Health Benefits and Uses of Sage

Health & Wellness

Sage (Salvia officinalis) | Health Benefits of Sage / Reduces Inflammation: / Antioxidant: / Kills Bacterial Infections: (Antibiotic, Disinfectant, Antifungal) / Women's Health: (Premenstrual Symptoms (PMS), Ovarian Angiogenesis, Menopause, Hot Flashes and Night Sweats, Natural Stop of Breastfeeding) / Psychological Benefits: (Stress and Depression, Oxidative Stress, Anxiety and Fear, Benefit for Nervous System, Acts as a Relaxant, Improves Mood, Cholinesterase Inhibiting Property, Mental Health) / Improves Cognitive Function: (Sharpens Memory, Alzheimer’s Diseases) / Neurological Health: / Supports Cardiovascular Health - Heart Health: (Cholesterol Levels) / Aids in Dental Care: (Oral Mucositis, Gum Diseases) / Cancer - Treatment and Prevention: (Human Cancer Cell Lines (Cytotoxicity), Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells, Benefits on DNA, Free Radicals, Mouth Cancer, Prostate Cancer) / Overactive Thyroid: / Respiratory Health: (Cough, Sore Throat, Acute Pharyngitis, Acute Bronchitis, Asthma) / Boosts Immune System: / Bone Health: (Strengthens Muscles) / Hair Care: (Hair Loss, Hair Growth, Dandruff, Darkens Hair, Hair Rinse for Shiny Hair, Hair Lotion) / Skin Care: (Skin Aging, Nourishes Skin, Wounds, Acne, Eczema and Psoriasis, Bad Body Odor) / Improves Digestive Health: (Indigestion, Upset Stomach, Heartburn, Gastroenteritis, Diarrhea) / Supports Weight Loss: (Obesity, Stimulates Appetite) / Diabetes: (Blood Sugar, Insulin Sensitivity) / Liver Health: / Kidney Health: (Diuretic) / Treats Sleep Disorders: / Relieves Pain and Cramps: (Muscle Pain) / Improves Eyesight: / Eliminates Insects and Pests: / Easy to Add to Your Diet: | Uses of Sage(Traditional Uses of Sage, Culinary Uses of Sage, Other Uses of Sage)Ayurvedic Uses and Health Benefits of Sage

Salvia officinalis commonly called sage, Broadleaf Sage, Common Sage, Dalmatian Sage, Garden Sage, Kitchen Sage, Narrow-leaved sage, Sage, Salvia, Sarubia, Spanish sage, Tibbi Adacayi, Sawge, Red Sage, Broad-leaved White Sage, Salvia salvatrix is the culinary sage familiar to most cooks.  It is a perennial, evergreen subshrub native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. The herb belongs to Lamiaceae (mint) family along with oregano, lavender, rosemary, thyme, and basil. Genus name comes from the Latin word salveo meaning to save or heal in reference to the supposed medically curative properties attributed to some plants in the genus. Sage has been admired for centuries for its medicinal as well as culinary uses, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. All parts of the plant have a strong, scented odor and a warm, bitter, somewhat astringent taste, due to the volatile oil contained in the tissues. It’s warm and musky essence is essential for making the fragrant dressing that goes so well with turkey.

Sage is literally a boon when it comes to the various health benefits it offers. From the Arabs to the Chinese, everyone has recognized this herb as a key to a healthy life. In fact, due to its health benefiting properties, it was awarded the title of “Herb of the Year” by the International Herb Association in 2001. Given below are some of the powerful health benefits of this aromatic herb.

Delays Premature Ageing:

Sage leaf oil is known to improve blood circulation and stimulate cell renewal. This herb is rich in vitamin A and calcium, which play a major role in daily cell regeneration. Antioxidants present in sage combats free radicals, thus easing the wrinkles, fine lines, and other ageing signs. In short, this herb helps in keeping your skin younger, glowing, and flawless. It also reduces facial wrinkles and redness making the skin look younger and flawless.

    Reduces Inflammation:

    Pain and inflammation are the two major symptoms that happen in consequence of tissue damage. Due to anti-inflammatory properties of Sage, consuming sage on regular basis can help to prevent inflammation issue. Besides, the terpenes/terpenoids, manool, carnosol, and ursolic acid, have anti-inflammatory potential. It was found that ursolic acid is the key constituent of sage entailed in anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory influence of ursolic acid was observed to be two-fold more powerful than that of indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

    Thanks to the rosmarinic acid, a powerful antioxidant that can help to reduce inflammation in the body. The acid is absorbed into your GI tract, where it helps to reduce your body’s natural inflammatory response. Adding sage as a seasoning to your food can help to reduce the inflammation caused by arthritis, muscle pains, and other autoimmune disorders.

    Animal and test-tube studies have shown that this antioxidant provides numerous benefits, such as decreased inflammation and blood sugar levels. While inflammation is a natural bodily response, chronic inflammation can increase your risk of illness.

    Although more evidence is needed to confirm this benefit, certain compounds in sage appear to have an anti-inflammatory action. One study investigated the effects of a range of these compounds on the inflammatory response in gingival fibroblasts. These are a common type of cell found in the connective tissue of the gums. Some of the compounds in sage helped to reduce this type of inflammation. More recent studies have supported the use of sage in dentistry for its anti-inflammatory properties.

    Studies have demonstrated that this herb helps manage neuropathic pain in peripheral neuropathy induced by chemotherapy. Terpenes and flavonoids are the compounds that in all probability are responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of the herb.

    In one study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the flavonoids, quercetin, and rutin, prevented painful peripheral neuropathy in mice. It has been recounted that flavonoids extracted from Sage decrease inflammation in the mouse model. It has also been shown that topical use of rosmarinic acid prevents epidermal inflammation.

    In a mouse study, Sage extract significantly increased the levels of anti-inflammatory compounds circulating in the blood while decreasing the levels of inflammatory compounds. Sage tea’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects may be responsible for many of its purported benefits, but more human research is necessary.

    According to research conducted by the University of Vienna in Austria, Sage possesses amazing anti-inflammatory properties. Sage tea is often used as a rinse or gargled for soothing inflammations. Sage extracts, tincture and essential oil are easily available in medical stores. They are used in medicines meant for the treatment of mouth and throat inflammation.

    A study in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, claims that sage has the ability to treat many topical diseases that arise out of inflammation. Chewing on sage leaves is not always the most pleasant remedy, as the flavor can be quite intense, but this is the most effective way to get the organic compounds acting in your system. Creating a tincture or steeping the leaves, a Sage brew helps relieve inflammation of respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts, you can eliminate that inflammation with this sage brew. The anti-inflammatory effects on issues such as arthritis and gout, and general inflammation of the cardiovascular system.

    A 2013 study further reported that sage oil exerted both anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, providing relief of mild inflammatory skin conditions like sunburn and folliculitis. It is these same properties that are believed to be effective in relieving tonsillitis pain or speeding the healing of cold sores when applied as a salve or ointment.

    Another 2012 study "Anti-Inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L." in Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6 by Gessilda Alcantara Nogueira de Melo, Jefferson Pitelli Fonseca, Thiago Oliveira Farinha, Rilson José do Pinho, Márcio José Damião, Renata Grespan, Expedito Leite da Silva, Ciomar A. Bersani-Amado and Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman evaluated the anti-inflammatory response of hydroalcoholic extract and sage essential oil using an experimental model of acute inflammation and a leukocyte migration assay. The Sage exhibited a topical anti-inflammatory effect by significant inhibition of croton oil-induced ear edema. All Salvia officinalis doses significantly inhibited leukocytes migration to spermatic fascia after inflammatory stimulus. SO constituents were monoterpene ketones, characterized as α-thujone (90%) and ß-thujone (6%). Thujone reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-ß, IL-6, GMC-stimulating factor). The anti-inflammatory activity of the oil could be due to its constituents.

    A 2009 study from Switzerland showed that an extract of sage and echinacea, when used as an oral spray, was just as effective in treating an acute sore throat as the combination of chlorhexidine and lidocaine, pharmaceutical drugs commonly used in oral anesthetics.

    More recently, studies have indicated that sage may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in the realm of dentistry. This herb has been recommended for external use by the German Commission for treating inflamed mucous membranes of the mouth and throat.

    Antioxidant:

    Antioxidants are molecules that help fortify your body’s defenses, neutralizing potentially harmful free radicals that are linked to chronic diseases. Sage is highly rich in antioxidant such as luteolin, rosmarinic and apigenin which is very useful for our overall health. This antioxidant helps to fight against free radicals and stabilize these free radical to do oxidative damage to our body cells and tissues from this we can prevent different type of chronic diseases and degenerative diseases. As for the researcher consuming this wonderful herb in a regular basis, we can prevent different type of health related problem such as degeneration, skin damage, heart damage, oxidative brain damage, macular degeneration etc.

    Sage contains over 160 distinct polyphenols, which are plant-based chemical compounds that act as antioxidants in your body. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin, all found in Sage, are linked to impressive health benefits, such as a lower risk of cancer and improved brain function and memory.

    The antioxidants in sage will help to stabilize oxygen-related metabolism, and it can help to reduce oxidative stress and damage to your cells. The free radical scavenging influence of carnosol is equivalent to that of α-tocopherol. The superoxide scavenging effect of the rosmarinic acid derivatives is 15 to 20 times higher than a synthetic Vitamin E, Trolox. Besides rosmarinic acid, other flavonoids of sage, especially rutin and quercetin, have potent antioxidant properties.

    Chronic conditions and degenerative diseases can be some of the most debilitating and dangerous health concerns that you face in your life. Many of these are caused by free radicals, the dangerous by-products of cellular metabolism that attack healthy cells, causing apoptosis or mutation.

    According to a study in the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Journal, the antioxidant compounds found in Sage, such as rosmarinic acid, luteolin, and apigenin, can work to neutralize free radicals and prevent them from creating oxidative stress in the heart, organ systems, skin, joints, muscles, and even the brain.

    One study found that drinking 1 cup (240 ml) of Sage tea twice daily significantly increased antioxidant defenses. It also lowered both total cholesterol and “bad” LDL cholesterol, as well as raised “good” HDL cholesterol.

    A 2014 study "Phytochemical Study and Biological Activity of Sage" in International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering Vol. 8, No. 11 by Mekhaldi Abdelkader, Bouznad Ahcen, Djibaoui Rachid, Hamoum Hakim evaluated in vitro antioxidant potential and antibacterial activities of essential oils and methanolic leaf extracts of Salvia officinalis. Results showed high polyphenol content in the leaf extracts which exhibited strong antioxidant activities compared to vitamin C and BHT (butylated hydroxyl toluene) with IC50 of 37.29 µg/ml by DPPH assay. The essential oil only showed weak antioxidant activity. Study also showed significant antibacterial activity for the methanolic extracts and essential oils. 

    Another study in Chinese Medicine, Vol.5 No.2 (2014)"Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Salvia officinalis L. hydroalcoholic Extract in Male Rats" by Khakpour Shahrzad, Najari Mahya, Tokazabani Belasei Fatemeh, Khosravi Maryam, Farhadi Belasei , Mohammadreza, Mahsa Hadipour Jahromy evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis for antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects in male rats with INH induced necrosis. Results showed anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in rats co-administered with S. officinalis extract and INH.

    A 2002 study "Antioxidant activity of sweetgrass (Hierochloë odorata Wahlnb.) extract in lard and rapeseed oil emulsions" published in Nahrung by A Zainuddin, J Pokorný, R Venskutonis about the antioxidant activities of Sweetgrass (Hierochloë odorata) and Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts were studied in emulsions of lard and rapeseed oil using soy lecithin as an emulsifier, and addition of cupric acetate as an oxidation catalyst. The antioxidant activity was about the same in the two substrates. The stability against autoxidation was substantially increased by both sweetgrass and sage extracts and their combination. The stability was particularly high, if citric acid and/or ascorbyl palmitate were added to plant extracts.

    Kills Bacterial Infections:

    Sage has antimicrobial properties, and it has been suggested that it could be a natural remedy to help with mouth and teeth issues like dental cavities. A defense against bacteria is what our body needed. By consuming food with great nutrients contained such as vitamins and minerals, it helps our body to block the presence of bacteria and viruses. As one of thousand options, you can choose sage tea as it is potential to be antimicrobial that protect your body greatly. Sage tea contains phenolic acids which take part to against Staphylococcus aureus, E. Coli, and other fungal infections. Even, sage tea has high tannin content which helps to treat diarrhea.

    In a study of school girls, the group that used a Sage mouthwash had significantly reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans, one of the bacteria that causes plaque. Although it has traditionally been used to treat throat infections and mouth ulcers, more research is needed.

    A 2005 study "Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of volatiles from Sage" in Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 57 of Salvia officinalis essential oil and its fractions showed significant antibacterial effect against S aureus and B subtilis.

    In the past, people used sage internally and topically as a cleansing treatment. Being very aromatic, this herb is rich in antimicrobial compounds. Research shows that Sage essential oil can be an effective disinfectant against airborne microorganisms. It would also be useful for masking body odor when used as a natural deodorant, as well as for treating wounds and skin infections caused by staph.

    Antibiotic:

    A 2014 study "In-Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Sage (Salvia officinalis) Ethanol Extract against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae" in Zahedan J Res Med Sci by Elham Mosafa, Sima Yahyaabadi, Monir Doudi evaluated chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves against four strains of gram negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and Proteus spp.) and two strains of gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and Bacillus cereus). Chloroform extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus spp. Essential oil and its fractions showed significant antibacterial effect against S. aureus and B. subtilis. Study of ethanol extracts of sage showed antibacterial effect on multi-drug resistant bacteria. Results suggest a potential use of herbs as alternative to antibiotics.

    Disinfectant:

    A 2009 study "Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia" in Food and Chemical Toxicology 47 by Mohamed Bouaziz, Thabèt Yangui, Sami Sayadi, Abdelhafidh Dhouib about Salvia officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapor activity against a panel of bacterial, yeast, and fungi. Results suggest a potential for a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes.

    Antifungal:

    A 2013 study "Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential" in BioMed Research International by M. S. Abu-Darwish, C. Cabral, I. V. Ferreira, M. J. Gonçalves, C. Cavaleiro, M. T. Cruz, T. H. Al-bdour, and L. Salgueiro showed the main compounds of Salvia officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils exhibited antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability. 

    Women's Health:

    Sage may also provide some unique benefits for women. In the Middle East, pregnant women commonly use Sage to treat digestive symptoms like nausea, a common problem early in pregnancy. Historically, Sage has also been utilized as a natural way to reduce breastmilk production in women who are weaning or have an overabundant supply. This benefit can be attributed to the presence of astringent tannins in Sage. Its estrogenic effect has been found to be beneficial for women wishing to dry up their breast milk supply or relieve hot flushes during menopause. However, there is lack of clinical data to substantiate this claim and little research to support either of these traditional uses.

    Premenstrual Symptoms (PMS):

    In relation as anti-depressant, it gives benefit of relief feeling during PMS. Scientific evidence also shows that the Sage leaves aromatherapy helps to balancing the hormone during PMS period. It is also can reduce menstrual cramp.

    Ovarian Angiogenesis:

    A 2017 study "Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salvia officinalis on Ovarian Angiogenesis in Mice at Preimplantation: A Morphological and Molecular Analysis" in Jundishapur J Helath Res. by  Beigi Boroujeni N, Gholami M R. evaluated the effect of Salvia officinalis on ovarian angiogenesis at the preimplantation time in mice. Results suggest increased ovarian angiogenesis after exposure to Salvia officinalis may induce vascular permeability and contribute to a variety of disorders including clinical signs similar to the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Menopause:

    Menopause is characterized by major hormonal changes that affect your body. Its symptoms include hot flashes, sleeplessness, sweating at night, dizziness, headaches, and palpitations. These signs indicate the adaptation of your body due to an imbalance of estrogen. Despite being mostly used as a culinary ingredient, Sage has actually been researched for its role in menopause symptom relief.

    There have been studies that have shown that Sage can actually improve symptoms such as mood and libido though. The most recently published study on sage which was a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial, found that 300 mg of Sage extract daily for 3 months led to noticeable benefits to hot flushes, night sweats, palpitations, sleep disturbances, muscle/joint pain, depression, anxiety, nervousness, sexual desire and satisfaction during sex.

    The findings of the study published in the International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences showed that extracts of sage significantly reduce the frequency, severity, and duration of hot flashes and night sweats. Hence, it improved the menopausal symptoms in menopausal women. Conclusively, this safe and effective herb is a remedial cure for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

    A subsequent study published in 2019 provided some complementary findings. 30 menopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned to either a sage group or a placebo group. Before the study and after 4 weeks of supplementation the women recorded their symptoms so the researchers could compare the results. After just 4 weeks, it was found that the women taking the Sage supplements saw significant reductions in hot flushes, night sweats, panic and fatigue, while also noting improvements to concentration. There were no noticeable changes in other criteria like heart rate, mood, headaches and libido.

    It is likely that these results were more positive than the previous study for two key reasons. Firstly, this latest study had a higher number of participants (66 vs 30) and this improves the studies ability to detect meaningful changes. The second reason is due to the lengths of the study. The most recent study was 3 months long whereas the previous investigated only lasted 4 weeks. It is feasible that 4 weeks of Sage supplementation leads to some improvements, but longer is needed to see the full extent of its benefits.

    Although Sage has been used by women for years to control their symptoms, the research that has validated this traditional use is fairly recent. Due to this, scientists are not 100% certain how Sage works in the body. That being said, there have been some potential mechanisms that have been elucidated. The most likely reason why sage is beneficial to menopausal women is because of its phytoestrogen content. Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that are a very similar shape and make-up to human oestrogen. Because of their similarities, they are thought to influence hormone receptors in the body, but to a much weaker degree than oestrogen itself. Nevertheless, it is enough to cause an improvement in the symptoms which are fundamentally caused by a lack of natural oestrogen.

    The first study in this area was conducted in Switzerland and published in 2011 in the Journal Advances in Therapy. It recruited 71 women who were experiencing at least 5 hot flushes a day and provided them with a daily supply of sage tablets for 8 weeks. Before they started taking the tablets and after the 8 week study period, the women completed the Menopause Rating Scale to note their symptoms. They also recorded the number of hot flushes they experienced daily. It was found that the Sage tablets led to significant reductions in hot flush episodes every week from the start of the study until the end. Furthermore, mild, moderate, severe and very severe flushes decreased by 46%, 62%, 79% and 100% respectively.

    The women also saw significant improvements on the Menopause Rating Scale, showing that sage is beneficial for symptoms other than hot flushes too. As this trial was an ‘open label’ study, the women knew they were taking a sage supplement and there was also no control (placebo) group to compare the results to. Because of this, the results could be questioned but nevertheless this study stimulated interest and encouraged further, more rigorous investigation. To ease menopausal symptoms, drink Sage tea 2 or 3 times a day for a couple of months.

    Hot Flashes and Night Sweats:

    One of the most widespread gynecological problems during menopause is hot flashes, an acute menopausal syndrome. As hormone therapy has side effects, herbal medicines are of huge appeal to people in the treatment and control of menopausal hot flashes. Sage has been traditionally applied in the treatment of sweating and menopausal hot flashes, in addition to ease related menopausal symptoms. Also, in clinical studies, Sage was found to decrease the frequency and intensity of hot flashes.

    There's some evidence that sage leaves may be beneficial for reducing hot flashes, night sweats and excessive perspiration associated with menopause. The herb reduces excessive sweating and calms you down. Also, there are no reports of adverse effects of this herbal extract.

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial "The effect of salvia officinalis tablet on hot flashes, night sweating, and estradiol hormone in postmenopausal women" in International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences 2016 by Sima Kianirad, Sedighe Forouhari, Alamtaj Samsami Dehaghani, Homeira Vafaei, Mehrad Sayadi and Maryam Asadi about postmenopausal hot flushes and night sweats:  evaluated the effect of salvia tablets on 100 qualified postmenopausal women with hot flushes. Results showed the level of estradiol hormone increase in the sage group. Sage tablets were effective in the treatment of hot flushes, night sweats, and other symptoms in postmenopausal women. It presents as an alternative therapy for individuals not able to take hormone replacement therapy. Sciences reported that a 100-milligram daily dose of Salvia officinalis, delivered in an oral tablet over eight weeks, reduced the incidence of these and other menopausal symptoms when compared to women who took a placebo.

    Another 2013 study "Salvia officinalis for menopausal hot flushes: Towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles" in Planta Med by S Rahte, R Evans, PJ Eugster, L Marcourt, JL Wolfender, A Kortenkamp, D Tasdemir showed a Salvia officinalis tincture to reduce hot flushes frequency and intensity. Study investigating possible mechanisms suggest the involvement of ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the in vitro anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, and suggests a safe herbal alternative product for menopausal hot flushes.

    Moreover, it appeared to do so without influencing hormone levels. What this confirms is that, while sage may improve symptoms of menopause, it is unlikely to help women with abnormal periods since the disorders are primarily influenced by hormone levels.

    Natural Stop of Breastfeeding:

    The estrogenic effect can be benefit for women who try to dry up their breast milk supply. It is a natural way to stop the production of breast milk. Therefore, it helps reducing the risk of mastitis for woman which has stop breastfeeding their baby. Surprisingly, sage tea has a benefit which helps to reduce breast milk’s production. For instance, if you have a baby which has gone off milk, you can end the breastfeeding stage by drinking Sage tea.

    Psychological Benefits:

    Stress and Depression:

    If you find a hard day with some job deadlines, give yourself a break time. Take a long deep breath and drink a cup of Sage tea. Indeed, it will help you from anxiety and improve your mood. As the consequence, you will be more relax and prevent the presence of stress and depression. After that, your body and mind will be recharge and start your work again with a new spirit and Sage tea as your health booster.

    Sage infusion is often referred to as “thinker’s tea” as it contains Thujone which is GABA and Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist. Besides improving concentration and attention span, it helps to deal with grief and depression.

    When used as aromatherapy through essential oil, it gives a relief feeling on the nerve. Therefore, it helps as an anti-depressant to prevent stresses. It remedies the nerve tension and bring serotonin hormone. So that the body will feel more comfort and the mind will feel calm.

    Sage is often used as a natural remedy for depression. The affluent presence of antioxidants such as diosmetin, apigenin, and luteolin helps to enable it to combat depression and stress. Frequent consumption of a cup of sage tea is known to boost your spirits, thus ensuring you to overcome the negative thoughts produced due to depression.

    Oxidative Stress:

    Oxidative stress is an important factor in the instigation and advancement of numerous diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Augmented oxidative stress happens when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) surpasses the capacity of antioxidant defenses. Natural antioxidants defend cells against excessive ROS production and thus can work against stress-facilitated tissue damage. Data from a number of studies propose that sage has strong antioxidant properties. Supplementing the drinking water of rats with Sage extract enhances their resistance against oxidative stress. One study observed that Sage tea-drinking enhances lipid profile and antioxidant resistances in humans.

    Oxidative stress has been shown to be implicated in the general process of aging and tissue damage, especially in the brain. Due to the high amount of antioxidant compounds such as rosmarinic acid in sage, it has been hypothesised that Sage could offer long-term protection against cognitive decline associated with oxidative stress damage.

    A 2013 study "Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis L. on the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in an oxidative stress model created by intracerebroventricular STZ injection in male rats" in Physiol Pharmacol. by Shahram Shahmohamadi, Akbar Hajizadeh moghaddam, Maryam Khosravi evaluated the protective effects of Salvia officinalis against oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin in male rats. Results showed antioxidant effects could prevent STZ-induced oxidative stress.

    Another 2012 study "Protective effects of Salvia officinalis extract against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats" in Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. investigated the antioxidative possible genotoxic, and antigenotoxic potency of Salvia officinalis extract against cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Results showed a protective against CYP-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity through its antioxidant property.

    Anxiety and Fear:

    Sage is beneficial for boosting your mood and relieving anxiety. In Chinese medicine, sage been used as a treatment for depression. The herb contains thujone, which is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist that helps ease grief and depression. Sage also slows down the release of enzymes that break down acetylcholine (ACh), an important neurotransmitter. Maintaining optimal levels of ACh means a better mood.

    Benefit for Nervous System:

    Another of the benefits of Sage is its action on the nervous system. This herb acts on fatty substances and prevents their oxidation, in addition to improving memory capacities. In fact, different medical studies have shown that sage can be an important way to prevent the onset of  nervous system.

    Acts as a Relaxant:

    Sage tea to be known as a good relaxant. This tea of plant plays a role in treating nervousness and dizziness. Indeed, it has a soothing effect to makes you relax in all day while consuming a cup of Sage tea.

    Improves Mood:

    Several test-tube and animal studies indicate that sage and rosmarinic acid may help prevent the formation of these plaques. In addition, multiple human studies note that Sage extracts improve mood, memory, brain function, and focus.

    One study in 135 adults found that simply smelling the aroma of this herb boosted mood, compared with a control group. Sage may relieve pain as well, but more research is needed on its effects on the brain and nervous system. However, more research is needed.

    Cholinesterase Inhibiting Property:

    A 2006 study "Effects of Cholinesterase Inhibiting Sage (Salvia officinalis) on Mood, Anxiety and Performance on a Psychological Stressor Battery" in Neuropsychopharmacology by Kennedy DO1, Pace S, Haskell C, Okello EJ, Milne A, Scholey AB. highlights the positive effect of cholinesterase-inhibiting properties of sage on mood, anxiety and performance following the administration of single doses to healthy young participants. The study confirms the cholinesterase inhibiting property of Salvia officinalis and improved mood and cognitive performance following single-dose use in healthy young participants.

    Mental Health:

    Sage can also improve mental performance in general including memory, alertness, and attention. It has been demonstrated by clinical trials which reiterates what has already been known historically, an herbalist stated in 1597 that Sage "quickens the nerves and memory".

    Students should take some during exam prep and just before exams. Overall, not enough research has been conducted on the use of Sage for its proposed mental health benefits. However, based on preliminary research, there may be support for the use of Sage for mood and memory.

    Improves Cognitive Function:

    Sage is an ancient and traditional remedy to increase the functioning of brain. The potent antioxidants present in sage improves the memory capacity, focus, concentration, calmness, alertness of an individual. Several types of research conclude that people taking Sage regularly, have improved memory, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive abilities. Hence, it can be considered as a brain booster and is extremely beneficial in treating psychotic conditions and ailments.

    Vitamin C present in Sage is very useful for our cognitive health. It helps to improve the memory of a person and also fight against the free radicals in the body and help to stop oxidative damage to our cells, thus prevent the different kind of age related brain degeneration such as dementia and Alzheimer's. Vitamin C is a natural antidepressant which helps to improve our IQ, memories and mental function.

    Research has proven that even small amounts of Sage, whether smelled or consumed, help to increase recall abilities and memory retention. The brain activity also exhibits increased concentration and focus on a chosen topic, which means that for young people in school or for those in challenging; intellectually demanding careers, adding a bit of it to your diet may be a delicate, but effective brain booster.

    One of the earliest recognised uses of sage in Herbal British books was as a memory enhancer. Culpepper’s ‘Complete Herbal’ notes in the 17th century state that "It also heals the memory, warning and quickening the senses".

    Sage extract has been shown in cell studies to block the action of acetylcholinesterase (AchE), an enzyme that destroys the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and therefore reduces its levels. Acetylcholine is an essential neurotransmitter, which plays an important role in cognitive function such as memory and learning. Many of the drugs that are used in neurodegenerative disorders are AchE inhibitors.

    As Sage leaves are stated to possess a broad variety of biological activities, one study has demonstrated that ethanolic extract of the leaves of Sage enhances memory retention in rats. Sage extract and its major component rosmarinic acid were found to enhance cognition in hale and hearty rats and show preventive effects against diabetic memory impairment.

    The research included in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics has shown that even small amounts of Sage extracts, whether inhaled or consumed, can help relieve symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and increase recall abilities and memory retention in people. The brain activity also demonstrates increased concentration and focus on a chosen topic.

    Sharpens Memory:

    You can consume great fruits and vegetables that are rich in nutrients to improve the brain development. For instance, by consuming Sage tea, it has the ability to improve brain function including to improve the memory. Also, allowing you to concentrate better, clearing your mind, and sharpen your sense are the health benefits of sage tea. This benefit has been studied by researcher and pointed that sage tea associated with the improvements in word recall and speed of attention.

    In a study of 20 healthy elderly adults, volunteers that took Sage showed significant improvement in memory performance and accuracy tests in comparison to a placebo. Clinical trials corroborate the findings of animal studies and showed that sage improves cognitive performance both in healthy partakers and patients suffering from cognitive deficit or dementia. Besides, it has been reported that the aroma of Sage essential oil improves potential memory functioning in healthy adults. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of this herb enhanced memory and concentration in healthy older participants.

    Furthermore, a randomized controlled trial revealed that a 4-month therapy with hydroalcoholic extract of Sage enhanced cognitive performance in patients suffering from mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. A 2005 study showed that common Sage oil improved memory and cognition (thinking ability). In addition, increased dosages were related to improvements in mood and feeling alert, calm, and content. Other research suggests that active compounds in Sage protect against neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's.

    Several varieties of Sage have been used to restore memory loss and cognitive decline, as mainly seen in Alzheimer’s disease. Such a decline in mental ability arises when neurotransmitters are degraded by your body’s specialized enzymes. Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, is degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in most brain disorders. Drugs and herbs that inhibit the activity of AChE are given to such subjects. The essential oils of sage have shown 46% AChE inhibition in lab trials. Its herbal extracts protect the brain cells (neurons) from the effects of cholesterol accumulation and inflammation (amyloid ß- plaques). As far-fetched as it may seem, there is evidence that sage can improve memory and information processing, even in people with Alzheimer's disease.

    Two human studies, one involving 11 people with early Alzheimer's and the other involving 30, reported overall improvements in cognition as well as a reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms after using a Salvia extract.

    Other studies included in the review consistently showed improvements in short-term memory, alertness, and speed recall. Improved mood and alertness were also cited.

    In one study, 39 participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease consumed either 60 drops (2 ml) of a sage extract supplement or a placebo daily for four months. Those taking the sage extract performed better on tests that measured memory, problem-solving, reasoning and other cognitive abilities. In healthy adults, sage was shown to improve memory in low doses. Higher doses also elevated mood and increased alertness, calmness and contentedness. In both younger and older adults, sage appears to improve memory and brain function.

    While the evidence remains sparse, a 2017 review of studies suggested that substances in sage can influence biological mechanisms associated with cognition. According to the research, two types of phenolic acid found in Sage, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid, have been shown to improve alertness and cognitive skills in mice.

    A 2006 study published in Nutrition also reports the positive effects of Sage leaves on memory retention and its interaction with the cholinergic system in rats.

    A 2003 study published in Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior reports that sage essential oil significantly improves immediate word recall. This result represents the first systematic evidence that sage is capable of acute modulation of cognition in healthy young adults.

    Another study published the same year in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics reports that sage extract is beneficial in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

    Alzheimer’s Diseases:

    Alzheimer’s, the most common form of dementia which affects 700,000 Britons, is accompanied by a drop in acetylcholine. By protecting this chemical messenger, the herb appears to reduce memory loss. Sage which is standardized to contain 2.5% rosmarinic acid. There are currently two new studies underway investigating the cognitive benefits of Sage one with 12-14 year olds and another with young adults aged 18 to 25 with results anticipated for the first quarter of this year.

    Hearing about Alzheimer may make you worry about having this disease in other time. Sage tea is a potential beverage which helps guard against the depletion of the brain, preventing degeneration of neurotransmitters. Further, Sage tea has a role in treating Alzheimer’s disease due to its ability to improve the memory. Then, studies have shown that with this ability, Sage tea may help to prevent this chronic disease.

    Sage has been traditionally used for memory improvement and enhanced “brain” function, delaying onset of age-related cognitive decline. In addition, sage has been shown to delay early cognitive impairment in patients with mild dementia, associated with Alzheimer’s disease, such as learning, memory and information processing abilities.

    A recent review of studies showed that species of Sage could positively impact cognitive skills and protect against neurological disorders. The study author maintains that: “In vitro, animal and preliminary human studies have supported the evidence of Salvia plants to enhance cognitive skills and guard against neurodegenerative disorders".

    In a 2003 double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease" in Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics by Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, Ohadinia S, Jamshidi AH, Khani M. in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, a Salvia officinalis extract showed significant benefits in cognition possibly through cholinesterase inhibition. Mild agitation side effects were noted in the placebo group. S. officinalis may well reduce agitation and may be an additional advantage for use in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Other studies have shown that Sage can also improve memory in young, healthy adults. More research is required, as most studies have been carried out on two species of sage, Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia.

    While science has yet to prove this conclusively, it is believed that Sage can help to improve cognition in Alzheimer’s patients. Not only could it boost overall mental performance, but it may also help to reduce anxiety and agitation in patients suffering from memory loss. Sage is believed to reduce the natural loss of acetylcholine, the chemical responsible for forming connections and sending messages in the brain. By preventing this loss, you can keep your brain functioning well.

    Neurological Health:

    Regular intake of Sage can improve memory and information processing among people suffering from Alzheimer’s. This may be because the essential oil from Sage has been found to improve acetylcholinesterase (ACh) levels in the brain. This ACh enzyme improves concentration and helps in the treatment of memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s.

    Sage is widely used in alternative medicine to boost mood, improve memory, and help prevent brain-related disorders like Alzheimer’s. Scientific research backs many of these uses. Alzheimer’s progresses due to amyloid plaques that form in the brain.

    Supports Cardiovascular Health - Heart Health:

    Three lobed Sage contains a flavone called salvigenin. Its vascular relaxant effect provides protection against cardiovascular diseases. Sage is very good for your heart, due to its flavonoids and antioxidants. It improves the health of cells that form the innermost lining of the heart and blood vessels, which in turn reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    2 tablespoons serving of Sage consists of about 20 mg calcium and a dose of potassium, both are essential for the proper functioning of cardiovascular system and for maintaining the rhythm of heart beats. This herb lacks cholesterol and is low in sodium. Hence, it should be used by those who have cholesterol issues to safeguard cardiovascular disorders.

    Cholesterol Levels:

    Sage's activation of the PPAR gamma molecule may be most apparent in its impact on cholesterol. Some research indicates that Sage may help improve cholesterol and triglyceride levels, potentially decreasing your risk of heart disease.

    In a small, 4-week study in 6 women, drinking 10 ounces (300 ml) of sage tea twice daily resulted in 16% lower total cholesterol, 20% lower LDL (bad) cholesterol, and 38% higher HDL (good) cholesterol.

    A 2-month study in 105 people with type 2 diabetes on cholesterol-lowering drugs found that those who took 500 mg of sage extract 3 times daily had healthier levels of triglycerides and all cholesterol markers, compared with those in the control group. All the same, more research is needed.

    Every minute, more than one person in the US dies from heart disease. High LDL cholesterol is a key heart disease risk factor, affecting one in three Americans. Sage may help lower LDL cholesterol, which can build up in your arteries and potentially cause damage. In one study, consuming sage tea twice daily lowered LDL cholesterol and total blood cholesterol while raising HDL cholesterol after just two weeks. Several other human studies illustrate a similar effect with sage extract.

    One study, published in the Journal Phytotherapeutic Research, concluded that this effect more than marginal. According to the research, people provided between 400 mg to 1500 mg of Sage daily (either as a powder, tea, or supplement) achieved an overall improvement in their blood lipids after three months. Among the findings: Total cholesterol levels were lowered by 16 to 20%. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was reduced by at least 12%. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was increased by up to 20%. Triglycerides were lowered by at least 18%.

    Other studies have not demonstrated similar results. Moreover, while the activation of PPAR gamma is associated with improved blood sugar, this effect has not been seen when taking Sage or a Sage extract. High LDL (bad) cholesterol and low HDL (good) cholesterol levels lead to severe metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Including herbs like sage in food and medicine might balance out the plasma lipid profile.

    Animal studies show that Chinese Sage tea and extracts can lower plasma cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides. They were able to increase HDL levels as well. The Sage extract improves the antioxidant activity in your body. It prevents the oxidation of accumulated lipids and protects you from diabetes, atherosclerosis, and other inflammatory diseases.

    A 2013 study published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine showed that participants given sage leaf extract had lower fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels, but higher HDL after three months of treatment.

    A 2009 study published in the International Journal of Molecular Science reports that regular intake of sage tea leads to an improvement in lipid profile. It helps lower plasma low-density lipoprotein LDL and total cholesterol levels as well as increase the plasma high-density lipoprotein HDL level. It is even effective at treating clogged arteries, lowering blood pressure and preventing heart attacks. After four weeks of regular consumption of sage tea, participants had a reduction in LDL cholesterol and an improvement in total cholesterol levels. However, there was no effect on blood glucose levels.

    Aids in Dental Care:

    Sage helps in neutralizing microbes that promote dental plaque. Be it in the form of a mouth wash or essential oil, the abundance of germ-killing properties of sage helps in eliminating bad breath and bacteria from the oral cavities and thus prevents swelling, bleeding and other oral problems. It also helps in treating throat infections, bleeding gums, dental abscesses, canker sores or mouth ulcers.

    This Mediterranean herb has excellent antibacterial properties too. Studies report that Sage extracts could inhibit the growth of several food-spoiling bacteria, including the species like Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae. These antimicrobial effects were also seen on bacteria causing dental caries (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, etc.) The essential oils in Sage leaves may be responsible for these effects.

    When Sage extracts were used in mouthwash and mouth rinse, they reduced the bacterial colony count from 3900 (pre-treatment) to 300 per plaque in treated patients. Hence, this herb can effectively protect teeth from acute and chronic dental disorders, both in children and adults.

    One review noted that sage may treat throat infections, dental abscesses, infected gums and mouth ulcers. However, more human research is needed to make comprehensive recommendations. Sage is one of the most popular herbs in dentistry, as it targets pain, inflammation, and bad breath, as well as exerts antibacterial and wound-healing properties.

    A randomized controlled clinical trial published in the Iranian Journal Of Microbiology concluded that Sage extract mouth rinse exerted antibacterial action against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. Moreover, sage mouth rinse can also be used as a supplement for conventional methods of plaque control against dental cavities.

    In one study, a Sage-based mouthwash was shown to effectively kill the Streptococcus mutans bacteria, which is notorious for causing dental cavities. In a test-tube study, a Sage-based essential oil was shown to kill and halt the spread of Candida albicans, a fungus that may also cause cavities.

    In fact, gargling sage tea is often recommended as a remedy for mouth wounds and sore throats. These oral benefits are often attributed to the powerful antioxidant rosmarinic acid. Furthermore, sage is added to some mouthwashes because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. The antimicrobial effects of sage have been supported by numerous lines of evidence. It has been observed that the antimicrobial effects of sage can counteract microbes that stimulate dental plaque. One study assessed the antibacterial activities of sage extract mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans causing dental plaque in children of school-age.

    A randomized clinical trial was performed on 70 girls aged between 11 and 14 years, with the same oral hygiene conditions. The girls were randomly allocated to two groups – the first group with 35 students that used Sage mouthwash and the second group of 35 students that used placebo mouthwash without any active components. After using the mouthwash for 21 days, it was found that Sage mouthwash substantially decreased Streptococcus mutans counts.

    One test-tube study verified that Sage essential oil showed anticandidal activities against Candida albicans, a fungus that can cause cavities. One review observed that sage may cure throat infections, dental abscesses, mouth ulcers, and infected gums. Nonetheless, further human research is necessary to make thorough recommendations.

    Oral Mucositis:

    One of the most common side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in cancer treatment, oral mucositis occurs when the lining of the mouth breaks down and forms painful mouth sores or ulcers.

    A two weeks pilot study published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine in 2016 indicates that a sage mouth rinse may help to alleviate oral mucositis in people undergoing chemotherapy. For the study, people receiving chemotherapy were prescribed basic oral care plus gargling with a sage tea-thyme-peppermint oral rinse or basic care alone and were evaluated on days 5 and 14. The incidence of oral mucositis was lower in the group gargling with the rinse compared to those who didn't use the rinse. Most of the people using the herbal rinse in conjunction with basic oral care didn't develop oral mucositis on day 5. More studies are warranted to validate sage for oral mucositis.

    Gum Diseases:

    There is a study investigated the effects of a range of these compounds on the inflammatory response in gingival fibroblasts. Which is a common type of cell found in the connective tissue of the gums. Therefor it helps to soothe a swollen gum. The vitamin C help to maintain the gum health and avoid bacteria to produce any ache in the gum.

    Sage is an excellent antioxidant, which helps fight free radicals and improve oral health. Being a natural antiseptic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agent, sage can even take care of bleeding, tenderness, redness and swelling in the gums due to gingivitis.

    A 2015 study published in the Iranian Journal of Microbiology reports that the antibacterial effect of sage extract mouthwash is effective against streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

    You can simply chew Sage leaves to clean your mouth and fight bad breath. Sage tea (cooled) can be used as an effective mouthwash to treat gum disease, throat infections and canker sores.

    Nikhita Narayanan and Lakshmi Thangavelu in "Salvia officinalis in dentistry" highlighted in a review the various uses of Salvia officinalis in the dental field along with its medical applications. The thujone in the volatile oil has antiseptic and antibiotic action, and as mouthwash helps with throat infections, dental abscesses, infected gums and mouth ulcers. Phenolic acids are especially helpful against S. aureus. The high tannin contents provides astringent action.

    Cancer - Treatment and Prevention:

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in which cells grow abnormally. Perhaps the most controversial claim by alternative practitioners is that sage can help prevent cancer. That is not to suggest there is no evidence to support these claims; it's just that most of it has been limited to test tubes. It contains several anticancer compounds, including carnosol, camphor, and rosmarinic acid. In particular, animal and test-tube studies reveal that carnosol can kill several types of cancer cells without affecting healthy cells.

    Within this context, scientists have been able to prove that components of Salvia officinalis or Salvia lavandulaefolia (including carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and ursolic acid) can inhibit the growth of cancer cells in test tubes, including breast cancer, colon cancer, chronic myeloid leukemia, prostate cancer, liver cancer, cervix adenocarcinoma, laryngeal carcinoma, oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.and small cell lung carcinoma. However, human studies are necessary to establish whether Sage is efficacious in combatting cancer in humans.

    A 2013 review of studies reported that rosmarinic acid given daily to mice was able to prevent skin cancer as well as bone metastasis from breast cancer. While none of this should suggest that eating or drinking Sage can prevent cancer, the current body of research may help pave the way to the development of effective anti-cancer drugs in the future.

    A 2011 study "Anti Tumor Activity of Salvia officinalis is Due to Its Anti-Angiogenic, Anti-Migratory and Anti-Proliferative Effects" in Cell Journal Yakhteh Vol. 12, No. 4 by Maryam Keshavarz, M.Sc, Ali Bidmeshkipour. Ph.D, Ali Mostafaie, Ph.D., Kamran Mansouri, M.Sc., Hamid-Reza Mohammadi-Motlagh, M.Sc. evaluated the anti-angiogenic effect of Salvia officinalis extract on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) neovascularization model. Results showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity and suggests a promise as anti-angiogenic treatment.

    Interestingly, animal and test-tube studies demonstrate that Sage may fight certain types of cancer, including those of the mouth, colon, liver, cervix, breast, skin and kidney. In these studies, sage extracts not only suppress the growth of cancer cells but also stimulate cell death. While this research is encouraging, human studies are needed to determine whether sage is effective at fighting  in humans. Test-tube and animal research suggest that Sage may fight certain cancer cells, though human research is needed.

    In a study in over 500 people, Sage and chamomile teas were linked to a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. Meanwhile, in a test-tube study, Sage tea helped prevent genetic changes that cause colon cancer cell formation. Although these results are promising, more human research is necessary.

    Clinical studies found that common sage extracts could inhibit the proliferation (angiogenesis) of cancer cells. Ursolic acid found in this plant effectively suppressed the invasion, metastasis (spread), and colonization of melanoma cells, according to evidence.

    Human Cancer Cell Lines (Cytotoxicity):

    A 2013 study "Cytotoxic and cytogenetic effects of Salvia officinalis on different tumor cell lines" in Middle East Journal of Internal Medicine, Vol 6, Issue 4 by Reshna K Al-Barazanjy, Kawa Dizaye, Assad A Al-Asadye evaluated the cytotoxicity of Salvia officinalis extracts on two tumor cell lines, Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and Murine mammary adenocarcinoma (AMN3) and a normal cell line, Murine fibroblast (L20B). The aqueous extracts showed antiproliferative effects o both RD and AMN3 cell lines. Cytotoxic activity was more efficacious than Cisplatin. Cytogenetic effect was less than that of cyclophosphamide.

    Another 2010 study "Cytotoxic activity of α-humulene and transcaryo- phyllene from Salvia officinalis in animal and human tumor cells" in An. R. Acad. Nac. Farm. by Adil el Hadri, María Ángeles Gómez del Río, Jesús Sanz, Azucena González Coloma, Mohamed Idaomar, Bartolomé Ribas Ozonas, Juana Benedí González, María Isabel Sánchez Reus about α-humulene and Transcaryo-phyllene, animal and human tumor cells, showed α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene extracted from Salvia officinalis essential oil inhibit tumor cell growth.

    Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells:

    A 2013 study "Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis" in Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin by Fatemeh Zare Shahneh, Samira Valiyari, Behzad Baradaran, Jalal Abdolalizadeh, Ali Bandehagh, Abbas Azadmehr, Reza Hajiaghaee evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activities of crude methanolic extracts on lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. Results showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. 

    Benefits on DNA:

    In a study on colorectal cancer, the active compounds of sage prevented the DNA damage of healthy cells. The antioxidants eliminate free radicals (like hydrogen peroxide) that cause such damage. The diterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, etc. isolated from the roots of the sage plant showed anticancer effects on liver and colon cancer cells. Similar results are reported on skin, prostate, kidney, and intestinal cancer cells.

    Free Radicals:

    Sage is highly rich in different kind of antioxidant components. Antioxidant helps to fight against the free radical of our body. By having antioxidants nutrient, then Sage tea helps to prevent free radicals. When these accumulate in your body, they can lead to chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Free radicals come from bad environmental exposure and toxins. Thus, if you want to remove free radical substances, it is recommended to drink Sage tea regularly. Hence, your body will free from any damage caused by free radicals.

    Mouth Cancer:

    This herb can play an important role in your dental routine. It can be used as an effective mouthwash to treat gum disease, throat infections, and cankers. If you are troubled by cankers, you can simply gargle strong Sage tea or freeze it into ice cubes. Pop one of these cubes in your mouth to soothe cankers.

    Prostate Cancer:

    A 2006 study "Antiprotease and Antimetastatic Activity of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Salvia officinalis" by Andrej Jedinák, Marta Mucˇkova, Daniela Kosˇt'a ́lova, Tibor Maliar, and Irena Masˇterova about natural products were evaluated in the in vitro antiprotease assay on serine proteases (trypsin, thrombin and urokinase) and on the cysteine protease cathepsin B. Results showed ursolic acid isolated from Salvia officinalis significantly inhibited all tested proteases in vitro in the micromolar range. Ursolic acid showed the strongest inhibition activity to urokinase and cathepsin B as proteases included in tumor invasion and metastasis. suggesting possible anticancer effectivity. 

    Overactive Thyroid:

    A 2017 study "Topical application of Salvia officinalis hydroethanolic leaf extract improves wound healing process" in Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 55 by Sirvan Karimzadeh & Mohammad Reza Farahpour evaluated the effects on Salvia officinalis extract on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats. Results showed Sage extract had a stimulatory effect on thyroid gland function and raised plasma T3 and T4 levels.

    Respiratory Health:

    Cough:

    Thanks to its astringent, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties, Sage is very effective in relieving throat discomfort and calming coughs. It can also significantly reduce inflammation in the area, but it also helps strengthen the immune system. It is recommended to gargle with an infusion of dried Sage and salt. In this way we can alleviate and calm the cough, in addition to reducing discomfort in this part of the body.

    Sore Throat:

    Sage has antibacterial properties that can fight the infection and speed up the healing process. Also, it soothes the throat pain as well as irritation and inflammation. Sage is effective in the treatment of an inflamed throat and tonsils as well as an ulcerated throat. Being an excellent anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory herb makes sage the perfect healer for sore, inflamed throats, and the high level of Vitamin C boosts the immune system to clear the infection.

    Sage infusion has been found to be effective in the treatment of inflamed throat and tonsils as well as ulcerated throat. For this purpose, you can boil a pinch of dried sage leaves in about 100 ml of water and infuse for 15 minutes. Strain the concoction and sweeten it with some honey. Using this as a gargle twice a day will provide relief.

    Acute Pharyngitis:

    A 2006 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group phase II/III study with adaptive design and interim analysis. "Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis" in Eur J Med of spray (containing Salvia officinalis fluid extract) vs placebo showed a 15% Sage spray to be a safe and convenient treatment for patients with acute pharyngitis, with a relief superior to placebo.

    Acute Bronchitis:

    A 2015 study "Studies on Bronchodilator Activity of Salvia officinalis (Sage): Possible Involvement of K+ Channel Activation and Phosphodiesterase Inhibition" in Phytotherapy Research, Vol 29, Issue 9 by Anwarul-Hassan Gilani, Najeeb-Ur Rehman, Aslam Khan, Khalid M Alkarfy evaluated an aqueous methanolic extract of aerial parts of Salvia officinalis for use in asthma using an in vivo bronchodilatory assay and isolated tracheal preparations. Results showed bronchodilatory activity mediated predominantly via activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels and inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzyme. 

    Asthma:

    The anti-spasmodic effect of sage reduces tension in smooth muscles and can be used for steam inhalation to prevent asthma attacks. It is effective in removing mucous congestion in the airways as well as preventing secondary infections. (Talk to your doctor before using).

    Boosts Immune System:

    Due to the antimicrobial properties of Sage, this herb is very useful for our immune system. The immune system is a very important part of our body, it protects us from getting sick by fighting with foreign pathogen such as bacteria and virus and stop them getting inside your body. This foreign pathogen is the main cause of different common disease like cold, cough, fever and flu. So due to antimicrobial properties present in Sage we can improve our immune system by adding this herb in your daily diet. Sage is also rich in vitamin C is a strong antioxidant which is very helpful for us by preventing free radicals to damage our body cells. So we should consume sage to keep our immune system healthy.

    While the herb is usually consumed in small quantities, you can create a topical application of Sage, a tincture and use it to reduce or prevent bacterial and viral infections that attack the body through the skin. We often think of illness entering through our nose or mouth, but the skin can also be compromised and be used as a gateway for foreign agents. A topical cream or antibacterial routine that includes sage could be an extra line of defense against that sort of illness vector.

    Bone Health:

    One of the most overlooked benefits of Sage is its superior level of vitamin K, an essential vitamin for the body that isn’t commonly found in foods. Vitamin K presence in Sage is very useful for our bone health. It helps to increase the bone metabolism, thus help in preventing osteoporosis. Vitamin K is very useful in the gamma - carboxylation of osteoporosis. It also helps in maintaining the calcium balance in the bone, thus keep our bone stronger and healthier. So consuming Sage is very useful to keep the bone stronger and also help to prevent different kinds of bone related issues such as osteoporosis.

    Vitamin K is a crucial element in developing bone density and ensuring the integrity of our bones as we age. Adding sage leaves to your diet can increase your vitamin K levels significantly, as a single serving has 27% of your daily recommended intake. One tablespoon of Sage contains 43% of vitamin K. Vitamin K improves calcium absorption, reduces urinary excretion of calcium, and acts as a modifier of bone matrix proteins.

    Apart from this Sage is also highly rich in calcium and iron both this mineral is very helpful to improve our bone density which is very useful for our bone. As for the studies those who are consuming sage in regular basis their bone is stronger than those who are not consumed this wonderful herb. Calcium is essential for strengthening and maintaining the health of bones and teeth, and sage is packed with it. It contains 3% of the daily recommended value per tablespoon, and 165% per 100 grams.

    Strengthens Muscles:

    Being an excellent source of vitamin K, sage plays a key role in the natural growth and remodelling of bones. It promotes bone health, reduces the risk of fracture, maintains overall body balance and provides the body with a strong and perfect skeletal structure. It is also important in getting strong muscles. A by-product of Vitamin D helps in the contraction and relaxation of muscles. Thus, providing strength and supporting the skeletal frame of the body.

    Hair Care:

    Sage herb and its extracts have been found to be beneficial for hair in many ways. Some of the benefits of sage for hair are as follows. Proponents suggest that applying a hair and scalp rinse made from a combination of sage tea and black tea or rosemary can promote hair growth or darken gray hair as an alternative to hair dye. Although there is no scientific support for these claims, it's possible that the tannins found in black or sage tea may temporarily dye gray hair.

    When used for hair, proponents suggest making the tea, allowing it to cool, and spritzing it on gray hair. It is usually left in for five to ten minutes and then washed as usual. (the tannin in tea can stain towels and clothing).

    Using a shampoo from the combination of Sage tea and Black tea help to promote hair growth and darken gray hair. Therefore, using this perfect combination as a hair rinse will treat your scalp and ridding it of dandruff. For the tips, you can add a couple of pinches of sage and black tea leaves and put them into a boiling water, then use it as your natural hair treatment.

    Hair Loss:

    Sage has been used since ancient times to combat hair loss and baldness. Sage contains beta-sitosterol, a 5-alpha reductase compound which has been found to be effective in treating male pattern baldness. It is advisable to mix 3 to 4 drops of sage essential oil with equal amounts of rosemary and peppermint essential oils and dilute in 1 tablespoon olive oil. Massage your scalp with it twice a day.

    Hair Growth:

    A combination of Sage and Rosemary is excellent for making your hair thicker, shinier and stronger. Sage is particularly effective in encouraging new hair growth as it improves circulation to the scalp, providing more nutrition to the hair follicles. A Sage Rosemary hair rinse can be prepared by boiling the two herbs in water. This herbal rinse can improve the quality of your hair and can revitalize dry and thinning hair. This can be used daily for one week or once or twice a week to maintain hair shine and thickness. Being an astringent, it reduces dandruff and prevents clogged hair follicles too.

    Dandruff:

    Sage is very popular for its hair health benefits. Keep in mind that this is a plant that can work miracles on your hair thanks to its various virtues on a cosmetic level. In fact, it is not only very effective against dandruff, but also helps restore hair shine and color. It is also of great importance for women with gray hair problems, as it helps to darken the hair naturally.

    Darkens Hair:

    Sage can be used to darken and intensify hair color. All you need to do is use it as a final rinse after shampooing. An infusion of fresh sage leaves can darken grey hair as well as deepen the color of brown or black hair and impart shine to it.

    Hair Rinse for Shiny Hair:

    Sage tea can be used as a hair rinse to impart shine and luster to your locks. You can prepare it by boiling 1 tablespoon of dried sage leaves in a cup of water. This sage herb tea benefits to ward off dandruff.

    Hair Lotion:

    Sage can be used to prepare a setting lotion to make your hair manageable and improve its texture. Simply combine a handful of sage leaves with equal amount of rosemary. Boil them in about 6 oz. water and simmer for 3 minutes. Allow it to steep for 3 hours and massage your hair with this mixture before styling.

    Skin Care:

    Sage can keep your skin healthy and beautiful Its plant derived chemical compounds, essential oils, and vitamins make it beneficial in skin care in the following ways. Sage is highly rich in Vitamin A and Vitamin C, both these are strong antioxidant, which is very useful for our skin health. Vitamin A is very useful to treat several skin diseases like acne and psoriasis. An antioxidant present in Sage is help in fighting against free radicals in our body and stabilized them to do the oxidative damage to our body cells and tissues, thus prevent several types of macular degeneration disease related to skin.

    It is believed that Sage tea is beneficial to promote the skin health. This herbal remedy has a role to clean the skin abrasions, ulcers, and relieve the swelling. Consequently, it speeds up the healing process of sores, cuts, and wounds. Therefore, this benefit is linked to the work of Sage tea which treats skin problems including eczema and psoriasis by soothing the skin. In addition, you can use sage leaves as your toner for oily skin. Just add a spoonful of a sage into the boiling water and let them steep for 20 minutes. Then, let it cool before dabbing on your face.

    A topical Salva or a tincture of the plant can be created using Sage leaves, which has been shown to be effective against certain skin conditions, including eczema, psoriasis, and acne. These unsightly blemishes can be quickly soothed and their appearance can be reduced gradually if you regularly apply sage extracts and salves to the inflamed or affected areas.

    Skin Aging:

    Sage has many antioxidants which can reduce the signs of ageing removing wrinkles, age spots and fine lines. They kill the free radicals and protect skin from damage. The antioxidants in Sage reverse the signs of ageing such as wrinkles, fine lines, and age spots. These antioxidants provide protection against free radicals that damage skin cells, causing premature ageing of the skin. This herb is loaded with calcium and vitamin A, which protect your skin against the assault of free radicals and aid in daily cell regeneration, minimizing and delaying the onset of facial wrinkles.

    People may take beauty supplement to prevent early aging signs including the wrinkles. You may not have known that consuming best foods that are rich in nutrients may help you to look youthful. It is due to the works of great nutrients which maintain the health. As a result, to prevent early aging, Sage tea is beneficial in keeping the skin youthful. Subsequently, this benefit is linked to the presence of antioxidant nutrients.

    Nourishes Skin:

    Sage is a powerful antioxidant and thus helps to reduce free radical damage in the body. The anti-microbial property of sage helps in getting rid of various skin infections like pimples, zits, acne, and eczema. By stopping UV damage, it also prevents several signs of aging like wrinkles, fine lines, dark circles, and spots. It also reduces the risk of skin cancer.

    Wounds:

    Sage is a common ingredient in cosmetics that are applied topically as a natural skin care remedy. It’s possible that drinking its tea provides some of the same benefits. Sage contains camphor and carnosol, which can help prevent skin damage. It may also accelerate wound healing and kill harmful bacteria and fungi.

    In a test-tube study on mouse skin cells, camphor, one of sage’s key compounds, was found to promote healthy skin-cell growth, slow signs of aging, and decrease wrinkle formation. In addition, an animal study associated this herb’s carnosol and carnosic acid with helping treat sun-related skin damage and other inflammatory skin problems.

    Other animal studies show that Sage extract helps heal cold sores and speeds wound healing. Moreover, test-tube studies have demonstrated that its extract killed certain harmful bacteria and fungi that could damage your skin.

    A 2017 study "Topical application of Salvia officinalis hydroethanolic leaf extract improves wound healing process" in Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 55 by  Sirvan Karimzadeh & Mohammad Reza Farahpour evaluated in vivo wound healing activity of hydroethanolic extract of S. officinalis leaves in excision and incision wound models in Wistar rats. The leaf extract showed high total flavonoid, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Topical application of the extract, especially at higher dose, significantly (p<0.05) increased the percentage of wound contraction, period of re-epithelialization, breaking strength ration and upregulated hydroxyproline content. There was also significant (p<0.05) increase in new vessel formation and fibroblast distribution.

    Acne, Eczema and Psoriasis:

    The antibacterial properties of this amazing herb prevent the occurrence of skin infections. It also possesses antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties, which help cure acne as well as relieve the symptoms of eczema and psoriasis.

    Bad Body Odor:

    A recent German study has indicated that taking either a dry leaf extract or an infusion of Sage leaf can reduce sweating by as much as 50%. It is a great deodorizer that dries perspiration and helps to eliminate body odor.

    Improves Digestive Health:

    Rosmarinic acid presence in sage is very useful for our digestive health. Rosmarinic is an anti-inflammatory which insure the proper process of food in our digestive tract, thus consumption of Sage prevent various types of digestive disease like constipation, diarrhea and gastritis. Rosmarinic acid is thought to act as an anti-inflammatory agent for the stomach, preventing gastric spasms and reducing the occurrence of diarrhea and gastritis. Adding it to your meals may get your entire digestive process back on track and reduce inflammation throughout the gut. Not only does it effectively prevent gastric spasms but can also help treat conditions like diarrhoea, gastritis, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, etc. It also facilitates the absorption of nutrients from the food and hence incorporating this incredible herb in your diet can help get your digestive process back on track. Sage is excellent for improving digestion as it encourages the flow of bile and digestive enzymes. Plus, it helps relax the muscles of the digestive tract. Sage is great for relieving indigestion, reducing abdominal gas and bloating, controlling flatulence, treating colitis, and improving appetite.

    The leaves are a great stimulant tonic which can treat stomached and prevent digestive system issue. Sage tea or infusion is particularly effective to manage this problem. Its carminative effect working to remove the symptoms of indigestion by stimulating upper digestive secretions and pancreatic function.

    Drink 1 cup of Sage tea daily to improve digestion and relieve digestive discomfort. Also, add this herb in your favorite dishes to enhance their taste as well as health benefits. If you want to facilitate digestion, it is recommend preparing an infusion of sage after mealtime, or once stomach pains appear. Keep in mind that sage also has appetite-stimulating properties that can help you.

    Indigestion:

    Sage can be used internally for the treatment of mild gastrointestinal problems and dyspepsia. It is a great stimulant tonic which can treat debility of stomach and weakness of digestive system. Sage tea or infusion is particularly effective in this regard. Its carminative effect can remove symptoms of indigestion by stimulating upper digestive secretions, bile flow, intestinal mobility and pancreatic function.

    Upset Stomach:

    Sage may also relieve an upset stomach. It’s been shown to reduce the symptoms of indigestion and help everything move the way that it should. If you catch our drift. Sage certainly has a lot to offer beyond flavour. Try it as a tea, or use fresh sage in recipes. Or ask a dietician or nutritionist to help you incorporate sage as part of a healthy eating plan.

    Heartburn:

    Sage leaves can be used as a treatment to soothe the heartburn. The nutrients contained inside the leaves help to control the acid so that it will reduce the heartburn. It also helps to develop the digestive enzyme. So that, the food is easy to digest and the intestine metabolism can be improved.

    Gastroenteritis:

    Sage can be used as a treatment for gastrointestinal problems and dyspepsia. It helps to reduce nausea in an empty stomach. Furthermore, research show that infusion of sage leaves reducing the gastritis condition inside the stomach. It help to relief the vomit syndrome in the gastroenteritis symptoms.

    A 2013 study "Antiulcerogenic potential of Salvia officinalis L. extract in rats" in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 3 by Taís Regina Fiorentin*, Michela Bianchi De Mello, Aline Maria Krube Aquino, Bruna Alexsandra Rigo, Carla Giane Loss, Melissa Schwanz, Arno Ernesto Hofmann Junior, Sandra Manoela Dias Macedo evaluated a crude ethanolic extract of S. officinalis in a gastric lesion induction model in male Wistar rats. Results showed potential use of S. officinalis for effective treatment of injuries caused by absolute alcohol.

    Diarrhea:

    In relation with the capability to handle gastroenteritis, sage leaves help to against diarrhea. The vitamin C improve the body immune to against the stomach bacteria which usually the main caused of diarrhea. Fresh sage is a traditional remedy for diarrhea. Test-tube and animal studies found that it contains compounds that may alleviate diarrhea by relaxing your gut.

    A 2011 study "Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Salvia officinalis are mediated through activation of K+ channels" in Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 6, No. 2 by Aslam Khan, Najeeb-ur- Rehman, Khalid M. AlKharfy, Anwarul-Hassan Gilani about crude extract of Salvia officinalis exhibited antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities probably mediated through the dominant activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels.

    Supports Weight Loss:

    If you want to get the best ideal body, then try to do some exercises together with consuming best foods. While exercise can make you healthy by promoting good muscles, then by consuming best foods in the diet, it fulfills your nutrient needs. Indeed, as this herbal tea acts as your appetite enhancer, it will be great to watch your digestive tract in order absorbing the nutrients needed. In addition, by preventing to absorb unnecessary fatty elements, hence, it helps to fight obesity.

    Obesity:

    Obesity is linked to diabetes, hypertension, heart and kidney diseases, and a number of chronic health conditions. Herbs like sage directly affect the lipid digestion and fat accumulation. The active components of this herb interfere in the activity of pancreatic enzymes. Carnosic acid and carnosol, which are diterpenes in sage extracts, are involved in this activity. These molecules also stop the rise in serum triglyceride levels and slow down weight gain. There is enough experimental evidence proving the safety of sage when used as an anti-obesity agent.

    Stimulates Appetite:

    If you find a day that you are not in a good mood to eat something while there are a lot of works to do, then take sage tea to drink. At this point, Sage tea is a great option to drink as it will be your favorite appetite enhancer. Further, the great vitamins and minerals contained in sage tea will fulfill your nutrients needs for sure.

    Diabetes:

    Sage is highly rich in dietary fiber, which is very useful to prevent diabetes. It helps to control the sugar level in our body and promote in insulin level, thus help in preventing diabetes. As per the researcher those who are suffering from diabetes, they should consume this wonderful herb to reduce the diabetes levels. The active ingredients in Sage are extremely effective in managing diabetes. It inhibits the release of sugar into the blood and increases the insulin levels in the body. It potently converts starch into energy and reduces the symptoms of diabetes such as frequent urination and thrusting. An infusion of sage leaves if drank regularly is extremely effective in bringing down your blood sugar levels.

    This herb is used as a traditional remedy to fight diabetes in many countries. Many experimental studies report the glucose-lowering effect of sage in their subjects. Its extracts could do so without affecting the pancreatic insulin production.

    Tea infusions of Sage exert a metformin-like effect on your body. They are, in fact, as effective as the drug in treating type 2 diabetes. Drinking about 300 ml of Sage tea twice a day increases antioxidants in your body. They, in turn, protect the liver and heart from chemical stress that is commonly caused by diabetes.

    A 2016 randomized clinical trial "Salvia officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract as Add-on to Statin Therapy in Hypercholesterolemic Type 2 Diabetic Patients" by Saeed Kianbakht∗, Farzaneh Nabati, Behrooz Abasi evaluated the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis combined with statin therapy in dyslipidemic patients. The extract showed antioxidant activity which may be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular complications in type-2 diabetes patients. Results showed that sage combined with glyburide, metformin, and atorvastatin further lowered fasting blood sugar, 2-hour postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and increased HDL-C in T2DM patients. Sage as add-on therapy is safe and further improved the lipid profile.

    Another 2013 double-blind clinical trial "Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients" by Saeed Behradmanesh, Fatemeh Derees, Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of Salvia officinalis on blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, liver and renal function tests. Results showed S. officinalis may be beneficial in diabetic patients, with reduction of 2hr PPBS and cholesterol levels. Higher doses might be needed to decrease fasting sugars and glycosylated hemoglobin.

    According to a research study published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2006, sage is an effective herb that assists in diabetes management. It contains certain extracts and chemicals that mimic the drugs typically prescribed for managing diabetes, such as metformin. It appears to regulate and inhibit the release of stored glucose in the liver, preventing major fluctuations of blood sugar, which can help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes or at least manage the condition if it has already manifested.

    In one clinical study, patients given Sage leaf extract over the course of 3 months experienced lower overall fasting glucose levels. This means that they were at less of a risk for diabetes, or they were better able to control their current condition.

    Unfortunately there have been an insufficient number of human studies carried out to suggest Sage could be recommended as a diabetes treatment.

    Blood Sugar:

    The leaves of Garden Sage have been used traditionally as a remedy against diabetes. Human and animal research indicates that it may help lower blood sugar levels. Several studies have proved that Sage leaf extract has anti-hyperglycemic properties which lower blood glucose levels by blocking the release of stored glucose from the liver. In simple words, it is effective in lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels in type 2 diabetics. However, further research is needed to substantiate this claim.

    In one study, Sage extract reduced blood glucose levels in rats with type 1 diabetes by activating a specific receptor. When this receptor is activated, it can help clear excess free fatty acids in the blood, which in turn improves insulin.

    Another study in mice with type 2 diabetes found that sage tea acts like metformin, a drug prescribed to manage blood sugar in people with the same disease. In humans, Sage leaf extract has been shown to lower blood sugar and improve insulin sensitivity with a similar effect as rosiglitazone, another anti-diabetes drug.

    Sage can reduce the amount of glucose in the blood. However, there is still not enough evidence to recommend sage as a diabetes treatment. More human research is needed.

    One study saw 40 people with diabetes and high cholesterol take sage leaf extract for 3 months. At the end of the trial, the participants had lower fasting glucose, lower average glucose levels over a 3-month period, and lower total cholesterol, triglyceride, and levels of harmful cholesterol. However, the participants had increased levels of HDL or “good” cholesterol. The researchers concluded: "leaves may be safe and have anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-profile-improving effects in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients".

    Another double-blind clinical trial was conducted to examine the hypoglycemic action of Sage on blood sugar. The clinical trial was performed on 80 type-2 diabetic patients, who were randomly assigned to 2 equal groups of treatment and control. The treatment group was given sage and the control group was given placebo tablets thrice a day for 3 months. The 2 hours postprandial blood sugar and cholesterol levels were considerably reduced in sage treated patients in comparison with the control group.

    A two-month study in 105 adults with type 2 diabetes found supplementing with 500 mg of Sage extract 3 times daily improved fasting blood sugar, post-meal blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c, a measure of average blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months. Meanwhile, a mouse study determined that replacing water with Sage tea reduced fasting blood sugar levels.

    Furthermore, a test-tube study suggested that sage behaves similarly to insulin, a hormone that helps manage blood sugar levels, by moving sugar in your blood into your cells for storage, thus lowering levels of this marker.

    A recent 2013 study published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine concludes that Sage leaves may be safe and have antihyperglycemic and lipid-profile-improving effects in hyperlipidemic Type 2 diabetic patients.

    A 2008 study published in Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology also highlights the benefits of Sage for the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes and its complications.

    A 2006 study published in the British Journal of Nutrition highlights the effect of Sage on fasting glucose levels in non diabetic animals and its metformin-like effects on rat hepatocytes. This study suggests that Sage may be useful as a food supplement in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus by lowering the plasma glucose of individuals at risk.

    Another 2006 study "Effects of Salvia officinalis in the liver: Relevance of glutathione levels" in Tese de Doutoramento Ciências Biológicas by Cristóvão Fernando Macedo Lima of Sage tea was found to lower fasting plasma glucose in mice indicating effects on gluconeogenesis. Sage tea drinking also increased glucose uptake capacity and increased hepatocyte sensitivity to insulin and inhibited gluconeogenesis.

    Although you shouldn’t ignore your diabetes medicines and insulin, including sage in your diet can help manage this illness. Sage has antihyperglycemic properties. This means it helps lower blood glucose levels by blocking the release of stored glucose from the liver.

    Insulin Sensitivity:

    Ben Khedher MR, Hammami M, Arch JRS, Hislop DC, Eze D, Wargent ET, Kępczyńska MA, Zaibi MS in "Preventive effects of Salvia officinalisleaf extract on insulin resistance and inflammation in a model of high fat diet-induced obesity in mice that responds to rosiglitazone" evaluated the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol extract in a mouse nutritional model of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance, and its effects of lipolysis and lipogenesis. Sage ME at low dose showed effects similar to rosiglitazone. It improved insulin sensitivity, inhibited lipogenesis in adipocytes and reduced inflammation as evidenced by increase anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 THF-α, and KC/GRO.

    Liver Health:

    A 2013 study "The histopathological effects of salvia officinalis on the kidney and liver of rats" in Scientific Journal of Medical Science, Vol 2, No 3 by A. D. Adekomi, T.D. Adeniyi, A.M. Afodun, K.K. Quadri evaluated an aqueous leaf extract of Salvia officinalis on kidney and liver of male Sprague Dawley rats. Histopath assessment suggests SO has not deleterious effects on kidney and liver of rats.

    A 2005 in vivo study "The drinking of a Salvia officinalis infusion improves liver antioxidant status in mice and rats" in Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 97, Issue 2 of a traditional Sage water infusion in mice and rats showed bioactivities and improvement in liver antioxidant potential.

    Kidney Health:

    Diuretic:

    A 2011 study in Asian Journal of Pharmacy & Life Science, Vol. 1 evaluated the diuretic effects of a methanol leaf extract in normal rats. Results showed significant increase in urine volume with increase excretion of sodium and a potassium conserving effect. Diuretic effect was comparable to reference drug hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).

    Treats Sleep Disorders:

    Sage contains magnesium, which is a mineral that is directly linked to improving the quality, duration, and tranquility of sleep. Sage also help regulate the metabolism, to help reduce sleep disorders and the occurrence of insomnia.

    Relieves Pain and Cramps:

    Muscle Pain:

    Tired and stiff muscles require soothing support, and sage is the perfect medicine. The high level of magnesium helps to increase blood flow to your muscles, warming them and relieving tension. Drink sage tea for the ultimate muscle relaxant.

    Sage contains compounds that help to treat muscle aches, as well as rheumatism and arthritis. The rosmarinic oils in the herb make it a valuable treatment for muscle and joint pains. A good Sage bath can be a great remedy to reduce muscle pain and rheumatism. It is also a good way to relieve stress and improve blood circulation. To do this, you must boil Sage leaves in the water, remove them and add the solution to your bathwater.

    Finally, you should keep in mind that the side effects of Sage are quite rare if the dose is respected. The only precaution to be taken is that its essential oil contains significant amounts of thujone, a neurotoxic and abortifacient substance. Therefore, it is not recommended for pregnant women or people with epilepsy.

    Improves Eyesight:

    Vitamins A and C, and beta carotene are prominent compounds found in Sage, and they support excellent eye health. Vitamin A helps to promote better vision in dim light, Vitamin C fights oxidative stress and beta carotene helps to keep your focus sharp and healthy.

    Eliminates Insects and Pests:

    Insects, microbes and bugs form the primary cause of several health anomalies. Being carriers of different types of microbial infections, not only do they contaminate food and lead to food poisoning but also cause problems ranging from rashes and itching to fever and infections. Some insects can even lead to lethal infectious diseases like dengue, malaria, chikungunya, yellow fever, etc. Imbued with potent anti-microbial properties, burning sage offers a cost-effective remedy to purify the air by killing these microbes.

    While keeping the windows open, place dried Sage leaves on an incense tray, Sage burner or a bowl. Light up the leaves and allow it to burn for a few seconds. Blow air into it so that the smoke comes out. Allow the smoke exuding from it to slowly purify the air around you.

    Easy to Add to Your Diet:

    Sage comes in several forms and can be used in a variety of ways. Fresh sage leaves have a strong aromatic flavor and are best used sparingly in dishes. Here are some ways you can add fresh sage to your diet:

    • Sprinkle as a garnish on soups.
    • Mix into a stuffing in roast dishes.
    • Combine chopped leaves with butter to make sage butter.
    • Add chopped leaves to tomato sauce.
    • Serve it with eggs in an omelet.
    • Dried sage is often preferred by cooks and comes ground, rubbed or in whole leaves.

    Here are some ways you can use dried sage:

    • As a rub for meats.
    • As a seasoning for roasted vegetables.
    • Combined with mashed potatoes or squash for a more earthy flavor.

    Sage tea is made from the leaves of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis), a plant in the mint family. Although you may know of sage as a culinary herb, the leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds such ellagic acid (also found in strawberries, raspberries, and walnuts) and rosmarinic acid (found in rosemary and basil). Proponents claim that sage tea can help with certain health conditions, promote weight loss, and improve hair health.

    Sage tea is purported to help with a variety of health conditions, including:Age-related cognitive decline, Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), Heartburn, Hot flashes, Insomnia, Sore throat. Gargling with Sage tea has long been used as a remedy for sore throat and coughs.

    Traditional Uses of Sage:

    • Sage is effective in medicinal use and is an important domestic herbal remedy for disorders of the digestive system.
    • Its antiseptic qualities make it an effective gargle for the mouth where it can heal sore throats, mouth irritations, cuts and bruises, ulcers etc.
    • Leaves applied to an aching tooth will often relieve the pain.
    • Whole herb is antihydrotic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, galactofuge, stimulant, tonic and vasodilator.
    • Sage is used internally in the treatment of excessive lactation, night sweats, excessive salivation, profuse perspiration, anxiety, depression, female sterility and menopausal problems.
    • Many herbalists believe that the purple-leafed forms of this species are more potent medicinally.
    • Externally, it is used to treat insect bites, skin, throat, mouth and gum infections and vaginal discharge.
    • Essential oil from the plant is used in small doses to remove heavy collections of mucous from the respiratory organs and mixed in embrocations for treating rheumatism.
    • Rub the leaf on the teeth to let them become whiter.
    • Used for snake bites.
    • Used for drying up perspiration.
    • Used to lower blood sugars in diabetics.
    • Used to treat amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. Used as cicatrizant.
    • Leaf is also used in mouth rinse water.
    • By rinsing with strong sage tea grey hair becomes darker and more sturdily.
    • Watery and alcoholic extracts of the leaves are used for rinsing and gargle by mouth, gums, jaw and tonsil inflammations.
    • Few drops of essential oil in salty water are a good rinse for (infected) wounds and ulcerations.
    • Tea of sage helps against bleeding gums and throat pain.
    • Sage tea and sage wine calms the nervous system and is good against a low blood pressure.
    • By taking a tea of sage, after an excessive meal, it promotes the digestion.
    • Sage helps against a bad appetite and against flatulence and can help to defeat diarrhea.
    • Leafs can be used against an irregular menstruation and to treat menopause problems.
    • Sage is recommended against night sweat for TB-patients, it decreases the transpiration sometimes for days in succession.
    • Sage decreases coughs and cold, and helps to prevent cold on the breast.
    • Sages leaf, that simmered some minutes in vinegar, are good a compress for painful joints and rheumatic problems.
    • Green leaves rubbed on teeth and gums to fortify them.
    • Sage appears to help against painful, knobby breasts, infertility, grief and after miscarriages.
    • In Germany, various preparations used for treatment of dyspeptic complaints (heartburn, bloating), minor skin inflammation, excessive sweating, symptomatic inflammation of the mouth or throat. German Commission E: GCE approved the internal use of Sage for dyspeptic symptoms and excessive perspiration, and the external use for inflammation of mucous membranes of the mouth and throat.

    Culinary Uses of Sage:

    • An enhancing condiment for lamb, fish, duck, goose, artichoke. cheese, beans.
    • Leaves and flowers are consumed raw or cooked.
    • Strongly aromatic leaves are used as a flavoring in cooked foods.
    • They are an aid to digestion and so are often used with heavy, oily foods.
    • They impart a sausage-like flavor to savory dishes.
    • Young leaves and flowers can be eaten raw, boiled, pickled or used in sandwiches.
    • Flowers can also be sprinkled on salads to add color and fragrance.
    • Herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves.
    • An essential oil obtained from the plant is used commercially to flavor ice cream, sweets, baked goods etc.
    • Sage often pairs well with poultry and pork.
    • Sage leaves are used as a seasoning or even as a marinade.
    • Mix cooked navy beans with olive oil, sage and garlic and serve on bruschetta.
    • Add fresh sage to omelets, frittatas, soups and poultry stuffing.
    • Young leaves eaten fresh in salads.
    • Sprinkle some sage on top of your next slice of pizza.
    • Combine Sage leaves, bell peppers, cucumbers and sweet onions with plain yogurt for an easy to prepare, refreshing salad.
    • When baking chicken or fish in parchment paper, place some fresh sage leaves inside so that the food will absorb the flavors of this wonderful herb.
    • Add for lemony and pleasantly bitter.

    Other Uses of Sage:

    • An essential oil from the leaves is used in perfumery, hair shampoos and as a food flavoring.
    • It is a very effective ‘fixer’ in perfumes, and is also used to flavor toothpastes and is added to bio-activating cosmetic.
    • Growing or dried plant is said to repel insects, it is especially useful when grown amongst cabbages and carrots.
    • Due to its pleasant aroma, sage is often used as a fragrance in soaps and cosmetics.
    • Put dried leaf between linen to drive off insects.
    • Leaves can be burnt on charcoal or can be boiled in water to disinfect a room.
    • Sage smoke drives away animal.
    • Sage is also present in many herbal types of toothpaste.
    • Cosmetics: infusions used to color the hair silver or gray.
    • Used as an after-shave astringent.
    • Used in perfumery.
    • Mouthwash for halitosis: Used as mouthwash for halitosis because of its antibacterial properties. Infusion prepared with a spoonful of dried plant per cup of water.
    • As decorative, used for making culinary wreaths.
    • ADHD: Take tsp of Chamomile, Rosemary, Sage and Lavender oil. Mix these oils with 40 ml Olive Oil. Apply this oil locally on child’s feet and spine before going to bed.
    • Age Spots: Take 10g. Rosewood oil, 10g of Myrrh oil, 10g of Chamomile oil, 10g of orange oil, 10g. of Mandarin orange oil, 10g of patchouli oil, and 10g. of sage. Put all the ingredients in a vessel. Heat for 5 minutes. Store in a glass bottle. Massage over affected area with this preparation for 10 minutes.
    • Amnesia: Boil one tsp of Sage in a glass of water. Drink it lukewarm.
    • Anxiety: Take following herbs on equal quantity Sage dried and powdered, basil leaves dried and powdered, rosemary dried and powdered, Thyme powdered, Ginger dried and powdered. Mix all ingredients. Have ½ tsp with milk at night daily.
    • Aphonia: Have decoction of the leaves of Sage. Gargle with it. / Take handful of Chamomile flower and leaves of Sage. Prepare decoction. Gargle with this decoction 2-3 times a day.
    • Athlete’s Foot: Prepare a paste of raw tomatoes, Basil leaves, celery, Carrot, Dill, Fennel, Sage and Thyme. Apply this paste on the affected area.
    • Bad Breathe: Chew 2-3 leaves of Sage.
    • Body Odor: Prepare a tea from fresh leaves of Sage. It flushes the odor causing toxins from the body. / Add tomato juice in the leaf paste of Sage. Apply it in the armpits and leave for 15 minutes. Take a bath after it.
    • Canker Relief: Gargle strong sage tea or freeze it into ice cubes and pop one in your mouth to soothe cankers.
    • Chlamydia: Steep 1 tsp of mashed sage leaves in one cup of hot water for 15 minutes. Drink it twice daily for one week.
    • Cold: Take following herbs: sage dried and powdered 20g, ginger dried and powdered 10g, Rosemary dried and powdered 10g, Cayenne dried and powdered 10g, basil dried leaves powered 20g. Put all ingredients in a bottle. Have half tsp with lukewarm water twice a day.
    • Cough: Take one cup of honey, some cloves of Garlic, one tbsp of dried lemon peel, one tbsp lemon juice and one sage leaf and blend. Keep away for a week. Squeeze the liquid. Strain and bottle. Take one tbsp twice a day.
    • Cystorrhea: Boil 4-6 tbsp of sage leaves for 10-15 minutes. Strain. Mix Honey and have it once in a day.
    • Dead Foetus: Prepare a decoction made of sage leaves and branches and one cup of water. Strain and drink 30 ml of this decoction three times a day.
    • Depression: Prepare tea with a few leaves of Sage. Strain. Gargle with this liquid daily before going to bed. / Take 1 tsp dried basil leaves and 2 tsp dried sage leaves. Make a tea with it. Drink twice a day.
    • Diabetes: Boil few fresh sage leaves in 150 ml of water. Drink this decoction daily on an empty stomach to treat Diabetes.
    • Eczema: 20 drops Sage mix boiled in a glass, cooled down water. Rinse or dab the skin with this 1 to 2 times a day.
    • Flu: 20 drops Sage, 20 drops Rosemary and 20 drops Eucalyptus mix. Of this mixture only drops on a tissue or handkerchief do and inhale this deeply. Daily to need.
    • Frizzy Hair: Heat 2 cups of Apple cider Vinegar just short of boiling. Add ¼ tbsp of each of Rosemary and Sage. Steep overnight and then strain. Store in a bottle. Mix ¼ cup of this preparation with 2 cups of warm water and use as a hair rinse for soft and shiny hair.
    • Grey Hair: Prepare an infusion of dried sage leaves. Us it for rinsing hairs. / Prepare a tea using leaves of Sage and Rosemary. Use it as a Conditioner. / Take 3-4 tbsp of dried sage in a pot and pour 2 cups of boiling water over it. Add one tbsp of Borax and let it cool. Now add 5-6 drops of sage essential oil. Apply the preparation lightly to the hair with a brush. Rinse after 2 to 3 hrs. with normal water. Repeat it 2-3 times a month.
    • Hair Rinse: Add a couple of pinches of sage leaves to about a 1/4 cup (50 mL) of boiling water. When cooled, use it as a rinse to treat dandruff or to lift lack luster locks.
    • High Creatinine: Take a hand full fresh leaves of Sage. Boil it for 10 minutes. Strain and drink this tea 2 times in a day.
    • Hoarseness: Take a tsp of dried Sage. boil in a cup of water. Strain. Gargle with this water thrice a day.
    • Hot Flashes: Take 1-2 tbsp of Sage leaves, 1 tbsp of Alfalfa, 1 tbsp of Rosemary and 1 tbsp of Motherwort. Blend them together and prepare an infusion in a half cup of water. Let it cool for 5 minutes. Strain and drink as tea once a day.
    • Hyperlactation: Prepare a decoction made of crushed sage leaves and one cup of hot water. Drink it thrice daily for 3-4 days.
    • Hyperprolactinemia: Infuse crushed sage leaves in one cup of hot water for 30 minutes. Drink it thrice daily for 3-4 days.
    • Insect Bites: 2 drops Sage on a damp wad of absorbent cotton. With this dab or lay the wad of absorbent cotton on the bite/ stab.
    • Leigh’s Disease: Chew 4-5 fresh leaves daily.
    • Memory Enhancer: Chew 2-3 leaves of Sage. / Have a cup of tea made from the leaves of sage once a day.
    • Menopause: Put a tbsp of dried leaves of sage in a pan. Pour a cup of hot water over the leaves. Le it Steep for 5 minutes. Strain it off. Add 1 tbsp of Honey to taste. Drink this warm decoction twice daily to reduce the symptoms. / Put a half tbsp of Sage and Raspberry leaves in a pan. Pour 150 to 200 ml of hot boiling water over the leaves. Let it steep for 10 minutes. Drink this warm tea once in a day in 2-3 hours. It helps to maintain the balance of female hormones to keep secure from menopause.
    • Night Sweat: Boil a cup of water in a pan with fresh sage leaves. Soak them for 5 minutes. Strain it off. Add a tbsp of Honey in this decoction. Drink this warm decoction twice a day to reduce the excessive sweating in the night.
    • Oily Skin: Add a spoonful of sage to a cup (250 mL) of boiling water. Steep for 30 minutes, strain and let cool before dabbing on your face.
    • Peritonsillar Abscess: Take leaves of Sage and Apple Cider Vinegar in equal amount. Prepare an infusion and Gargle.
    • Respiratory Disease: Take some boiling water in a bowl. Put 8-10 drops of essential oils of Sage and Thyme in it. Cover your head and face with a towel and inhale the aroma.
    • Schizophernia: Take dried basil leaves and sage leaves. Put quarter tsp of Basil leaves and one tsp of sage leaves in a cup of water. Boil on low flame for 10 minutes. Strain. Add honey. Drink it lukewarm 3 to 4 times a day.
    • Sensitive Gums: Mix 5 to 10 drops Sage in glass water and gargle with this 2 to 3 times per day.
    • Snoring: Prepare a decoction of the leaves of Sage. Strain. Gargle with this liquid daily before going to bed.
    • Sore Throat: Boil dried leaves of sage in cup of water and strain. Add 2 tbsp of Apple Cider Vinegar. Gargle with this warm mixture to get relief. / Put a large pinch of dried sage leaves into about a half cup (100 mL) of water. Bring to a boil and infuse for 15 minutes. Strain, sweeten with honey and use as a gargle twice a day.
    • Ulcers: Prepare a tea of dried herb. Gargle with it. (Do not Overdoses it).
    • Wounds: Mix 3 drops Sage and 3 drops Thyme in tablespoon St. John wort oil. Spread this mixture 2 turn a day on the wounds.

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    • user
      polite 19/04/2022 at 00:33
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