Horse Chestnut botanically known as Aesculus hippocastanum is a medium to large deciduous tree seen mostly in mountainous forest areas.. It is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. The tree is named Horse Chestnut because many believe it has horseshoe marks on its branches. It is a native of northern and central parts of Asia, from which it was introduced into England about the middle of the 16th century, then to Northern Greece, North America, Balkan Peninsula, and other parts of Europe. Grown commercially in countries like Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe. It is believed that the ancient Greeks were responsible for introducing Chestnuts to the Mediterranean region 3,000 years ago. First of all, Horse Chestnuts aren’t related to Chestnuts at all; they’re a totally different family of trees and shrubs known as Hippocastanaceae. While 15 recognized species exist, the European Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is most commonly the one you’ll find used in supplemental and herbal medicine. The most common form of Horse Chestnut originated in the Balkans but is now found in all temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. You may hear this referred to by various names, though; for example, Horse Chestnuts native to the U.S. are called "Buckeyes”.
The first recorded Horse Chestnut tree was mentioned in a 1557 letter, but it wasn’t widely known or appreciated until the 1800s. These trees don’t live an extremely long life and do not have wood useful for building, which may be one reason they were often under-appreciated. Conker trees, as they’re also known, are particularly popular in Great Britain. Conkers is a common fall game in which you thread yarn through horse chestnuts and take turns hitting your opponent’s conker. Unfortunately, many of the horse chestnut trees in Britain are in danger of extinction from a combination of leaf-miner moth infestation and disease. Some sources say that the two million trees currently in Britain might be gone by 2031. The tree is also well-suited to city growth and is one of the trees often used to line urban streets, including many in Paris, France. Although the origin of the name Horse Chestnut is usually based on their use with horses, another potential contributing factor is the fact that the leaf stalk leaves a “scar” on the tree after falling that resembles an inverted horseshoe with nail holes.
Horse Chestnut tree is a medium to large deciduous tree that can reach up to a height of 30 m (98 ft.) by 15 m (49 ft). They will thrive best in a sunny spot in soil that is humus rich and fertile, moist and yet free-draining. They will not do very well if their roots become waterlogged or if the soil fertility is poor. Neither will horse chestnuts survive very dry conditions. The trunk of the tree is very erect and columnar, and grows very rapidly to a great height, with widely spreading branches. The plant has smooth, grayish-green or grayish-brown bark. The wood, being soft and spongy, is of very little use for timber. It is often used for packing-cases.
Because of the glycosides and saponins found in Horse Chestnuts, they aren’t fit for humans to eat. However, the non-toxic parts of this tree and plant are what we use as a dietary supplement, and what was tested in the studies. Chestnuts contain high amounts of dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, good fats, and antioxidant compounds and can be used to create a balanced, healthy diet. Besides the traditional salads, stuffings, and soups, chestnuts pair well with pretty much all of your favorite fall and winter flavors, including apples, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, turkey, pork, Sage, Thyme, and mushroom. However, be careful not to confuse the Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) with the Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra) or the California buckeye ( Aesculus californica), as these are very different plants. In addition, keep in mind that the popular edible “Sweet Chestnut” (Castanea sativa and other Castanea), are in the Fagaceae (beech) family and produce edible nuts. The Sweet Chestnut is what families roast during traditional Christmas celebrations. Unlike the Sweet Chestnut, Horse Chestnuts and Buckeyes (Aesculus) are in the Sapindaceae (soapberry) family and produce poisonous nuts that should never be consumed raw. Stay on the safe side and only buy Horse Chestnut in its safe, processed form.
The Horse Chestnut has been used for centuries and has been widely used in traditional medicine in Europe since the 16th century. Horse Chestnut seed with 20% aescin, which is a chemical compound that has anti-inflammatory effects, is especially beneficial to those suffering from varicose veins. There is strong scientific evidence for its role in helping the body heal in cases of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Because of the effectiveness of aescin, Horse Chestnut is used to help issues with varicose veins and other vein issues, such as chronic venous insufficiency, which occurs when the venous walls or valves are damaged thus causing blood to collect in the leg veins. A tea made from Horse Chestnut is a staple of Turkish folk medicine and used to relieve an upset stomach and pass kidney stones; they also use the seeds to alleviate hemorrhoid symptoms. Traditionally, the standardized extracts from the seeds of the Horse Chestnut tree have been used medicinally for the treatment of hemorrhoids, circulatory health, rheumatism, bladder and gastrointestinal disorders, fever, and leg cramps. Other contemporary but untested uses of Horse Chestnut include enlarged prostate, menstrual pain and eczema. While many of these folk uses remain unproven, there are some little-known, but major, researched benefits of Horse Chestnut for health. These include a powerful antioxidant load, a potential male fertility aid, and preliminary evidence that Horse Chestnut extract may be able to kill some types of cancer cells. All of these health benefits make them a great addition to the daily diet.
In addition, Horse Chestnut is rich in vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin K and fatty acids, bringing several health benefits, such as boosting the immune system or maintaining skin health. However, this nut needs to be consumed with some care, since in large quantities it can cause irritation in the digestive tract and the skin. Horse Chestnut also has antioxidant, anti-edematogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hemorroidal, vasoconstrictor, venotonic, vasoprotective, and capillary permeability reducing properties, which can have several health benefits, the main ones being. In a 100g, Chestnuts have 131 calories. The total fat present in them is 1.4g out of which there is 0.3g of saturated fat, 0.5g of polyunsaturated fats (PUSA), and 05g of monounsaturated fats (MUSA). It has 0mg of cholesterol. It contains 27mg of sodium and 715mg of potassium. The total carbohydrate content of 100g of chestnuts is 28g. It also has a total of 2g of proteins, and 4% of the recommended daily intake of calcium, 44% of vitamin C, 9% of iron, 10% of vitamin B-6, and 13% of magnesium. It has 0% of vitamin A, B-12, and D. Aescin is the primary phytochemical present in horse chestnut seed extract. Two triterpene saponins α and β are blended and form aescin. Other phytochemicals are quercetin and kaempferol two bioflavonoids, aesculin, coumarins fraxin, and an antioxidant like proanthocyanidin A2.
Vein health is important, particularly in your legs. If you feel sensations of aching, burning, or itching around the vein, as well as having tender or sore legs, then Horse Chestnut is likely a great option to get your legs feeling good again. Horse Chestnut enhances the circulatory function and is a direct source of nourishment for veins and valves. Horse Chestnut is an evergreen shrub that is found throughout Europe and North Africa. For 2,000 years, it’s been known for its beneficial effects on the circulatory system, and today, is used in a wide range of homeopathic treatments to support the health of people living with varicose veins (enlarged, twisted veins, usually found in your legs and feet, that appear pink or blue), it’s used to help with hemorrhoids (swollen veins in the lowest part of your rectum and anus) and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (when the veins of the lower leg are unable to send blood back toward the heart, e.g. pain, heaviness, leg cramps, leg edema, varicose veins, peripheral vascular disease, itching, and swelling), as well providing anti-inflammatory benefits.
Horse Chestnut assists with the structural support of veins and helps to increase blood flow. The supplement improves vein health which helps with varicose and spider veins. These are weakened veins and valves in the body that cause unsightly markings under your skin, as well as discomfort or pain. This ingredient increases the pressure in the veins so that blood can be pumped more efficiently upward, while also closing gaps in the vein that are contributing to the pooling of blood. Chromium is a mineral that is needed by humans in small amounts. It’s most effective in the reduction of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which has a ripple effect on the vascular system. High cholesterol and triglycerides can play havoc on veins, therefore, ensuring levels are in a normal range can improve overall vein health. If this damage is widespread, the feet and/or ankles may become swollen as gravity wins the battle and drags fluid downwards. As fluid is pulled downwards your legs will start to feel heavy, tired and achy. To help your veins, keep your legs up while sitting down and try to avoid standing for long stretches of time. Use a couple of pillows under your feet at night to make gravity work for your veins rather than against them. Working your muscles stimulates blood flow back up the legs so try to move about and take breaks from prolonged periods of sitting.
Horse Chestnut contains aescin. Studies have found that it may be aescin that is responsible for taking inflammation out of the veins, stopping them itching and looking swollen. Aescin has also been shown to help protect and repair the walls of the blood vessels, encouraging toning and healing to improve blood flow back up the leg.
According to a 1996 study in The Lancet, consuming 50 milligrams of aescin (one of the active ingredients in Horse Chestnut) twice per day for 12 weeks worked as well as using compression stocks.
Weak veins in the legs cause the problems I’ve already discussed, but weak veins internally can cause haemorrhoids (piles) which can make toilet trips very uncomfortable. If you suffer with piles, ensure you consume plenty of water and fibre. This helps keep stools soft and easy to pass, as constipation is nobody's friend. Veins age as we age, so if you have a weakness in this area, it can be a good idea to look after them, to preserve their long-term health. With healthier veins, comes healthier circulation and healthier looking legs for the summer months.
Several studies are examining the possible effect of horse chestnut seed extract supplements on people suffering from chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Some reports suggest that it may help reduce edema, ankle and calf circumference, and symptoms related to chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins.
According to research, “17 trials conducted on Horse Chestnut extract for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency noted significant reductions in leg pain, edema, leg volume”, it was discovered that standard oral doses of a horse chestnut seed extract containing 50 mg aescin twice daily for 12 weeks appears to be effective in reducing symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency.
Research suggests that escin has anti-inflammatory properties and protects the cells lining the veins. This may reduce the leakage of blood plasma and prevent swelling. Additionally, escin may improve the tone of veins and their ability to contract effectively. Therefore, Horse Chestnut’s herbal properties suggest it is a potential treatment for conditions that involve inflammation or swelling in the veins.
Another study reported that Horse Chestnut seed extracts standardized for escin are as effective as compression stockings.
In fact, studies have shown that the extract of the horse chestnut offers the same effect to compression socks while it also aids in contracting arteries and veins. In The Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, European people often use the extract of the Horse Chestnut seeds to cure chronic venous insufficiency (CVI).
According to a research carried by The University of Milano in Italy, aescin in this extract works as effectively as a compression therapy for treating chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, and edema. This is because, at the lowest level, the extract of the Horse Chestnut seeds is thought to prevent the breakdown of proteins in the capillary walls.
It is estimated that 25% of adults have varicose veins and similar circulatory issues, caused when blood doesn’t flow properly. Potential risk factors include obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, pregnancy, and old age. Varicose veins may cause painful discomfort or heaviness in the legs, as well as unattractive, visible gnarled veins that can be seen near the outer layer of the skin. Treatment may include lifestyle changes to improve circulation, such as losing weight, exercise, and using compression stockings. In addition, some people use dietary supplements such as those formulated with horse chestnut seed extract to help support healthy veins.
Investigations in animal models suggest that Horse Chestnut seed extract, in particular, may have anti oedematous, venotonic, and anti-inflammatory properties. An anti oedematous is a substance that prevents or alleviates edema (fluid retention). A venotonic is a substance that improves the tone of a vein by increasing the flexibility of elastic fibers in the vein wall. An anti-inflammatory helps prevent the body from releasing chemicals that increase the blood flow to an area of injury or infection, usually visible by redness and warmth, thereby preventing the body from damaging its own tissues.
A study by Guillaume & Padioleau, 1994, found that applying Horse Chestnut extract led to an increase in pressure of flow through both normal and constricted veins. Another benefit of creams and gels containing Horse Chestnut extract is that they improve circulation, which strengthens the connective tissue around the capillary system.
Horse Chestnut can be taken as a herbal medicine or it can be used topically on the affected area. The gel is wonderful for people who are already on lots of medication and are trying to avoid adding tablets to their regime.
Veins that are either weak or under chronic stress are more likely to fail and thus more likely to allow leakage of fluid from the vessels into the tissue space leading to swelling. Fluid accumulation is more common in the legs and far more likely in individuals who stand for extended periods of time. Prolonged standing and obesity can increase pressure within leg veins causing weak veins to swell, leak and deteriorate into varicose veins. Aescin performs an antioxidant function and has a general vaso-protective role by protecting collagen and elastin (the two chief proteins that form the structure of veins). By protecting these key vessel proteins, veins and capillaries stay strong and maintain their structural integrity when exposed to stress.
Take 10 tbsp distilled witch Hazel and then add 1 tbsp Horse Chestnut tincture to this. Next, mix them together to form a mixture. Now, you can apply the mixture to your spider veins. You can mix equal part of the Horse Chestnut extract and grape seed oil and then gently apply it to the affected areas before bedtime. Now, leave it overnight. Another option, you may consume 250 milligrams of the extract of the Horse Chestnut seeds daily until your problem is treated.
Hemorrhoids are a widespread health problem among humans, and it causes the veins to swell around the anus and rectum area. Hemorrhoids are veins in your lower rectum and anus that have swollen due to a buildup of pressure, generally caused by constipation or other medical factors. Because it supports healthy circulation and reduces inflammation, Horse Chestnut could help relieve symptoms of existing hemorrhoids and prevent them from developing in the future. Its symptoms are pain, itching, and rectal bleeding; you also feel uncomfortable. However, these symptoms can be relieved with the help of Horse Chestnut seed extract by reducing the inflammation and swelling in the affected veins and that is mainly due to the anti-inflammatory properties of the same. The congestion of internal and external veins in the anal canal leads to hemorrhoids. Straining defecation, chronic constipation or diarrhea, pregnancy, anal intercourse, and aging. Due to its beneficial action on veins, some evidence suggests that horse chestnut may be helpful for hemorrhoids. However, there is little clinical research available to support this.
Clinical studies have shown that Horse Chestnut extract improves micro circulation, capillary flow, and vascular tone. This suggests that by improving circulation, horse chestnut could reduce the risk of developing hemorrhoids. Still, research in this area is limited and more studies are needed to confirm the potential benefits of horse chestnut extract for treating hemorrhoids. Are you looking to treat your hemorrhoid problems? We’ve got the perfect solution for you. Horse Chestnut seed extract is also used to treat hemorrhoids.
One small study showed that Horse Chestnut extract providing 120 mg of Horse Chestnut seed extract per day significantly improved symptoms of pain, itching, burning, and swelling.
A clinical trial report published in France stated that 40 mg aescin tablet thrice a day for two months is effective to improve acute hemorrhoids. The treatment helps to decrease bleeding after 6 days of the treatment period.
According to a review in 2001, taking Horse Chestnut supplements may prevent painful complications of hemorrhoids. You just need to take Horse Chestnut capsules or tea for this treatment.
Venous insufficiency is a circulatory issue that results in poor blood flow to the extremities, the legs in particular. Doctors advise venous insufficiency patients to get compression socks that help increase the blood flow to the legs and encourage robust circulation. The symptoms of venous insufficiency include: itchiness in the legs, edema or swelling, leg cramps, varicose veins, weakness in the legs and leg ulcers.
Aescin, a compound found in Horse Chestnut seed extract, has anti-inflammatory and other properties that can improve blood circulation. This extract can prove beneficial for patients suffering from venous insufficiency. Studies show that patients who took a twice-a-day dose of 300 mg of Horse Chestnut extract, which contains about 50 mg of aescin, for 8 weeks, saw a reduction in their symptoms. The swelling was reduced, as was the itchiness and pain.
One study showed that this extract might be as effective as compression therapy, though the long-term effects of the supplement still require further investigation.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI):
Chronic Venous Insufficiency, or CVI, is also known as post-thrombotic syndrome or phlebitis. This condition is characterized by non-functioning valves in your veins (commonly in the legs and sometimes arms), which causes blood to pool in the limbs and an increase in internal pressure within the veins. CVI is actually a very common affliction, affecting up to as many as 40% of people in the U.S. It’s more common for women, particularly after multiple pregnancies, and in middle-aged and older adults. Varicose veins and blood clots (deep vein thrombosis) are risk factors for developing CVI. Symptoms can include edema, itchy legs, cramps, leg ulcers, and weakness in legs, swelling, pain, and skin discoloration. If a doctor does not treat CVI, it can lead to venous ulcers or deep vein thrombosis.
CVI is a condition in which ill-functioning valves prevent blood from efficiently circulating away from the extremities. There are different causes of CVI but the most common include deep vein thrombosis and obesity. CVI is often identifiable by itchiness, increased leg pigmentation, swelling, varicose veins, and even ulcers. The most common treatment is to wear compression socks. Made of a tight elastic, compression socks do exactly as their name implies, they compress the veins and arteries which decreases the size of distended veins. This increases pressure on the arteries and forces more blood to circulate. All this allows less blood to pool in the feet and legs.
Conventional medical treatment of chronic venous insufficiency typically consists of compression treatment, which many patients don’t like due to the discomfort involved. Two Cochrane reviews have been conducted to examine the effectiveness of Horse Chestnut on CVI and found that a significant number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, heralded as the “gold standard” of scientific research) have suggested Horse Chestnut extract to be effective and safe for short-term treatment of CVI, while the reviewers caution that larger and more definitive trials must be conducted. The compound aescin in Horse Chestnut has multiple medicinal properties that could make it useful for treating CVI. For example, it may increase blood flow in your veins, possibly improving symptoms. Horse chestnut seed extract is equally effective as compression stocking. This herbal therapy triggers the blood circulation above the leg. The clinical trial result also supported that Horse chestnut seed extract reduces the liquid volume in the leg compartment and edema is significantly reduced. It also provides symptomatic relief like leg pain, itching, fatigue, and tenseness compared to placebo. A human trial conducted in the United States also reported the efficacy of Horse chestnut seed extract is similar to compression therapy.
Research suggests that Horse Chestnut could treat chronic venous insufficiency, a circulatory condition of the legs and feet. When blood travels through the body, it has to fight against gravity to get back to the heart. This fight is hardest in the legs and feet, but blood vessels are equipped to regulate this movement through a series of valves that block the blood from falling back down and away from their path of oxygenation. But when these valves weaken due to age or general poor health, blood flows back down into the veins, resulting in red splotches or bulges in the veins that appear through the skin. A common therapy for this condition is wearing compression socks, which help to push blood back up and improve circulation. If the condition worsens, doctors may recommend surgery. Horse Chestnut seed extract is another potential treatment. Studies suggest it contracts major veins in the legs, promoting healthy circulation. It also works to significantly improve the pressure of blood flow for up to eight days. In these trials, researchers suggest that Horse Chestnut extract could be an effective and safe short-term treatment for CVI. One study actually found it as effective as compression stockings.
In a review of 19 studies, 9 studies found that daily doses of 600 mg of Horse Chestnut extract containing 50 mg of aescin taken for up to 8 weeks reduced symptoms of CVI, including leg pain, swelling, and itchy legs.
Another study noted that Horse Chestnut extract was as effective as compression therapy at reducing swelling and leg volume. These studies show that Horse Chestnut extract may be effective for treating CVI short term, but more research is needed to determine its long-term effects.
The Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics at Germany’s University of Exeter reviewed available information and found that while traditional CVI treatment consists of compression therapy, compression therapy can be painful and susceptible to compliance issues. In these instances, oral medications may provide the most promising outlook and the positivity of that scenario increases when the medications are from natural, plant sources like Horse Chestnut. In their review, researchers were quick to note that the symptoms of CVI improved when an extract of horse chestnut was used.
Another German study involved 22 patients with CVI who were given capsules with either an aescin extract or a placebo. Those who took the asescin extract noted a “compression like” effect in the form of decreased intravascular volume; supporting the argument for Horse Chestnut’s benefit for venous problems in the legs.
The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center evaluated various approaches to dealing with vein and circulation problems. Compression therapy, diuretics, and topical creams have been shown to reduce pain and swelling but their long term application and benefit is questionable. Obviously, the best long term solution is to address potential causes at the root, especially if obesity or type 2 diabetes are a factor. Absent that, researchers noted that herbal supplements like Horse Chestnut may have much to offer for improving symptoms of CVI.
A 2015 review article indicates that Horse Chestnut seed extract could provide a safe and tolerable treatment option for CVI. Similarly, The European Medicines Agency (EMA) highlights that the extract may relieve symptoms of discomfort and heaviness of the legs associated with CVI.
Vein problems occur mainly in the legs. The symptoms are itching or burning sensation close to the vein, or pain in the limbs. If this is the case with you, then horse chestnut extract will relieve your hurting legs. It improves the blood circulation and general condition of veins and valves. Varicose veins and purple thread veins can make us feel uncomfortable, both physically and mentally. Some people are concerned that their varicose veins are unsightly and this causes them to avoid showing off their legs in summer. In other cases, the veins are not just visible, but they are painful, causing itching, swelling and a heavy, ache in the legs. Left untreated they can lead to complications like eczema, sore, discoloured skin and even ulcers.
Varicose veins are a sign that the blood vessels have weakened. Gravity is a powerful force to contend with, so our veins must remain strong in order to work against it, channelling blood back towards the heart. Veins are filled with small valves that open and close, sending blood upwards section by section. If these valves become weak, blood leaks from one section and gathers in the section below, causing this part of the vein to swell and enlarge until it is visible through the skin.
Varicose veins are swollen, bulging veins that typically occur in the legs and can be caused by chronic venous insufficiency. This is the second stage of chronic venous insufficiency. Horse Chestnut seed extract may improve venous tone by improving blood flow in your legs. Additionally, it may help decrease leg swelling and pain associated with varicose veins. Compression therapy is considered to be one of the effective treatments that can help increase blood flow to the legs.
As per a study, Horse Chestnut extract was also equally effective as compression therapy at reducing swelling and leg volume. however, there is still more research needed to determine the long-term effects.
A meta-analysis of five clinical trial results reported that combination therapy of oral and topical administration of Horse Chestnut seed extract containing aescin is effective to reduce blue discoloration of the skin, pain, heaviness in the leg, edema.
In an 8-week study, 58% of participants who took Horse Chestnut seed extract tablets containing 20 mg of aescin 3 times daily and applied 2% aescin gel topically twice daily had reduced varicose vein symptoms like leg pain, swelling, heaviness, and discoloration.
According to Cochrane Collaboration, using the extract of the Horse Chestnut in a short term may be considered an effective treatment for varicose veins. All you need to do for this treatment is to take Horse Chestnut seeds or purchase its gel in the market.
These types of veins are swollen by the CVI, and they typically occur in legs. Apart from improving the blood flow to your veins it also helps in decreasing the swelling and pain associated with that. It comes in capsule form, and 3 times a day will reduce the problem significantly.
Venous Stasis Ulcers:
Untreated chronic venous insufficiency leads to Venous stasis ulcer formation in the lower leg.
A clinical trial conducted in Southern Australia has reported 12 weeks of treatment with Horse Chestnut seed extract significantly reduces the frequency of requirement of the dressing changes compared with placebo.
Tired And Heavy Legs:
Horse Chestnut is found to improve blood circulation and elasticity of blood vessels and thus helps in giving relief from leg cramping and help repair vein walls, both of which contribute to restless legs.
To treat tired and heavy legs, simply massage your legs with a little Horse Chestnut oil and then use a blanket to wrap your legs for 15 to 20 minutes. In addition, you may also mix Horse Chestnut oil with some drops of grapeseed extract to get faster relief from this issue.
Inflammation can cause excess fluid buildup in your tissues, which can lead to fluid retention and swelling. Aescin is a component in Horse Chestnut extract with anti-inflammatory properties. It has been found to reduce inflammation related to injury, venous insufficiency, and swelling. A typical ointment containing aescin can also be applied directly to reduce inflammation and swelling after trauma, sports injuries and surgery. Horse Chestnut is an astringent, anti-inflammatory herb that helps to tone the vein walls which, when slack or distended, may become varicose, hemorrhoidal or otherwise problematic. The plant also decreases fluid retention by increasing the permeability of the capillaries and allowing the re-absorption of excess fluid back into the circulatory system.
A review of 17 studies observed that applying a topical ointment containing aescin could reduce inflammation and swelling after trauma, surgery, sports injuries, and and swelling in the legs and feet related to CVI.
A 2021 animal study indicates that escin present in a type of Horse Chestnut originating from Uzbekistan may possess anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. The researchers suggest that the active ingredients in Horse Chestnut may have potential uses as pharmaceutical drugs to treat diabetes and inflammation. Furthermore, they note that these compounds might potentially treat thromboembolism, viruses, and even cancer.
Chestnuts are also known for improving cardiovascular health. The body requires good fats in order to balance the cholesterol and chestnuts is filled with them. They reduce any inflammation in the body which reduces any risk of strokes, heart attacks, blood clots, arthrosclerosis and coronary disease. People with a history of heart disease in the family can benefit by eating a handful of these delicious nuts every day. Being a source of polyphenols like gallic and ellagic acid, chestnuts may help protect the heart from oxidative stress. Chestnuts are rich in vitamin B6, potassium, and dietary fiber, which is important for regulating blood pressure.
One study suggested that individuals who consumed 4,069 mg of potassium per day, had a 49% lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease, compared with those who consumed less potassium approximately 1,000 mg per day.
High Blood Pressure:
Chestnuts contain potassium and this is one of the most important minerals when it comes to lowering blood pressure. Potassium acts as a vasodilator, which helps in increasing the general blood flow, therefore decreasing the overall pressure. Potassium also controls the movement of water in the body. Chestnuts have one of the highest amounts of potassium per cup among nuts. Per cup, chestnuts contain 847 milligrams or 25% of the daily recommendation for potassium. Also, chestnuts contain very little sodium with only 2.9 milligrams per cup. This combination with folate also contributes to the reduction of hypertension and relaxes blood vessels, while maintaining proper blood flow.
When it comes to supporting healthy blood circulation throughout the body, research suggests that Horse Chestnut seed extract supplementation may have a positive effect on not only the health of the veins in the arms and legs, but also blood circulation through the ears, skin, heart, and lower bowels. In addition, Horse Chestnut helps to reduce the fragility and permeability of vessels and is an excellent vasoconstrictor, which allows activating blood circulation, preventing venous accidents.
This is believed to be attributed to the ability of Horse Chestnut to naturally thin the blood and support circulation. The improved viscosity of the blood may help prevent possible clotting and blocking of veins, which has been known to be a major cause of stroke or heart problems.
In studies on rats, aescin also appears to help enhance the effects of corticosteroids, reducing areas of inflammation.
Chest Pain (Angina):
Seeds are decongestant, expectorant and tonic. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia and hemorrhoids. A compound of the powdered roots is analgesic and has been used to treat chest pains. Extracts of the seeds are the source of a saponin known as aescin, which has been shown to promote normal tone in the walls of the veins, thus improving circulation through the veins and promoting the return of blood to the heart.
Horse Chestnut reduces the risk of atherosclerosis because it contains monounsaturated fat, known as good fat, which helps increase good cholesterol, HDL, which promotes regulation of LDL levels, popularly known as bad cholesterol, and triglycerides. In this way, the Horse Chestnut can prevent the formation of fatty plaques inside the vessels, favoring blood circulation and reducing the risk of disease.
Red Blood Cell Levels:
Red blood cells, also known as RBCs, are an extremely important type of cell in the blood as they carry oxygen from the lungs to different parts of the body. Chestnuts contain copper which facilitates the metabolism of iron into the blood stream and the creation of red blood cells. Without an optimal number of RBCs, the organs start to deteriorate due to the lack of fresh oxygen. Moreover, copper is an important nutrient for the body as without it, one can be at risk for anemia, osteoporosis, and irregular heartbeat.
One of other main health benefits of Horse Chestnut is its ability to fight cancer. This herb is beneficial in killing cancer cells and reducing tumors in some certain cases. However, more studies are needed to ensure the usefulness and security of this method. You may take Horse Chestnut capsules or tea for fighting cancer.
When cancer research is conducted on a particular substance, scientists begin by observing the effect of that substance on specific types of cancer cells in a lab. If the substance has a significant impact in causing the death of those cancer cells, future research may be warranted to see if it is a potential cancer treatment. As per the studies, aescin helps to reduce tumor cell growth in certain cancers including leukemia, liver cancer, and multiple myeloma. aescin has also been observed to cause cell death in cancerous cells like lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. But it is to be noticed that all these studies focused on the use of aescin. There is still no clear evidence if horse chestnut seed extract would have the same effects.
Test-tube studies also indicate that aescin has anticancer effects. These studies found that aescin could significantly reduce tumor cell growth in certain cancers like liver cancer, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. In addition, test-tube studies observed that aescin can cause cell death in cancerous cells like pancreatic cancer and lung cancer.
However, these studies used concentrated amounts of aescin, and it’s unclear whether the amount found in Horse Chestnut seed extract would have the same effects. More human studies in this area are needed before firm conclusions can be made.
In one study, scientists noticed Horse Chestnut increased death of leukemia, breast cancer, and cervical cancer cells. One specific cancer cells were Jurkat cells, associated with a type of cancer known as acute T-cell leukemia, had a cell death rate of nearly 94% after treatment. While more research must be conducted, preliminary results suggest horse chestnut could be a promising tool in the fight against cancer.
A 2022 laboratory study indicates that Horse Chestnut extract might help wound healing or help treat tumors in skin cancer. However, as these are animal or laboratory studies, scientists need to conduct more human research to confirm these results.
In 2011, a study was conducted using rats to find the efficacy of using Horse Chestnut extract and flaxseed oil to improve the effect of probiotics. Both of these natural substances made prebiotics more effective. Scientists conducting the study point out that prebiotics are useful agents to help prevent and treat colon cancer.
Extract of the Horse Chestnut is famous for its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, it is widely used to treat arthritic and rheumatic aches, sprains, and pains. In European folk medicine, carrying the fruit in a pocket was believed to prevent or cure arthritis. In fact, a lot of massage products used by athletes to treat joint or muscular pain after extraneous workouts consists of Horse Chestnut.
To treat rheumatoid arthritis, mix 1 tbsp. of the Horse Chestnut oil in ½ tbsp. of Olive oil and apply or massage this oil mixture on the affected areas 2 times daily.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
The aescin, a compound found in Horse Chestnut is effective in treating the inflamed nerves around the wrist and stimulating the blood circulation. You may apply horse chestnut topically or take it orally in the tincture or tablet forms.
Horse Chestnut can be used to reduce fluid retention that is edema particularly the one that is caused due to trauma or sports injury.
Post Operative Edema:
Postoperative edema is very common after surgical intervention of the limbs. Immediately after the surgery, the skin temperature at the site of surgery is quite high, which indicates pain, swelling and obstruct blood circulation.
Two research results finding showed that intravenous administration of Horse Chestnut seed extract can reduce the skin temperature at the site of surgical intervention. An oral dose of aescin in combination therapy with parenteral administration accelerates the healing.
Kidneys can be damaged by diabetic complications.
In a study in diabetic rats with kidney damage, Horse Chestnut seed extract helped in reducing inflammation ad markers of kidney damage.
One of the least known facts about diabetes is that it can be successfully prevented with the help of dietary fibers. They can also regulate and manage diabetes in patients. Food products that have a lot of dietary fiber are considered low glycemic foods because they make the sugar levels in the blood rise more slowly. This is a benefit that is extremely important to diabetics as their treatments are all about controlling their sugar. Moreover, they prevent random drops in the sugar levels as well. This is important for people who may have a disposition towards diabetes as well as chestnuts can help preventing the disease from developing in the first place. Because it contains monounsaturated fat, known as good fat, horse chestnuts help keep blood sugar levels stable, preventing an increase in sugar levels that can lead to type 2 diabetes. The fiber found in Horse Chestnuts also helps to lower blood sugar levels and therefore also prevents type 2 diabetes.
Most nuts are low in carbohydrates and high in fats. Chestnuts, however, have a high amount of carbohydrates, containing 76 grams of carbs and only 3 grams of fat. Carbohydrates are important for short-term and long-term energy needs and help with nervous system function since the brain loves glucose.
Manganese is essential for many enzymes that control blood sugar, energy metabolism, and thyroid function. One cup of chestnuts possesses a whopping 84% of the recommended value of manganese. Deficiencies in manganese can be associated with impaired fertility, growth retardation, congenital disabilities, and general weakness.
Although chestnuts provide more carbohydrates than other nuts, the additional fibre they contain helps regulate its release. The antioxidants chestnuts contain, like gallic and ellagic acid, appear to improve our cells' response to insulin, which makes overall blood sugar control more effective.
Dietary fiber is the best thing to put into your body if you suffer from digestive issues. Fibers add a lot of bulk to the digested food, which helps it move down the digestive track much faster. It helps with peristalsis, the contracting and releasing of intestinal muscles to move food along, which also helps with better bowel movements. Dietary fiber also plays a role in improving the way the body absorbs nutrients, which is better on the whole. Dietary fiber can also help reduce diarrhea. A one-cup serving of Chestnuts contains 7 grams of dietary fiber. The soluble fiber, found in Chestnuts, can help reduce cholesterol and decrease blood sugar levels. The daily recommended dietary fiber intake for men and women are 38 grams and 25 grams, respectively.
Horse Chestnut as a treatment in gut conditions has shown promising results due being a rich saponin and flavonoid source and can fight inflammation. Also, it readily traps and eliminates free radicals and other unwanted molecules and microbes. Interestingly, Horse Chestnut also works in the gut in specific ways to reduce bloating and abdominal discomfort and can halt the activity of methyl-coenzyme reductase (MCR). MCR is an enzyme that’s involved in the creation and oxidation of methane. When you have too much methane in your GI tract it can lead to serious discomfort and bloating. Horse Chestnut stops this enzyme from creating more methane. This is one way horse chestnut reduces methane build up, but there’s more. When horse chestnut halts MCR activity, that action then inhibits M. smithii, a methane producing archaebacteria from reducing carbon dioxide to methane. Meaning, it reduces methane production in the GI tract in two different ways. With gut conditions on the rise, the search for novel and effective solutions and treatments are needed. Horse chestnut is one of these promising substances.
A lot of us know that good probiotic foods can aid in digestion and gut health, but did you know that by pairing those with prebiotics, you’ll gain even more digestive benefits? Prebiotics are a type of non-digestible fiber compound that are fermented by the gut microflora in the colon. Antioxidants travel the body and “scavenge” free radicals that cause cellular damage, which may lead to disease and illness. Horse chestnut contains two very powerful antioxidants: quercetin and kaempferol glycosides. Both fight free radical damage, benefitting overall health. Horse Chestnut extract may also benefit your digestive health by acting as a prebiotic. Take note, though: prebiotics are different than probiotics. Probiotics are foods that aid in digestion and overall gut health by delivering “good” bacteria into your gastrointestinal tract. Prebiotics are non-digestible fiber compounds that are fermented and “eaten” by the microflora in your colon. When you take in prebiotics, you’re feeding the good bacteria your body needs for healthy digestion.
Horse Chestnut, being an oilseed, is a good food to help control and weight loss, since it is rich in fiber that gives a greater feeling of satiety and decrease hunger. However, for this fruit to be effective in losing weight, it is important that it is part of healthy eating and regular exercise. They are also lower in fat and calories. Furthermore, promising animal studies suggest the addition of chestnut to the diet may reduce the accumulation of belly fat.
Chestnuts contain a number of protective antioxidants, including vitamin C and the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, plus various plant compounds including polyphenols such as gallic acid and tannins. These nutrients and plant compounds protect cells from damage and may help protect against chronic disease. Extract of Horse Chestnut contains some incredible antioxidants, which can help your body to fight free radical damage and more effectively fight disease. Too many free radicals can lead to inflammation and cellular damage. Studies have discovered both quercetin and kaempferol glycosides in horse chestnut, two antioxidants praised for their intense disease-fighting capabilities. Horse Chestnut seed extract is rich in flavonoid compounds, including quercetin and kaempferol, which have potent antioxidant properties. Although both aescin and Horse Chestnut seed extract have antioxidant properties the effect of horse chestnut seed extract is greater than that of aescin alone.
An animal study also found that Horse Chestnut might help protect the body’s loss of glutathione, another antioxidant, after liver injury.
A test-tube study found that both aescin and Horse Chestnut seed extract have antioxidant properties, but that the Horse Chestnut seed extract had greater effects than aescin alone. This may be due to the synergistic effects of the components in the extract.
Chestnuts contain high amounts of vitamic C, as well as high amounts of antioxidants, which makes them a great food product to have to boost your immune system. Vitamin C plays a vital role in the body as it helps to stimulate the production of White Blood Cells (WBCs), which are an essential part of the immune system as they fight foreign disease-causing agents. It also has the properties of antioxidants which hunt down free radicals in the system and then help eradicate them. This allows the immune system to focus on more important things, like pathogens. Increases the bone mineral density. As the body ages, many systems are affected. One of these is the skeletal structure and a common problem amongst ageing people is osteoporosis, which occurs due to the loss of bone mass and manifests itself in the form of weakened bones and aching joints. One of the ways to prevent this is to include chestnut in your diet. Chestnuts contain magnesium which plays a big role in increasing the bone mineral density, thereby keeping the bones healthy. Chestnuts also have large amounts of copper, which plays a huge role in the way the body absorbs iron, thus contributing to overall bone health and strength.
No matter how careful you think you are, your body is always filled with free radicals. This is not because of something you are doing or not doing. It is simply so because free radicals happen to be a byproduct of cellular respiration. They are considered slightly dangerous as they can make your healthy cells mutate and cause cancer. They can also cause a number of chronic illnesses and oxidative stress. The antioxidants in chestnuts help eliminate these free radicals, saving you from a host of problems.
Scurvy is a disease that occurs when there is a deficiency of vitamin C in the body and can manifest itself in a range of symptoms such as fatigue, sore arms and legs, gum disease, and more extreme symptoms as the disease progresses such as insufficient wound healing, changes in the personality and even death if not treated. The best way to prevent scurvy is to ensure that your diet has sufficient amounts of vitamin C in it. Chestnuts are highly rich in Vitamin C and can therefore help prevent scurvy from developing.
Chestnuts contain 62% of the vitamin C daily requirements per cup. Vitamin C is a powerful, natural, water-soluble antioxidant that helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and eliminates cancer-causing free radicals in the body. In a cell study, it was found that caffeic acid in Horse Chestnut killed bacteria.
Inner Ear Perfusion:
Inner ear perfusion disorder occurs due to insufficient blood circulation in the inner ear. the untreated condition can cause loss of hearing. Researchers found that the combination of aescin, the bioactive phytochemical of horse chestnut and troxerutin can improve the condition. Aescin has anti-inflammatory and venotonic properties; whereas, troxerutin has vasoprotective antioxidant properties. These therapeutic benefits combinely improve the hearing ability of the affected patients.
Chestnuts have a direct impact on the brain and cognitive function. As they contain high amounts of different types of vitamin B, such as folate, thiamine, riboflavin, they can help with better focus and stronger memory. These vitamins are linked with brain development and its function and Chestnuts are, therefore, a great addition to the diet of your child. Folate has been known to reduce the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline. Furthermore, Chestnuts also contain potassium. Folate is also essential for fetal brain development. It helps prevent neural tube defects. Potassium is known for increasing the flow of blood to the brain, keeping it well oxygenated and revitalized, and also as a positive impact on the overall health of the nervous system. This also contributes to better memory, concentration, and retention.
Premature Ageing of Skin:
Horse Chestnut seed extract has been linked to anti-aging effects as it reduces inflammation and protects cells. It is thus also made use of in cosmetics. Horse Chestnut is often recommended as an excellent anti-aging toner thanks to its antioxidant effects. This is because the extract of the Horse Chestnut promotes circulation and aids in toning and strengthening fragile veins and capillaries. In fact, it is one of the ingredients in many high-quality creams and lotions to reduce the appearance of fine line, wrinkles, and cellulite. Moreover, it is also added in many slimming, firming, and toning skin products. Studies suggest that horse chestnut’s healing abilities make it an effective anti-aging supplement.
In one study, researchers examined a group of 40 healthy female participants. The women applied a gel containing Horse Chestnut extract to the skin around their eyes three times daily for several weeks. At the end of the study, researchers saw a noticeable reduction in wrinkles.
To get a healthy and glowing skin, simply combine 5 to 10 drops of the extract of the Horse Chestnut with 50 ml of vitamin E oil. You may also add it to your favorite face moisturizer and apply it nightly before bed.
Eczema can be caused by contact with an aggressor product and is identified by the appearance of symptoms such as itching, swelling and redness of the skin. Know how to identify other eczema symptoms. Horse Chestnut is indicated for the prevention or treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, due to its anti-inflammatory properties, since eczema is a skin disease characterized by an inflammation of the skin.
The extract of the Horse Chestnut helps to treat vascular problems effectively. It also aids you in relieving inflammations in the body. Moreover, this extract is also useful in easing inflammation caused due to rosacea because it may reduce the development of the blood vessels. Applying a topical cream containing the Horse Chestnut helps to deal with rosacea.
Leg Ulcers and Frostbite:
The anti inflammatory properties of Horse Chestnut come handy in treating leg ulcers and frostbite. In these cases they can be used as an ointment for external application.
When it comes to cellulite, Horse Chestnut is extremely effective at lessening the appearance of dimpled skin. It contains aescin, which helps decrease the size of the pores on the capillary walls and subsequently helps increase circulation in the skin. It also tones the capillaries beneath the skin and can lessen the visibility of cellulite.
Another benefit of Horse Chestnut that’s been a feature of preliminary research is its ability to help wounds heal. Horse Chestnut helps in wound healing due to its anti-inflammatory capacity that decreases the swelling of the wound site and its venotonic property, which increases blood circulation, needed to heal the wound. However, for correct healing, it is important that there are other precautions, such as healthy eating and avoiding habits that are harmful to health, such as smoking or drinking alcoholic beverages.
Horse Chestnut heals wounds in two ways. First, one of its active compounds, aescin, can help kickstart the healing process in open wounds or other damaged tissue. Secondly, Horse Chestnut affects cells called fibroblasts, cells key to healing wounds. These spindle-shaped cells are found in most types of tissues. Fibroblasts cells become active when tissue is damaged. They form an extracellular matrix of proteins and other materials that act as a kind of scaffolding upon which other cells can build. They also help shrink the edges of an open wound. In vitro studies show that, when humans cells undergo stress, horse chestnut extract induces positive activity in fibroblasts and accelerates the healing process. While no human studies have yet been conducted.
A 2006 lab study found that Horse Chestnut extract can help induce contraction forces in fibroblasts, cells integral to the wound healing process. When these fibroblasts contract, they potentially induce faster wound healing. Again, this research is not conclusive and may not function as expected in humans, but these results are promising.
Due to the rate at which male infertility is increasing, it’s become more important than ever to understand ways to support and maintain healthy sperm counts. Supplements of Horse Chestnut contain an ingredient called aescin, not to be confused with the poisonous esculin found in raw Horse Chestnuts. Possibly through the same mechanisms with which Horse Chestnut positively impacts chronic venous insufficiency, escin seems to safely increase count and quality of sperm in men with varicocele-associated infertility.
Some research suggests Horse Chestnut could boost male fertility by improving symptoms of varicocele, a condition in which the blood vessels in the scrotum widen and swell. Varicocele can decrease sperm production and sperm quality, while also causing testicles to fail to develop normally or to shrink in size. Aescin is a compound found in Horse Chestnut. The swelling of the veins near the testicles is one of the main causes of male infertility. The most effective treatment for infertility is thus aescin that consists of the anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling properties. As per a study, taking 30 mg of aescin every 12 hours improved sperm density, sperm motility, and sperm quality.
One study examined a compound in Horse Chestnut extract called escin and its effectiveness at treating varicocele-associated infertility.
In the two-month study, researchers gave one group of men aescin, while the other group did not take aescin. At the end of the trial, the men who took aescin saw improvement in sperm density and sperm mobility, unlike those who did not take aescin. Additionally, the study concluded aescin does not cause negative effects to vital signs, blood counts, liver or kidney function.
According to a 2010 research study, this particular form of infertility is caused by enlarged varicose veins within the scrotum and affects 15 out of 100 men overall and 40 out of 100 men with diagnosed or known infertility.
One of the causes of male infertility is varicocele, or swelling of the veins near the testicles. The anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling properties in aescin, a compound in horse chestnut, may make it an effective treatment for infertility related to varicocele.
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NICCH) reports that scientists have researched Horse Chestnut seed extract for male infertility associated with varicocele. This is a condition in which the veins inside the scrotum become inflamed. However, more research is still necessary as there is not enough evidence to draw firm conclusions.
A two-month study in over 100 men with varicocele-associated infertility found that taking 30 mg of aescin every 12 hours improved sperm density, sperm motility, and sperm quality. In addition, the varicocele size decreased with the intake of aescin.
- Anti-Aging Effect. The flavonoids found in horse chestnut maintain the elasticity of the skin and it remains young and healthy for longer.
- Blood Flow: Horse chestnut helps with the treatment of spider and varicose veins. These are a state of weak veins that result in ache along with unpleasant marks underneath the skin.
- Cancer: Although this is not backed up by medical research, it’s believed that horse chestnut can get rid of carcinogenic cells.
- Cell Damage: The tree contains kaempferol glycosides and quercetin which are antioxidants that strengthen the cell membranes.
- Chest Pain: The root of the Horse Chestnut contains analgesics that are efficient for relieving chest pain.
- Chronic Venous Insufficiency: A condition where veins in the legs become swollen and painful. Horse Chestnut extract boosts the pressure in veins and thus causes more efficient pumping of the blood upward. It also fixes gaps in the veins.
- Cramps in Legs: As we mentioned above, horse chestnut enhances blood flow and stretchiness of the veins. These properties affect leg cramps as well.
- Digestive System: Horse Chestnut seeds are beneficial for the digestive system and can even help with diarrhea.
- Edema: Horse Chestnut is useful for treating fluid retention called edema. It’s most helpful when edema is caused by a sports injury or trauma.
- Frostbite and Leg Ulcers: Horse Chestnut has anti-inflammatory features and in these cases can be applied externally as a lotion or ointment.
- Gastrointestinal Issues: Horse Chestnut reduces methane production in the gut. It also acts as a bactericidal by killing off unwanted bacteria in the small intestine.
- Hemorrhoids: Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose veins that appear in the rectum. Aescin, the main chemical compound of horse chestnut, alleviates inflammation in the blood vessels and eases the discomfort associated with hemorrhoids. In Germany, Horse Chestnut is a common treatment for hemorrhoids.
- Respiratory Tract: The extract from horse chestnut seeds can serve as expectorant and decongestant.
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties, horse chestnut relieves chronic pain in muscles and joints. If you suffer from arthritis, try treating it with horse chestnut extract. An oil extracted from the seeds of the tree can also be applied externally to aching parts of the body.
- Skin Problems: Horse chestnut not only prevents premature aging but is also useful for treating skin infections, especially eczema.
- Soreness and Inflammation: Once blood starts rushing through the unhealthy veins as it should normally do, the legs will no longer feel tender.
- Women’s Health: The extract from Horse Chestnut leaves alleviates menstrual cramps and pain thus affecting the overall wellbeing of females.
Traditional Uses of Horse Chestnut:
- The plant is taken in small doses internally for the treatment of a wide range of venous diseases, including hardening of the arteries, varicose veins, phlebitis, leg ulcers, hemorrhoids and frostbite.
- Aescin found in the horse chestnut fruit is often added to external creams and preparations used for the treatment of varicose veins, varicose ulcers, bruises, and sports injuries.
- It improves circulation, so it is helpful for the relief of leg cramps.
- Herbal teas made from the horse chestnut are traditionally used all over the world for the treatment of many different conditions, which includes disorders such as arthritis and also to treat rheumatic pains and coughs.
- Tea made from the bark is used in the treatment of malaria and dysentery, externally in the treatment of lupus and skin ulcers.
- Tea made from the leaves is tonic and is used in the treatment of fevers and whooping cough.
- Tea is often applied directly on to the skin as a treatment for some kinds of sores and rashes affecting a person.
- Seeds are decongestant, expectorant and tonic.
- Seeds have been used in the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia and hemorrhoids.
- Oil extracted from the seeds has been used externally as a treatment for rheumatism.
- A compound of the powdered roots is analgesic and has been used to treat chest pains.
- Its bark also has narcotic and fever-reducing properties.
Culinary Uses of Horse Chestnut:
- The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute.
- Seed cooked can be dried, ground into a powder and used as gruel.
Other Uses of Horse Chestnut:
- Horse chestnuts have been used as fodder for feeding farm animals.
- It is also made into a lotion or gel for external application.
- Saponins in the seed are used as a soap substitute.
- Starch obtained from the seed is used in laundering.
- Yellow dye is obtained from the bark.
- Flowers contain the dyestuff quercetin.
- Wood is soft, light, and not durable.
- It is used for furniture, boxes, charcoal.
- A very ornamental and fast-growing tree.