered liver enzymes, blood glucose and lipid profile in the treated groups. There are also some studies suggesting that Dill may help you manage cholesterol. But other studies have shown that Dill has no effect, so it is unclear if there is enough evidence to support this benefit. Scientist has also conducted research on whether the Dill has an effect on metabolic syndrome or not. By using the Dill extract for a week will have a great effect on controlling the triglyceride level.

One study with 91 people has a high triglyceride and cholesterol level by using the 6 Dill extract tablet for 2 months ensures it will help to control the triglyceride and cholesterol level as well as it does not make any changes in the HDL cholesterol level.

In another study with 150 people with high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, there are no changes in the triglyceride and cholesterol level of the blood after the 6 weeks of Dill tablet intake daily.

Several studies by testing the animals with diabetes show that the daily dosage of Dill extract tablets will be fastening the blood sugar level significantly. As well as the research conducted by using humans is limited.

A recent study on Dill seeds have been proved to possess antihyperlipidaemic and antihypercholesterolaemic effects. It fights against hyperlipidemia that describes a condition of elevated levels of lipid formation and hyper cholesterol, which is nothing but increased cholesterol level in the body. Maintaining the level of the fat soluble molecules called lipids and cholesterol in healthy standards yields fitness at all ages especially when you grow older. Massage your body with 6 drops of Dill essential oil blended with 3 ml of coconut oil, followed by hot bath where 2 drops of Dill oil is added to bathing water as well. This aids in decreasing the level of cholesterol and enables to feel light and fit.

Hypolipidemic:

A recent study on Dill seeds have already been turned out to possess antihyperlipidaemic as well as antihypercholesterolaemic effects. It combats towards hyperlipidemia which explains an ailment of elevated levels of lipid formation and hyper cholesterol, that is nothing but elevated cholesterol level within the body. Maintaining the level of the fat soluble molecules known as lipids and cholesterol in healthy standards yields fitness at all ages particularly when you grow older.

A study "Hypolipidemic Activity of Anethum graveolens in Rat" published in Phytotherapy Research, Volume 22 Issue 3 by Valiollah Hajhashemi and NZaser Abbasi often touted as antihyperlipidemic, showed Anethum graveolens had no significant effect on lipid profile. In contrast to the above study, an Iranian study concluded that Anethum graveolens has significant lipid lowering effects and is a promising cardioprotective agent.

A 2014 randomized clinical trial "Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia" published in J Res Med Sci. by Mahmoud Mirhosseini, Azar Baradaran, Mahmoud Rafleian-Kopael evaluated the effects of Anethum graveolens on the lipid profile of 91 hypercholesterolemic patients. Gemfibrozil increased HDL-cholesterol by 3.91% (p<0.05) and reduced triglyceride and total cholesterol by 32.7% and 9.41% (p<0.05), respectively. Dill tablets for 2 months reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides by 18% and 7.38% (p<0.05), respectively, without any effect on HDL. Dill tables did not produce any side effects.

Massage the body along with 6 drops of Dill essential oil combined with 3 ml of coconut oil, followed by hot bath where 2 drops of Dill oil is added to bathing water too. This helps with reducing the level of cholesterol as well as allows to feel light and fit.

Atherosclerosis:

Dill lowers postprandial atherosclerosis chances and is beneficial for the patients with hypercholesterolemic. By considering the price as well as availability, it becomes an effective choice for the treatment of hyperlipidima by lowering postprandial risk factors of atherosclerosis. The mechanism and structure of active ingredients should be authorized. Further studies are still need to be conducted for determination of similar effects of Dill in humans.

Heart Attack:

The flavonoids, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of the dill help to avoid heart problems. The extract of the Dill seeds has the ability to lower cholesterol and triglyceride, and it helps to maintain the HDL cholesterol level in the blood so that you can avoid the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Diabetes:

Herbal medicines possess vital componenets such as terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and polysaccharides with individual remedial properties. Dill possess various useful properties such as antihypercholesterolemic, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer, antidiabetic, antistress, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antisecretory, diuretic and antispasmodic properties.

Dill has long been associated with diabetes and the management of insulin levels. Despite the fact that research is somewhat limited in this area, particularly on human subjects, studies have indicated that it may help reduce the fluctuations of serum lipids and insulin levels in corticosteroid-induced diabetes. Research studies have suggested that Dill may have an anti-diabetic effect, with authors of one review stating, it can be suggested for the management of diabetic patients. More studies are needed to confirm this benefit.

In Iran, Dill is traditionally used to treat diabetes and convulsion. Study was conducted to know the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of dill leaves on histology of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in an epileptic mice ignite by Pentylenetetrazole. Dill possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects which helps to lower the complications of diabetes. It affects antioxidant capacity and change in genes in lipid and glucose pathways. The aim was to summarize pharmacological effects of Dill to manage diabetes. The experiment reported an inverse relationship between consumption of Dill and chances of diabetes as well as progression of CVD. An intake of dill showed meaningful antidiabetic activity in both animals and humans. Its antidiabetic effects help to manage diabetes. This shows the effectiveness of treatment for epileptic disorders and also supports the use of Dill to treat epilepsy in Iran.

One study published in The Journal Phytotherapy Research stated that laboratory rats that had corticosteroid-induced type 2 diabetes may have showed a decrease in serum glucose and insulin levels when they were given dill extract for 22 days.

In a 2016 study "The Role of Anethum graveolens L. in the Management of Diabetes" published in Journal of Tropical Medidine by Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Iraj Khodadadi, Heidar Tavilani, and Ebrahi Abbasi Oshaghi has been reported to have hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect, and to reduce the incidence of diabetic complications. Study summarizes and highlights the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Anethum graveolens in the management of diabetes. Although all components of Anethum graveolens have antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects, these components are at low levels in dill, and possibly have synergistic effects. Studies also suggest that activation of LDL-R, PPAR-alpha, and other FA oxidation-related genes and also inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase contribute to the hypolipidemic effects of Anethum graveolens.

Although the research is still limited, some people believed that Dill leaves can reduce serum lipids fluctuations including insulin levels in corticosteroid-induced diabetes. However, the reducing of insulin levels has been long associated with dill leaves.

In diabetic cases that occur due to corticosteroids, Dill works well in reducing the fluctuation in the level of serum lipids and insulin levels. This helps bring diabetic conditions under control. Having dill is hence a healthy nutritious way to work your blood sugar levels down. You can consume dill seeds or make juice of it, Even Dill used in pickles, which you can easily find in local markets.

Diabetes Type 1:

Dill is often recommended as one of the best foods for people with type 1 diabetes because it is a great herb to control the blood sugar levels and mange diabetes. Dill can help to decrease the fluctuations of serum lipids and insulin levels in corticosteroid-induced diabetes. The presence of bioactive ingredient Eugenol in Dill leaves portray potent anti-diabetic properties which play a key role in alleviating the blood sugar levels within the body. The production of insulin from the β-pancreatic cells becomes active on taking fresh sprigs of Dill. It also extensively helps to reduce the breakdown of starch into glucose which in turn prevents sudden sugar spikes and provides a balanced diabetic reading.

Blood Sugar:

Having chronically high blood sugar levels is concerning as they can increase your risk of conditions like insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Dill has been suggested to have blood-sugar-lowering effects. In fact, several studies in animals with diabetes have shown a significant improvement in fasting blood sugar levels with daily doses of Dill extract. Still, research in humans is limited.

Hypoglycemic:

A 2013 study "Haematological and hypoglycemic potential Anethum graveolens seeds extract in normal and diabetic Swiss albino mice" published by Nidhi Mishra evaluated the hypoglycemic and hematopoetic potential of seed extracts of Anethum graveolens in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Aqueous and ethanol extracts caused a significant decrease in blood glucose. Both extracts and carvone (a monoterpene constituent of dill oil) showed beneficial effects on hematological parameters.

Improves Insulin Sensitivity:

A 2014 study "Anethum graveolens Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Abnormality in Type 2 Diabetic Patients" published in Pharmaceutical Sciences by Majid Mobasseri, Laleh Payahoo*, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Yaser Khaje bishak, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Sepide Mahluji investigated the effects of Anethum graveolens supplementation on insulin sensitivity, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile of type diabetic patients. Results showed significant reduction in insulin level and significant decreases in total cholesterol and LDL-C.

Bone Health:

Bones form a vital part of the human body, as it gives shape, structure and support to the muscles and organs. Thanks to the goodness of calcium, iron, vitamin D, thiamine, riboflavin and fibre, Dill leaves ensure proper bone cell growth, regeneration, which in turn helps in bestowing a positive structural development of the body. The calcium content of Dill means that it may contribute to adequate levels of calcium in the body, which in turn might help against the important element in protecting you from bone loss and the loss of bone mineral density. Dill is a key component for the good growth and development of the bones; it also helps to repair the injured bones. Adding this to daily diet enhances calcium absorption, diminishes bone loss thus preventing chronic conditions like osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis:

After a certain age many people go through a bone degenerative disease called osteoporosis. Most people are affected by osteoporosis at rheumatoid arthritis and after menopause. Osteoporosis affects millions of people each year, which is a bone disorder that is characterized by the loss of bone mass and weakening of bones. One of the main reasons for occurrence of osteoporosis is lack of calcium. Regular consumption of Dill is one way to supplement your body with good amount of calcium, making your bones strong and preventing bone disorders like osteoporosis.

Supports Weight Loss:

Matabolism:

An array of metabolic abnormalities which is known as metabolic syndrome has become a public and clinical problem. Though the uses of herbal medicines have been shown, human evidence lacks to support the effectiveness which exists in animals.

A clinical trial made on patients having metabolic syndrome for 12 weeks of treatment from extract showed beneficial effect of lowering TG from baseline. The treatment of Dill was not related with significant improvement in metabolic syndrome which is related to markers which is compared to control group. The larger studies are still required to prove efficacy of long term administration of dill extract for resolving the components of metabolic syndrome. The study found that Dill extract had a beneficial effect on triglyceride levels but no effect on waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting blood sugar.

A 2020 clinical trial "The effects of Anethum graveolens powder supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes" published in Trials by Fatemeh Haidari, Mehrnoosh Zakerkish, Fatemah Borazjani, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali and Golnaz Amoochi Foroushani evaluated the effects of AG Dill powder supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profile, some antioxidants and inflammatory markers, and gastroitestinal symptoms in 42 patients with Type 2 diabetes. Results: Dill powder supplementation significantly decreased the mean serum levels of insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and malon-dialdehyde in the intervention group (p<0.05). Mean serum levels of HDL and total antioxidant capacity were significantly increased (p<0.05). Colonic motility disorder symptom was significantly reduced by supplementation (p<0.01).

A 2012 randomized double blind controlled trial "The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome" published in DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences by Masoume Mansouri, Neda Nayebi, Abasali Keshtkar, Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar, Eghbal Taheri, and Bagher Larijani evaluated the effect of 12 weeks of Anethum graveolens on metabolic markers in 24 patients with metabolic syndrome. Present study showed the dill extract resulted in significant reduction in triglyceride levels from baseline to 12 weeks. However serum TG was not significantly different in dill group compared to placebo. However, dill treatment was not associated with significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control.

Liver Health:

Hepatoprotection:

A 2016 study "Effect of Dill tablet (Anethum graveolens L) on antioxidant status and biochemical factors on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage on rat" published in International Journal of Applied & Basic Medical Research by Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi, Iraj Khodadadi, Heidar Tavilani, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi evaluated the protective effect of Dill tablets (used as hypolipidemic agent) against hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in male Wistar rats. Results showed significant decrease in liver enzymes, LDH, AP, AST, ALT, GGTP, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, as well as TG, TC (p<0.05). Results suggest dill has potential as hepatoprotective agent against CCl4-induced liver damage.

Another 2013 study "Volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of the aromatic herb Anethum graveolens" published in Journal of the Arab Society for Medical Research by Manal M. Ramadan, Nadia N. Abd-Algader, Hatil H. El-kamali, Kadry Z. Ghanem, Abdel Razik H. Farrag evaluated the chemical composition of volatile compounds in Dill and their hepatoprotetive and nephroprotective activity against free radicals generated by paracetamol. A mega dose of paracetamol induced production of free radicals, which caused damage to hepatocytes and nephrocytes in rats. The aqueous extract of dill yielded high antioxidant properties and acted as an extracellular neutralizer of free radicals. Supplementation with dill in paracetamol intoxicated rats attenuated the damage to the liver.

Psychological Benefits:

Depression:

Depression is a big problem among so many, both adults and teens. Dill weed may actually help as a natural remedy for depression.

A study published in The American Journal of Therapeutics aimed to investigate the antidepressant and analgesic properties of the aqueous extract of dill from the South of Morocco. The study was aimed to find out analgesic and antidepressant properties of aqueous extract of dill. The Dill extract showed powerful analgesic and antidepressant effect when compared with tramadol and sertraline. Moreover, it does not showed any adverse reactions. The aqueous extract showed the benefits from flavonoids, polyphenols and tannins present in it.

Neurological Health:

Anticonvulsant:

A study "Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice" published in School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia by Akaberi Arash; Mohammad-Zadeh Mohammad; Mirmoosavi Seyed Jamal; Tazari Ali Mohammad, Abarashi Azam evaluated an aqueous extract of A. graveolens leaves in the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy in a PTZ (pentylenetetrazole) model in mice. Results showed a noticeable anticonvulsant effect.

Epilepsy:

Epilepsy is frightening to those that have it and their families. It is a neurological disorder which is featured by episodic and unpredictable seizures. Many medications are available to lower the symptoms such as seizure but the drugs provide various side effects. This plant has been used for centuries to treat epilepsy. The aqueous extract of Dill leaves was reviewed for the effects on treatment of epilepsy and convulsions. As the evaluation showed that the plant has medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities and is an effective alternative to treat epilepsy. In Africa and other third-world countries have been using plants to help with epilepsy for centuries.

Researchers from all over the world have been studying many areas of this disorder, however, in this research published in the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, the aqueous extract of dill leaves was reviewed for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy.

A study determined anticonvulsant effects of hydro alcoholic extract of seed of Dill on pentlyenetetrazol induced seizure in male mice. The hydro-alcoholic extract anticonvulsant activity against PTZ induced seizure. It is regarded as adjuvant therapy. Further studies are essential to elucidate involvement of probable neurotransmitter that mediated functional mechanisms of whole extract.

The evaluation defined the plant as having a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, potentially working as a natural alternative treatment for epilepsy.

Alzheimer’s Diseases:

A 2012 research article "Evaluation of Safety and Protective Effect of Combined Extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens (PM52) against Age-Related Cognitive Impairment / Wipawee Thukham-mee and Jintanaporn Wattanathorn" published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine evaluated the protective effect of a combined extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens, against age-related cognitive impairment in animal model of age-related cognitive impairment. All doses of PM52 could attenuate memory impairment and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, possibly through suppression of AChE and decreased oxidative stress in the hipoccampus. Results suggest a potential as food supplement to protect against age-related cognitive impairment like MCI and Alzheimer's.

Treats Sleep Disorders:

Insomnia:

The other health benefit of dill is to treat insomnia. Insomnia is a sleep disorder that can make it hard to get sleep. It has been constantly affecting millions of people worldwide. Be it an approaching deadline at your workplace or some kind of stress or anxiety, insomnia is common in quite a few individuals in today’s sedentary lifestyle. Loss of sleep can be extremely debilitating and can lead to exhaustion, lethargy and can also disturb your physical and emotional being. The gentle effect of Dill leaves may be beneficial for insomnia because it contains essential oils. The essential oils possess the sedative, stimulating and hypnotic properties that help in calming and relaxing the mind. Presence of flavonoids and vitamin-B complex in its essential oils stimulates the production of certain enzymes and hormones that induce a calming and hypnotic effect, thus help you to get a good night’s sleep.

Placing cold to warm bags immersed in water with Dill seeds allowed to soak for few minutes, on closed eyelids will help you in experiencing a calming effect. You can also add 2 drops of Dill oil every night in your diffuser, burner or vaporizer for promoting peaceful sleep throughout the night.

Women's Health:

Stimulates Menstruation:

The essential oil of the dill stimulates the flavonoids. Also, it has the emmenagogue property, which is used as the folk medicine for stimulation of the emission of specific hormones so that it helps to the regular menstrual cycle for women.

Menstrual Cramps:

Dill leaves tend to relieve menstrual cramps that often affects women in their period. Essential oils in dill may help relieve pain from cramps during your period. However, research is currently limited and mixed.

A study conducted by The Department of Biostatistics and Demography at Khon Kaen University in Thailand looked at Dill’s effects among students with primary dysmenorrhoea, also known as painful periods or menstrual cramps, that were in their late teens or early 20s. Interventions included 12 different herbal medicines: Dill, Chamomile, Cinnamon, Rose, Fennel, Fenugreek, Ginger, Guava, Rhubarb, Uzara, Valerian and Zataria, as well as five non-herbal supplements (fish oil, melatonin, vitamins B1 and E, and zinc sulphate) in a variety of formulations and doses. While the effects were not strong, some evidence of effectiveness for several supplements was clear in that they reduced some of the discomfort and pain associated with cramps, including Dill.

Menstrual Disorders:

Dill is useful in stimulating and regulating menstrual flow. It is effective in spasmodic menstrual pain in young girls and absence of menstruation due to anaemia, exposure to cold and pregnancy. About 60 grams of a decoction of the fresh leaves, mixed with a teaspoon of parsley juice, can be taken thrice daily in the treatment of the above disorders.

Dysmenorrhea:

A 2014 randomized, double-blind trial "Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens) on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid" published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences by Reza Heidarifar, Nahid Mehran, Akram Heidari, Hoda Ahmari Tehran, Mohammad Koohbor, and Mostafa Kazemian Mansourabad evaluated the effect of dill compared to mefanamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea in 75 singe female students between 18 and 28 years old. Dill was given as 1000 mg of powder every 12 hours for 5 days from 2 days before the beginning of menstruation for two cycles; mefanamic acid was 200 mg. Results showed Dill was as effective as mefanamic acid in reducing pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea.

Infertility:

Studies shows that Dill caused some change in female reproductive system that promotes infertility.

A study investigated oocyte changes being a reason of infertility. The results concluded that seed aqueous extract of Dill in high dose and low dose promotes estrous cycle duration and progesterone concentration and promote infertility without any meaningful side effects on development of oocytes potential such as chemical and structural changes. Dill has potential for study as herbal extract with contraceptive property.

A 2015 study "Effects of Anethum graveolens L. on Oocyte and Fertility of Adult Female Rats" published in Journal of Reproduction & Infertility, Volume 16, Issue 1, Number 62 by Malihezaman Monsefi, Aazam Ghasemi, Sanaz Alaee, Elham Aliabadi has shown Anethum graveolens caused some changes in female reproductive system that induced infertility. In this study, results showed a Dill seed aqueous extract can induce infertility without any effect on oocyte structure.

Another 2006 study "The effects of Anethum graveolens L. on female reproductive system" published in PTR. Phytotherapy Research by Monsefi M et al. suggests dill can be used as a regulatory agent of the menstrual cycle or as an antifertility agent.

"Effects of Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens (L.) On Male Reproductive System of Rats" published in Biological Sciences 7, by Monsefi Malihezaman and Pahiavan Sara evaluated the infertility effect of A. graveolens seed extracts in a model of 30 adult male Wistar rats. Results showed no antifertility effect. There was no effect on body and organ weight, serum testosterone, sperm count and motility and nuclear maturity.

Pregnancy and Lactation:

Sathakuppai is of great value to pregnant women and nursing mothers. Its regular use after childbirth increases the quantum of breast milk. It prevents any early ovulation thereby establishing as an effective birth control device.

Induction of Labor:

A 2016 randomized clinical trial "Comparison the Effect of Anethum graveolens and Oxytocin on Induction of Labor in Term Pregnancy" published in Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products by Mozhgan Akbari, Mojgan Javadnoori,  Amir Siahpoosh,  Poorandokht Afshari, Mohammad Hossain Haghighi, Elham Lake, evaluated that oxytocin is the most common medicine used for induction of labor, which however is sometimes ineffective, and has maternal and fetal side effects. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effects of dill seeds on induction of labor and compare it with oxytocin in term pregnancy. Dill seeds, 0.018 g/kg, with a spoonful of sugar in 250 mL of boiling water, brewed for 10 minutes. Results showed the boiled Anethum graveolens seeds was effective on labor induction.

Men's Health:

Modulator of Testicular Steroidogenesis:

"Anethum graveolens as a possible modulator of testicular steroidogenesis" published in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol 346, 5th International Conference on Agricultural and Biological Sciences (ABS), July 2019, Macau by E Tvrda, T Brenkus, M Duracka, R Kirchner and J Arvay, evaluated the possible in vitro effects of Anethum graveolens extract on steroidogenesis in testicular tissue and its in vitro effects on the production of cholesterol, DHEA, androstenedione and testosterone by rat testicular fragments. Results suggest that bioactive molecules in A. graveolens could have a dose-dependent effect on the secretion of selected male reproductive hormones, playing a role in the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis.

Antioxidant:

Antioxidants are naturally occurring compounds that help protect cells against damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. As a result, research suggests that consuming foods rich in antioxidants may help reduce chronic inflammation and prevent or even treat certain conditions, including heart disease, Alzheimer’s, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain forms of cancer. Both the seeds and leaves of the dill plant have been found to be rich in several plant compounds with antioxidant properties, including:

  • Flavonoids: These plant compounds have been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, and some forms of cancer. They may also play an important role in brain health.
  • Terpenoids: These compounds are found in essential oils and may protect against liver, heart, kidney, and brain diseases.
  • Tannins: Responsible for bitterness in many plant foods, tannins have been shown to have potent antioxidant properties, as well as antimicrobial effects.

Additionally, Dill is a good source of vitamin C, which has also been shown to have powerful antioxidant properties.

Free Radicals:

Dill has monoterpene effects, this helps antioxidant molecules get attached to oxidized molecules that can damage the body. a multinational study revealed that the antioxidant activity of dill can be compared to that of vitamin C, Quercitin, and alpha-tocopherol.. The monoterpene effects of Dill assist antioxidant molecules attach to oxidized molecules that could damage the body. The study confirmed these effects and showed antioxidant properties which are comparable to alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and quercetin. Hence Dill shows analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties that counteract free radical damage. Study shows antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Dill that acts as a superoxide radical scavenger, that fight free radical damage.

A study showed the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of various herbs, including dill, revealing the beneficial scavenging of superoxide radicals. Overall, the daily use of dill, in various forms, common in India due to the antioxidant activity of extracts that are superior to known antioxidant ascorbic acid, makes it a great addition to food.

Cancer - Treatment and Prevention:

One of the health benefits of Dill leaves is to reduce the risk of any type of cancer.. Flavonoids and monoterpenes are present in Dill. Flavonoids act like antioxidants that are helpful in fighting off free radicals and preventing cancer. Monoterpenes activate the secretion of an enzyme known as glutathione-S-transferase which is very effective in neutralizing carcinogens. It can also help in neutralizing Cyano- and Benzo- derivatives and free radicals, thereby protecting the body from the colon, lungs, and breast cancer.

Moreover, studies say d-limonene is the type of monoterpene, which helps to treat breast, lung, and colon cancer. The Dill has a high level of d-limonene; it provides the anticancer property to the Dill. The extract of the Dill seeds is used to treat cancer.

The anti-oxidant property of Dill seed oil is applied in treating mimic wrinkles around the eyes since it fights against free radicals responsible for various symptoms of aging including wrinkles. Mix 2 drops of Dill seed oil with 1 ml of Jojoba oil or with your regular skin care cream or lotion and gently apply it on your face and other wrinkles prone area for visible results. This massage aids in refreshing and soothing the skin surface.

Kills Bacterial Infections:

Essential oils in Dill have antibacterial effects which fight potentially harmful bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemical screening showed alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed good antibacterial activity against all bacteria except K pneumoniae and one strain of P aeruginosa.

A 2007 study of essential oil from aerial parts "Chemical And Biological Study Of Aerial Parts Of Dill" published in Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences by W M Amin, A A Sleem exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacterial, as well as moderate antifungal effect.

Another 2006 study "In vitro Antibacterial Screening of Anethum graveolens L. Fruit, Cichorium intybus L. Leaf, Plantago ovata L. Seed Husk and Polygonum viviparum L.Root Extracts Against Helibacter pylori" published in International Journal of Pharmacology, Vol 2, Issue 6, by Muhammad Shafiq Khan et al. showed Anethum graveolens with moderately potent anti-H pylori activity and suggests a potential as a curative anti-ulcer agent.

Infections:

The quarry of antioxidants and vitamin C present in this herb has been used since ancient times to battle germs and shield the body against various infections. Thanks to its strong anti-microbial properties, Dill leaves are not only used for removing bacteria or germs from the body but also used for treating and healing wounds. It is also extremely beneficial in treating cough and cold, reducing general debility, weakness, fatigue and improving the overall vitality of the body.

Bacteria, fungus, virus and other micro organisms are the root cause of many diseases. Dill seed oil protects you against these infections and is a valuable remedy for cold, cough, flu, fever, bronchitis, spasms, respiratory tract diseases and healing wounds.

Antimycobacterial:

A 2005 study "The antimycobacterial constituents of Dill (Anethum graveolens)" published in PTR. Phytotherapy Research isolated a new furanocoumarin and three known compounds, oxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate and falcarindiol, from the whole herb of A. graveolens. The three known compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against a panel of mycobacteria.

Antifungal:

Another 2012 study "The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill" published in PLOS One by Jun Tian, Xiaoquan Ban, Hong Zeng, Jingsheng He, Yuxin Chen,Youwei Wang evaluated the effect of essential oil of seeds on plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus. Results showed antifungal activity of Dill oil attributed to its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus.

Antimicrobial:

Since Dill seed oil is rich in antimicrobial, anti-fungal and antibacterial properties it acts as a disinfectant and helps in killing the disease causing germs and micro organisms. This oil also acts as a mouth freshener by killing the microbes and fighting against the free radicals that affect the gums and teeth with its antioxidant effects. Dill has been studied extensively for its many antimicrobial effects. The essential oil of Dill is highly effective against many strains of bacteria. It even inhibits the growth of Fusarium graminearum, a devasting plant disease affecting barley and wheat. It is caused by a fungal plant pathogen. Dill essential oil is also toxic to five other bacteria strains including the staphylococcus aureus.

A study revealed that dill extracts from seeds stored for more than 35 years killed several strains of fungal like the mold Aspergillus niger and the yeast Candida albicans and saccharomyces cerevisiae.

"Comparative Studies of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potentials of Essential Oils and Oleoresins Obtained from Seeds and Leaves of Anethum graveolens L." published in Toxicol Open Access by Sunita Singh, SS Das, G Singh Marina Perroti, Carola Schuff and César A N Catalan evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dill seeds and leaves. Essential oil yielded yielded carvone (47.2%) as main component of seed essential oil, and dillapiole (90.2%) was the main component of leaf essential oil. Oleoresins yielded carvone, dillapiole and oleic acid. Essential oils showed significant antibacterial activity against S aureus and B. subtilis, with minimal inhibitory effects against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Seed essential oil showed excellent antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum in food poisoned method.

A 2015 study "Total Phenolic, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Cytotoxicity Study of Wild Anethum graveolens L." published in International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research by Ksouri A, Dob T, Belkebir A, Lamari L, Krimat S, Metidji H. evaluated the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and toxicity properties of hydromethanolic crude extract and fractions for aerial parts of A. graveolens. An ethyl acetate fraction showed highest scavenging of free radicals by DPPH and reducing power assays. On antimicrobial testing against gram negative and gram positive bacteria, MIC of carious fractions ranged from 0.19 to 12.5 mg/ml. Cytotoxicity test against brine shrimp lethality assay showed the crude extract was toxic with LC50 of 51.29 µg/mL. Results suggest considerable antioxidant and antibacterial activities and suggest to explore its potential as biopreservatives.

Add 1 drop of Dill oil in a cup of warm water and use it as a mouthwash for battling against harmful microbes causing oral infections.

Candida:

The essential oil extracted from Dill seed was tested in vivo and vitro anti-Candida activity. The effectiveness of essential oil evaluation in prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was carried out in immunosuppressed mice. Microbiological and histological techniques analyzed anti-candida activity and were compared with fluconazole. The experiments tested that essential oil is effective to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis in an immunosuppressed mice. As a basis for results, it concluded that essential oil extracted from essential oil possess anti-candida properties in vivo and in vitro. It is regarded to be useful for preventing and treating monilial vaginitis.

A 2013 study "Antifungal mechanism of essential oil from Anethum graveolens seeds against Candida albicans" published in Journal of Medical Microbiology by Yuxin Chen, Hong Zeng, Jun Tian, Xiaoquan Ban, Bingxin Ma and Youwei Wang evaluated the antifungal mechanism of dill seed essential oil against Candida albicans. Results indicate the cytoplasmic membrane and mitochondria are the main anti-Candidal targets of Dill seed essential oil.

Intestinal Parasites:

Dill has strong antigiardial activity. Gardia lamblia is an intestinal parasite that causes problems in humans. Dill relieves this condition even in children.

Anthelmintic:

A study "Antihelminthic action of the Anethum graveolensessential oil on Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae" published in Brazilian Journal of Biology by L M Castro, N B Pinto, M Q Moura, M M Villela, G A Capella, R A Freitag, M E A Berne evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Anethum graveolens essential oil on different stages of Haemonchus contortus life cycle and its toxicity on MDBK cells. Main oil components in 95.93% of total oil were dihydrocarvone (39.1%), carvone (22.24%), D-limonene (16.84%), apiol (10.49%) and transdihydrocarvone (7.26%). Minimum essential oil concentrations required to inhibit 50% (IC50) of egg hatching, larval development, and larval migration were 0.006 mg/mL, 2.536 mg/mL, and 3.963 mg/mL, respectively. Results suggest a promising alternative in sheep gastrointestinal nematode control.

Aids in Dental Care:

Dill seeds and leaves may act as good mouth and breath fresheners. Apart from that, the essential oils in it are germicidal, antioxidant, and disinfectant in nature. Due to these properties, they might help alleviate oral microbial infections and their antioxidants minimize the damage caused by free radicals to gums and teeth as well.

A 2011 study "Safety evaluation of oral Anethum graveolens L total hydroalcoholic extract in mice" published in JPHS, Vol 1, No 2 by Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli*, Eghbal Taheri, Hoda Baher, Parisa Ziarati evaluated the safety profile of a total hydroalcoholic extract in acute, subacute, and subchronic treatment periods in mice. In acute study, doses up to 2000 mg/kg did not cause any mortality; in subacute study, doses up to 1000 mg/kg did not cause toxic effect. In a 45-day regimen with doses of 1000 mg/k/d, there was significant reduction in FBS in the high dose female animal group. Doses less than 50 mg/kg can be considered safe in both mice genders.

Bad Breath:

Dill seeds are highly useful in curing bad breath. The seeds are chewed for this purpose.

Relieves Pain and Cramps:

Enriched with strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving properties of the bio-active components, the humble Dill makes for an extensive remedy from pain and inflammation in case of arthritis and joint pain. It is also used to treat painful muscle spasms, sore muscles, arthritic conditions, and other inflammatory situations. It is also extremely effective against Rheumatoid arthritis, an ailment that stems due to the vitiation of Vata doshas and accumulation of Ama in the joints.

Headache:

Applying the dill seed paste with licorice, tagara, sandalwood, kushta, and ghee will help to relieve shoulder pain, back pain, and headache.

Arthritis Pain:

Dill is a well-known herb for its anti-inflammatory property; it helps to reduce inflammation and the related pains of the disorders like gout and rheumatoid arthritis. Dill is used as medicine from ancient times for precisely this reason.

Antispasmodic:

A review "Antispasmodic Effect of Anethum graveolens Fruit Extract on Rat Ileum" showed that Dill fruit extract is a potent relaxant of contractions induced by various spasmogens. The spasmolytic effect may be through calcium channels. Study supports its traditional use for gastrointestinal disorders.

Reduces Inflammation:

Dill essential oil combats towards inflammation and allergies. Individuals with oral inflammation within the throat and mouth are administered with this particular oil. Monoterpenes as well as flavonoids assist in cleaning the respiratory system in the event of allergies. Include 2 drops of Dill oil in steam inhalation and inhaling this particular medicated aroma works well for alleviating respiratory infections as well as allergies. Aggravated kapha dosha is in charge of leading to inflammation because of excessive water deposits, salt, uric acid along with other toxic substances within the system. Dill essential oil has got the efficiency to lessen elevated kapha dosha and its particular anti-histamine qualities helps one in eliminating inflammation along with other infections related to it.

"The Study of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil-Based Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) Extract Used Topically in Formalin-Induced Inflammation Male Rat Paw" published in Iran J Pharm Res. 2012 evaluated the effects of aerial organs' extract and seed on inflammation caused by plantar injection of formalin in rats. Results showed significant decrease in paw volume (p<0.001).

Massage the inflamed and painful parts with 2 drops of Dill oil combined with 1 ml Olive oil for lessening pain, swelling as well as inflammation.

Alleviates Allergy:

Dill is known as an anti-inflammatory herb. It helps in reducing inflammation and allergies. Presence of monoterpenes and flavonoids in this herb help in fighting allergies. Dill seed oil is helpful to reduce the inflammation, allergies and respiratory infections. Its oil is recommended for people suffering from inflammation in the throat and mouth.

Add 2 drops of Dill oil in steam inhalation and inhaling this medicated aroma helps in alleviating respiratory infections and allergies.

Boosts Immune System:

Dill leaves have been found to exhibit strong antimicrobial effects. It prevents the number of microbial infections throughout the body. Dill contains good amount of vitamin C, which helps to enhance the immunity system. Strong immunity system helps you protect your body from various infections and diseases.

Respiratory Health:

Kaempferol and certain other components of flavonoids and monoterpenes in the essential oils of dill might be anti-congestive and antihistaminic in nature. Sanctified with powerful anti-inflammatory, anti-biotic, and anti-asthmatic properties, Dill offers a one-stop traditional remedy for all sorts of respiratory distress. It is vital in treating the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu symptoms. It actively thins and loosens sputum particles within the lungs, chest and nasal cavities and eases breathing. It is also highly beneficial for providing faster relief from non-productive cough, asthma and other bronchial conditions.

Dill seeds are effective in respiratory disorders like colds, influenza and bronchitis. About 60 grams of infusion of the seeds mixed with honey should be taken thrice daily in such disorders.

Skin Care:

Boils and Swellings:

A paste of fresh Dill leaves can be applied as a poultice to ripen blood boils. Its application with a little Turmeric powder prevents any formation of pus in ulcers and heals them quickly. Leaves boiled in Sesame oil makes an excellent liniment for reducing swelling and pain of the joints. Dill leaves are slightly pungent, aromatic and bitter in taste. They should, therefore, be taken only in combination with other mild tasting leafy vegetables.

Hair Care:

Head Lice:

This attribute makes it good for preventing and fighting hair lice too. Extracts of the it’s seed are used for this purpose. Apart from this it is a very common ingredient as a flavouring herb in various cuisines of the world.

Eliminates Insects and Pests:

Insect Repellent:

Dill helps prevent bugs. This makes it a must have product at home. It can be used to store grains over a period of time and the harmful effects of chemical based poisonous insecticides can also be reduced.

Dill weed has shown the ability to repel bugs, as shown in research published in The Journal of Food Protection. 20 plant-derived oils were evaluated for their insecticidal activities. Responses varied with different species, plant oils and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose values in the fumigant, dill oil induced the highest pest mortality, followed by Yarrow and Eucalyptus oil. Melaleuca and lemon-scented Tea Tree oils were also useful in repelling insects. Neroli birgard oil and citrus made the lineup as well as mugwort or common Wormwood. These results indicate that Dill oil, among others, may have the potential for development as agents to help protect stored grain from insects and mites, clearly a much better and safer choice than disease-making chemicals.

A 2012 study "Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Anethum graeolens" published in Sci.Int.(Lahore) by Rauf Attique Babri, Irshad Khokhar, Zaid Mahmood and Shahid Mahmud evaluated the insecticidal activity of essential oil of A. graveolens. The essential oil of seeds was obtained by hydrodistillation. GC-MS analysis yielded main components of R-(-)-carvone(38.899%), apiol (30.812%), limonene(15.938%) and trans-(+)-dihydrocarvone (10.999%). The essential oil was found to be toxic to Periplaneta americana L, Musca domestica L, and Tribolium castaneum, with mean mortality ranges from 25 to 100% for the different insects. Results suggest potential as a natural insecticide against various insects.

"Laboratory Study on Effects of Anethum graveolens Seeds on Four Species of Stored-product Insects" published in Journal of Economic Entomology 1985 of seed or fruit extract of Anethum graveolens exhibited varying degrees of biologic effect on the adults of S oryzae and T confusum.

With this, Dill essential oil can be used to protect stored grains from mites and insects. This is much better and safer than chemical-based insecticides that cause diseases.

Forms of Dill

  • Raw: The Dill herb has a distinct anise-like, sweet, and citrusy flavor that many enjoy and add to a vast range of culinary preparations, such as sauces and dressings. As a digestive, carminative herb, dill benefits can be obtained when consumed with food. Dill is easy to find at most grocery stores and local markets around the world. The most common presentations of raw Dill include the dried leaves and seeds, which are sold as herbs and spices. Many supermarkets and plant nurseries now even sell Dill seedlings, because adding fresh dill to a vast amount of foods has become so popular.
  • Essential oil:. Generally extracted from the seeds, it is also possible to be obtained from the leaves and stems. Dill's essential oil is often used as a relaxant. It can be applied topically or added to food.
  • Infusion: Fresh or dried, the whole Dill plant can be brewed into a warm herbal tea, and taken to relieve flatulence and soothe digestive complaints.
  • Tincture::This concentrated form of the herb is a convenient method of reaping Dill benefits for digestion and stomach cramps, and should be diluted in water.
  • Capsules: These may be preferred because they permit a fast intake, easy dosage adjustment, and a consistent concentration of Dill medicinal properties.

Various Culinary Uses of Dill Leaves

Thanks to its invigorating aromatic fragrance and citrusy flavour, Dill leaves are extensively used in European and Asian cuisines. Not only does it enhance the taste of the dishes but also enriches the dish with healthful nutrients that bestows one with numerous health benefits. Freshly chopped and sauteed Dill is a superb addition to green salads. It can also be used for preparing soups and sauces and even the seeds of Dill are used to flavour spicy dishes and for pickling ingredients.

In Italy and Greece cousine Dill is used as a topping for boiled potatoes covered with fresh butter, especially in summer when there are so-called new, or young, potatoes. The Dill leaves may be mixed with butter, making a Dill butter, to serve the same purpose. Dill leaves mixed with tvorog form one of the traditional cheese spreads used for sandwiches. Fresh Dill leaves are used throughout the year as an ingredient in salads, e.g., one made of lettuce, fresh cucumbers, and tomatoes, as Basil leaves..

In Russian cuisine is noted for liberal use of dill, where it is known as укроп. Its supposed antiflatulent activity caused some Russian cosmonauts to recommend its use in human spaceflight due to the confined quarters and closed air supply.

In Polish cuisine, fresh Dill leaves mixed with sour cream are the basis for dressings. It is especially popular to use this kind of sauce with freshly cut cucumbers, which are almost wholly immersed in the sauce, making a salad called mizeria. Dill sauce is used hot for baked freshwater fish and for chicken or turkey breast, or used hot or cold for hard-boiled eggs. A Dill-based soup, (zupa koperkowa), served with potatoes and hard-boiled eggs, is popular in Poland. Whole stems including roots and flower buds are used traditionally to prepare Polish-style pickled cucumbers (ogórki kiszone), especially the so-called low-salt cucumbers (ogórki małosolne). Whole stems of Dill (often including the roots) also are cooked with potatoes, especially the potatoes of autumn and winter, so they resemble the flavour of the newer potatoes found in summer. Some kinds of fish, especially trout and salmon, traditionally are baked with the stems and leaves of Dill.

In the Czech Republic, white Dill sauce made of cream (or milk), butter, flour, vinegar, and dill is called koprová omáčka (also koprovka or kopračka) and is served either with boiled eggs and potatoes, or with dumplings and boiled beef. Another Czech dish with dill is a soup called kulajda that contains mushrooms (traditionally wild ones).

In Germany, Dill is popular as a seasoning for fish and many other dishes, chopped as a garnish on potatoes, and as a flavouring in pickles.

In the UK, dill may be used in fish pie.

In Bulgaria Dill is widely used in traditional vegetable salads, and most notably the yogurt-based cold soup Tarator. It is also used in the preparation of sour pickles, cabbage, and other dishes.

In Romania Dill (mărar) is widely used as an ingredient for soups such as borş (pronounced "borsh"), pickles, and other dishes, especially those based on peas, beans, and cabbage. It is popular for dishes based on potatoes and mushrooms and may be found in many summer salads (especially cucumber salad, cabbage salad and lettuce salad). During springtime, it is used in omelets with spring onions. It often complements sauces based on sour cream or yogurt and is mixed with salted cheese and used as a filling. Another popular dish with dill as a main ingredient is Dill sauce, which is served with eggs and fried sausages.

In Hungary, Dill is very widely used. It is popular as a sauce or filling, and mixed with a type of cottage cheese. Dill is also used for pickling and in salads. The Hungarian name for Dill is kapor.

In Serbia, Dill is known as mirodjija and is used as an addition to soups, potato and cucumber salads, and French fries. It features in the Serbian proverb, "бити мирођија у свакој чорби" /biti mirodjija u svakoj čorbi/ (to be a dill in every soup), which corresponds to the English proverb "to have a finger in every pie".

In Greece, Dill is known as άνηθος (anithos). In antiquity it was used as an ingredient in wines that were called "anithites oinos" (wine with anithos-dill). In modern days, Dill is used in salads, soups, sauces, and fish and vegetable dishes.

In Santa Maria, Azores, Dill (endro) is the most important ingredient of the traditional Holy Ghost soup (sopa do Espírito Santo). Dill is found ubiquitously in Santa Maria, yet, is rare in the other Azorean Islands.

In Sweden, Dill is a common spice or herb. The top of fully grown Dill is called krondill (crown dill); this is used when cooking crayfish. The krondill is put into the water after the crayfish is boiled, but still in hot and salt water. Then the entire dish is refrigerated for at least 24 hours before being served (with toasted bread and butter). Krondill also is used for pickles, vodka, not wine, sugar, and krondill. After a month or two of fermentation, the cucumber pickles are ready to eat, for instance, with pork, brown sauce, and potatoes, as a "sweetener". The thinner part of Dill and young plants may be used with boiled fresh potatoes (especially the first potatoes of the year, "new potatoes", which usually are small and have a very thin skin). In salads it is used together with, or instead, of other green herbs, such as Parsley, Chives, and Basil. It often is paired up with chives when used in food. Dill often is used to flavour fish and seafood in Sweden, for example, gravlax and various herring pickles, among them the traditional, sill i Dill (literally "herring in dill"). In contrast to the various fish dishes flavoured with Dill, there is also a traditional Swedish dish called, dillkött, which is a meaty stew flavoured with dill. The dish commonly contains pieces of veal or lamb that are boiled until tender and then served together with a vinegary Dill sauce. Dill seeds may be used in breads or akvavit. A newer, non-traditional use of Dill is to pair it with chives as a flavouring for potato chips. These are called "dillchips" and are quite popular in Sweden.

In India, Dill is known as "Sholpa" in Bengali, shepu (शेपू) in Marathi and Konkani, savaa in Hindi, or soa in Punjabi. In Telugu, it is called Soa-kura (herb greens). It also is called sabbasige soppu (ಸಬ್ಬಸಿಗೆ ಸೊಪ್ಪು) in Kannada. In Tamil it is known as sada kuppi (சதகுப்பி). In Malayalam, it is ചതകുപ്പ (chathakuppa) or ശതകുപ്പ (sathakuppa). In Sanskrit, this herb is called shatapushpa. In Gujarati, it is known as suva (સૂવા). In India, Dill is prepared in the manner of yellow moong dal, as a main-course dish. It is considered to have very good antiflatulent properties, so it is used as mukhwas, or an after-meal digestive. Traditionally, it is given to mothers immediately after childbirth. In the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, a small amount of fresh Dill is cooked along with cut potatoes and fresh fenugreek leaves (Hindi आलू-मेथी-सोया).

In Manipur, Dill, locally known as pakhon, is an essential ingredient of chagem pomba, a traditional Manipuri dish made with fermented soybean and rice.

In Laos and parts of northern Thailand, Dill is known in English as Lao coriander (Lao: ຜັກຊີ or Thai: ผักชีลาว),[11] and served as a side with salad Yum or Papaya salad. In the Lao language, it is called phak see, and in Thai, it is known as phak chee Lao. In Lao cuisine, Lao Coriander is used extensively in traditional Lao dishes such as mok pa (steamed fish in banana leaf) and several coconut milk curries that contain fish or prawns.

In China Dill is called colloquially, huíxiāng (茴香, perfume of Hui people), or more properly shíluó (莳萝). It is a common filling in baozi and xianbing and may be used as vegetarian with rice vermicelli, or combined with either meat or eggs. Vegetarian dill baozi are a common part of a Beijing breakfast. In baozi and xianbing, it often is interchangeable with non-bulbing Fennel and the term 茴香 also may refer to Fennel, similarly to Caraway and Coriander leaf, sharing a name in Chinese as well. Dill also may be stir fried as a potherb, often with egg, in the same manner as Chinese chives. It commonly is used in Taiwan as well. In Northern China, Beijing, Inner-Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, and Xinjiang, dill seeds commonly are called zīrán (孜然), but also kūmíng (枯茗), kūmíngzi (枯茗子), shíluózi (莳萝子), xiǎohuíxiāngzi (小茴香子) and are used with pepper for lamb meat. In the whole of China, yángchuàn (羊串) or yángròu chuàn (羊肉串), lamb brochette, a speciality from Uyghurs, uses cumin and pepper.

In Vietnam, the use of Dill in cooking is regional. It is used mainly in northern Vietnamese cuisine.

In Arab countries, Dill seed, called ain jaradeh (grasshopper's eye), is used as a spice in cold dishes such as fattoush and pickles. In Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, Dill is called shibint and is used mostly in fish dishes.

In Egypt, dillweed is commonly used to flavour cabbage dishes, including mahshi koronb (stuffed cabbage leaves).

In Israel, Dill weed is used in salads and also to flavour omelettes, often alongside Parsley.

Antispasmodic:

Spasms can be quite irritating as well as in severe cases, can also be fatal. Spasms are cases of unwanted as well as abnormal contractions, in both the respiratory tracts, intestines,  muscles, or even nerves. These spasms may lead to non-stop coughs, hiccups, cramps, muscle pulls, convulsions, or even epileptic attacks. In extraordinary instances, a patient might have severe pain within the intestines or even may run out of breath in cases of coughs and hiccups and may also collapse. Such attacks of spasms could be pacified with the aid of Dill essential oil. It features a relaxing effect on nerves, muscles, intestines and also the respiratory system as well as pacifies spasmodic attacks, supplying quick relief.

Carminative:

Dill essential oil can effectively handle gas trouble. It doesn’t only assist to eliminate gas from intestine, however also prevents further gas from forming. Moreover, it provides the gases a secure downward passage simply by relaxing the muscles within the abdominal region.

Digestive:

Dill seeds have been in use like a remedy to help digestion for hundreds of years. This particular digestive property of dill seeds arises from its essential oils. Dill oil encourages digestion by revitalizing the secretion of digestive juices just like gastric juices, acids and bile within the stomach. Its aroma also energizes the salivary glands and therefore helps with the primary digestion of the food within the mouth. Lastly, it energizes the peristaltic movement of the intestines helping the ingested food to safely move through them, therefore assisting digestion and preventing problems like constipation as well as piles.

Disinfectant:

Dill oil is additionally recognized for its anti-bacterial qualities. Added in food products, it safeguards them from getting spoiled from infection by microbes. Whenever consumed, it cures microbial infection within the colon, urinary tract, kidneys, as well as genitals. Finally, whenever utilized outwardly, it protects the skin as well as wounds from infections helping them heal quickly. You can use it in the diluted form for applying within the scalp to safeguard hair from various infections and also lice.

Diuretic:

The diuretic property of this oil assists in treating urinary infections and regulates the excretion of urine without any difficulties.

Emmenagogue:

Since it induces the secretion of certain enzymes and hormones, Dill seed oil is used to regulate the menstrual cycle, increase the quantity of breast milk, and prevent early ovulation by acting as a natural contraceptive. Dill seed oil is also used in perfumery and cosmetic industries.

Galactogogue:

A galactogogue is really a substance or perhaps an agent which boosts the development of milk within the breasts. Additionally, it boosts the quality of the milk. This particular property is very useful for lactating mothers and also the baby’s all around health. Dill oil is usually a well-known Galactogogue. Aside from increasing milk secretion, it may also help babies differently. Babies who’re fed on the mother’s milk frequently have problems with flatulence, indigestion as well as gas. The carminative as well as digestive properties of dill oil are absorbed within the milk and may indirectly assist the baby eliminate such difficulties.

Sedative:

Dill oil has got advantageous sedating and calming effects on the nerves and also the brain, making a person feel comfortable and satisfied. It is important to get rid of anxiety, tension, anger, depression and also high blood pressure. It may also help you to have a very good night’s sleep at the conclusion of the day.

Stomachic:

As being a stomachic means becoming an agent which keeps the stomach healthy, toned as well as functioning properly; dill oil does just that. It keeps the stomach in appropriate shape, manages the secretion of digestive juices as well as bile in it, keeps it protected from infections as well as helps the recovery process of ulcers or wounds, if any, within the stomach.

Sudorific:

Dill oil leads to sweating, therefore developing a sense of lightness. And also this helps you to eliminate excessive water, salt as well as toxic substances through the body, the decline in blood pressure levels, a reduction of swelling and also the protection of the skin’s all around health. Perspiration, except when it’s abnormally heavy, is viewed as an indication of a healthy body.

Vulnerary:

Dill essential oil behaves as a vulnerary by promoting the fast healing of wounds, possibly exterior or even internal, and safeguarding them from infections.

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  • user
    Vembliathu Devassy 06/08/2022 at 23:55
    Exhaustive explanation but good coverage, useful.