Medical Herbs approved by DOH

Garden & Plants

Table of Contents: Akapulko (Cassia alata / Senna alata) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Akapulko) / Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Ampalaya) / Bawang (Allium sativum) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Bawang) / Bayabas (Psidium guajava / Syzygium ellipticum / Guajava pumila) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Bayabas) / Lagundi (Vitex negundo / Vitex spicata / Vitex chinensis) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Lagundi) / Niog-niogan (Combretum indicum) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Niog-niogan) / Pansit-pansitan (Peperomia pellucida) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Pansit-pansitan) / Sambong (Blumea balsamifera) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Sambong) / Tsaang Gubat (Ehretia microphilla / Carmona microphylla) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Tsaang Gubat) / Yerba Buena (Mentha arvensis / Mentha arenaria) (Constituents, Properties, Use of Yerba Buena)

The early 90's of XX th Century seemed hopeful for the merging of western and alternative medicine in the Philippines. There was a burgeoning global movement towards alternative therapies, a new-age allure for "natural" remedies and in the Philippines, the beginnings of herbal medicinal research and development.

In 1992, during the term of Juan Flavier as Secretary of Health, a brochure of 10 medicinal plants (akapulko, ampalaya, bawang, bayabas, lagundi, niyog-niyogan, pansit-pansitan, sambong, tsaang-gubat, yerba buena) for common health problems was published and commercial production was pursued. These list of medicinal herbs has been clinically tested for their efficacy against many common ailments and disorders afflicting many Filipinos especially in rural areas.

In 1997, the TAMA (Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act) was passed, providing a legitimizing boost to the alternative medicine movement in the Philippines.

Here are the the ten medicinal plants that the Philippine Department of Health (DOH) through its "Traditional Health Program" have endorsed. All ten herbs have been thoroughly tested and have been clinically proven to have medicinal value in the relief and treatment of various aliments:

Akapulko is a coarse, erect, branched shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high. Leaves are pinnate and 40 to 60 cm long, with orange rachis on stout branches. Each leaf has 16 to 28 leaflets, 5 to 15 centimeters in length, broad and rounded at the apex, with a small point at the tip. Leaflets gradually increase in size from the base towards the tip of the leaf. Inflorescences are terminal and at the axils of the leaves, in simple or panicled racemes, and 10 to 50 centimeters long. Flowers are yellow, about 4 centimeters inn diameter, at the axils of thin, yellow, oblong, concave bracts which are 2.5 to 3 centimeters long. Pod is rather straight, dark brown or nearly black, about 15 centimeters long and 15 millimeters wide. On both sides of the pods there is a wing that runs the length of the pod. Pod contains 50 to 60 flattened, triangular seeds.

Constituents:

  • Chrysophanic acid (chrysophanol); oxymethyl anthraquinone, 2.2%; aloe-emodin; rhein; cassiaxanthone; tannins; saponins; alkaloids.
  • Study of chemical constituents yielded 12 compounds: chrysoeriol, kaempferol, quercetin, 5,7,4'-trihydroflavanone, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 17-hydrotetratriacontane, n-dotriacontanol, n-triacontanol, palmitic acid ceryl ester, stearic acid, palmitic acid.
  • Phytochemical studies of crude extract of stem bark yielded important secondary metabolites - tannins, steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenes, carbohydrates and saponins.
  • Phytochemical study of leaves yielded 12 compounds viz. chrysoeriol, kaempferol, quercetin, 5,7,4'-trihydroflavanone, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 17-hydrotetratriacontane, n-dotriacontanol, n-triacontanol, palmitic acid ceryl ester, stearic acid, palmitic acid.
  • GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts yielded main constituents of 6-octadecenoic acid (24.99 %), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl-9-octadecenoate (20.86 %) and octadecanoic acid (18.08 %).
  • Phytochemical screening of methanol extract of seeds yielded steroids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids.
  • Proximate analysis of seeds on % dry weight basis showed a composition of moisture 7.69 ± 0.35, ash 4.30 ± 0.08, crude protein 12.75 ± 0.05, crude lipid 4.79 ± 0.05, crude fiber 5.45 ± 0.05, carbohydrate 72.71 ± 0.09, and energy value of 385.07 ± 0.43 kcal/100 g of dried seed sample. Amino acid analysis yielded leucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine and threonine. Oil yielded a combination of unsaturated fatty acids (51.90%) and saturated fatty acids (43.30%). Mineral analysis (mg/100g) showed appreciable amount of potassium (270.00 ± 0.98), iron (29.642 ± 0.101), magnesium (373.417 ± 0.520) and calcium (439.317 ± 1.181), together with zinc, manganese, copper, chromium, and cadmium.
  • Analysis of fatty acid compounds of seed oil were mainly palmitic acid (67.13%), stearic acid (20.13%), arachidic acid (6.49%), behenic acid (4.11%), and lauric acid (2.15%). Analysis of oil cake showed 20.5% protein, >10% potassium, 1% magnesium, and 0.67% calcium.
  • Proximate analysis of S. alata leaves (g/100g) yielded moisture 4.49 ± 0.05, ash 9.53 ± 0.06, crude fiber 14.75 ± 0.01, crude protein 13.14 ± 0.02 , crude lipid 3.91 ± 0.01, carbohydrate 47.73 ± 0.01 and food energy value 298.61 ± 0.40 Kcal/100g. Mineral analysis showed the leaf to be rich in K 779.20 mg/100g, Mg 142.80 mg, Fe 42.35 mg, and Ca 158.38 mg.
  • Proximate analysis of S. alata flowers (g/100g) yielded moisture 6.16 ± 0.14, ash 7.00 ± 1.0, crude fiber 15.73 ± 0.93, crude protein 13.14 ± 0.02, crude lipid 1.81 ± 0.09, carbohydrate 57.04 ± 0.04 and food energy value 296.98 ± 0.61 Kcal/100g. Mineral analysis yielded K 1121.95, Mg 148.21, Fe 25.33, and Ca 63.30.
  • Study of leaf essential oil yielded seven compounds viz., (6Z)-7,11-dimethyl-3-methylidenedodeca-1,6,10- triene (2.42%), 4a,8-dimethyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydronaphthalene (3.80%), 4,4,7a-trimethyl-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-1-benzofuran-2(4H)-one (2.91 %), 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-diene (3.94%), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (8.59%), hexadecanoic acid (3.31%) and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (75.03%).
  • GC-MS analysis of chloroform-methanol extract of leaves yielded eleven compounds viz, methylpentadecanoate (0.47 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.49 %), methyloctadec-9-enoate (0.93 %), 6-octadecenoic acid (24.99 %), octadecanoic acid (18.08 %), glycerol-1,3-dipalmitate (2.99 %), 9-octadecenoyl chloride (1.19 %), 9-octadecenal (5.49 %), 3-hydroxypropyl-9-octadecanoate (3.64 %), 4-dimethylsilyloxypentadecane (11.87 %), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-9-octadecenoate (20.86 %).
  • Phytochemical screening of extracts of roots and leaves yielded tannins, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenols.
  • Solvent extraction, acid hydrolysis, chromatography and crystallization isolated a compound from the leaves of Cassia alata, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-7-methylanthracene-9-10-dione.
  • Bioassay=guided fractionation of cytotoxic fraction isolated three anthraquinones viz., rhein, aloe-emodin, and emodin. GC/MS of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that the major fatty acids were palmitic (37.02%), linolenic (24.27%), and stearic (14.18%) which comprised 90.69% of total fatty acids. GC/MS analysis of unsaponifiable matters showed phytol to be the major constituent (74.59%), followed by ß-sitosterol (17.45%).
  • Proximate analysis of seeds of Senna alata revealed high content of carbohydrate (58.44 ± 0.16 g/100g) and low moisture content (2.90 ± 0.01 g/100g). Anti-nutritional analysis showed low alkaloid content (2.00 g/100g) while saponin was not detected. Mineral analysis yielded an excellent source of K (1356.74 mg/100g), Ca (288.55 mg/100g), Mg (134.00 mg/100g) and Fe (14.50 mg/100g). GC/MS analysis of seed oil yielded reasonable percentage of linoleic acid (53.80%) and least amount for behenic acid (1.43%).

Properties:

  • Saponin acts as a laxative and expels intestinal parasites.
  • Its fungicide property derives from chrysophanic acid.
  • Plant considered alterative, astringent, abortifacient, aperient, expectorant, purgative, sudorific, hydragogue, diuretic, vermifuge.
  • Antifungal / Leaves and Bark: Crude ethanol and aqueous extract of Cassia alata leaves and bark were tested for antifungal activity in vitro against three fungi – Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum canis and Candida albicans. The study showed the C. alata to be effective against C. albicans, confirming its potential as a natural source of antifungal remedy. Study evaluated the safety and efficacy of C. alata leaves in the management of fungal infectious diseases. Results showed dose dependent antifungal activity of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts on five selected clinical isolates of pathogen fungi. Cassia alata showed greater antifungal activity against some human pathogenic fungi. Inhibition of Candida albicans, Microsporum canus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was better than ketoconazzole 200 mg as control.
  • Anthraquinone / Antifungal: Study yielded an anthraquinone high-yielding Senna alata leaf extract with antifungal activity against dermatophytes – Tricophyton rubrum, T mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum.
  • Antidermatophytic: Study of ethanolic extract of CA leaves showed high activity against various species of dermatophytic fungi but low activity against non-dermatophytic fungi. In a study using methanolic, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts to screen for phytochemicals, antibacterial and antifungal activities, the methanolic extract showed the highest activity.
  • Analgesic: Ethanol and hexane extract of Senna alata leaves showed analgesic effect in mice. Study of leaf extract of C. alata in mice showed analgesic activity. Fifty milligrams of kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside was equivalent to 100 mg of the extract.
  • Phytochemistry / Antimicrobial Activity: Nigerian studies showed activity of the methanol leaf extract on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris. Secondary metabolites were identified (saponins, tannins, phenolic compounds, eugenol, glycosides and anthraquinones). Study of methanolic extracts of flowers, leaves, stem and root barks of CA showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, with the flower extract the most effective.
  • Antiseptic Soap: A Nigerian study on Cassia alata-based soap exhibited high antimicrobial potency against Staph aureus, the organism most widely encountered and undesirable of the normal skin flora. At a reduction time of 5 minutes, the herbal soap made a 94.78% reduction of the microbial load, findings of economic, industrial and medical significance.
  • Anti-Inflammatory: Leaf extract of S. alata showed anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of histamine secretion. Anti inflammatory activity of heat-treated CA leaf extract and kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside (K3G), an abundant flavonoid glycoside isolated from CA were compared with the activities of sun-dried CA leaf extract. Both extracts exhibited strong inhibitory effects on Concanavalin A-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal exudate.
  • Antibacterial: Study showed the water extract of leaves to have more portent antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract against S. aureus.
  • Purgative Effect: Study showed Cassia alata fresh leaves showed significant purgative efficacy on volume and frequency compared to placebo.
  • Hematologic & Toxicity Effects: Study of aqueous leaf extract in albino showed significant dose-dependent decreases in hemoglobin levels and erythrocyte counts with emaciation, loss of appetite and weight loss as signs of toxicity.
  • Phytochemistry & Antibacterial Activity of Senna alata Flower: Study of crude plant extracts yielded steroids, anthraquinone glycosides, volatile oils and tannins with good inhibitory activity against S aureus, S faecalis, B subtilis among others.
  • Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study of crude ethanol and water extract of leaves and barks from CA showed concentration-dependent activity against C albicans. The water extract showed antibacterial activity against S aureus.
  • Bioactivity of Leaf Extracts: Hexane (H), chloroform (C), ethylacetate (EA) extracts of CA leaves showed analgesic (H), anti-inflammatory (H/EA), antimutagenic (C), antimicrobial (H/EA), hypoglycemic activities (EA). All extracts effected a decrease in motor activity, enophthalmos, hyperemia, micturition and diarrhea.
  • Constipation Treatment: Leaves have been claimed effective as a laxative, presumed to be due to anthraquinones. In a study testing the efficacy of CA leaves for treatment of constipation compared to placebo, the differences were statistically highly significant. Minimal side effects – nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain and diarrhea – were noted in 16-25 percent of patients.
  • Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol / Leaves: An alcoholic extract study of dried leaves of Cassia alata on paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity that is attributed to the flavonoids present in the leaves.
  • Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride: Study of crude extracts of petals of the plant showed hepatoprotective activity in rats with CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The effect was attributed to anthocyanin present in the extract.
  • Weight-Lowering Effect / Hypolipidemic: Study showed C. fistula and S. alata significant and effectively reduced the body weight and weight of parametrial fat in mice due to their tannin contents. Both plants present as potential sources of anti-obesity and hypolipidemic compounds.
  • Pityriasis versicolor / Leaves: A 10-year human study indicates the leaf extract of Cassia alata can be reliably used as a herbal medicine to treat Pityriasis versicolor. The leaf extract has no side-effects.
  • In-vitro Antifungal Activity: Study of crude stem bark extract on clinical test dermatophytes showed marked antifungal effects on M. canslaslomyces, T verrucosum, T mentagrophytes and E. floccosum. The extract was fungicidal for all tested dermatophytes.
  • Antifungal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated a crude leaf extract on clinical test Dermatophytes. Results showed the leaf exudates and ethanol extract of leaf exhibited marked antifungal effects on Microsporum canis, Trichophyton jirrucosum, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton jllorcosum. Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthracionones and carbohydrates.
  • Effect on Smooth Muscle Activity / Toxicity Study / Roots: Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic and aqueous roots extract on smooth muscle activity in rat and rabbit. Results showed marked dose dependent spasmodic effect on drug-induced contractions of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus/fallopian smooth muscle preparations tested. The ethanolic extract of roots is moderately toxic with a lethality dose (LD50) of 263±25 mg/kg.
  • Immune Stimulating / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study investigated the antioxidant potency and immune stimulating property of a methanolic extract of CA. Results showed very high DPPH radical scavenging activity in contrast to standard synthetic antioxidant BHT. CA also showed strong immune-modulating or immune-stimulating potency, as evidenced by rise in leukocyte count with concomitant increase in granulocytes and significant increase in peritoneal macrophages in rabbits treated with the extract.
  • Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the efficacy of CA against cestode Hymenolepis diminuta. Results showed decreased parasite motility. Microscopic studies showed changes similar with worms treated the known drug praziqunatel. Results suggest a potential alternative anthelmintic drug.
  • Antidiabetic / α-glucosidase inhibition / Leaves: A methanol extract of leaves showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity far better than the standard drug, acarbose. Fractionation of crude extracts yielded kaempferol (56.7±7.7µM) and kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside.
  • Immunostimulatory Effects on Staph Infection: Study evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of the ethanolic extract on Swiss albino rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus. In the extract treated group there was lower WBC count, with decrease in neutrophil-lymphocyte ration indicating suppression of infection/inhibition of proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus infection.
  • Pityriasis versicolor / Leaves: Study reports on 10-year study indicating the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor in humans. The leaf extract has no side effects.
  • Comparative Antimicrobial Effects of Leaf Extracts: Study compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts on bacteria and fungi. The extracts showed dose dependent antimicrobial effect with greater activity against K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes. The extracts showed more activity against fungi than bacteria, with the aqueous leaf extract showing better antibacterial activity against K. pneumonia and the ethanol leaf extract against P. aeruginosa.
  • Antimicrobial / Flowers: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of various extracts of flowers on some bacterial and fungal strains. Results showed 2.5 and 3% crude extracts completely inhibited the growth of dermatophytes. A methanol extract was the most active against E. coli, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
  • Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antipyretic effect of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Cassia alata in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. Results showed dose dependent reduction in temperature, with the ethanol extract showing higher reduction than the water extract. Both extracts showed significantly higher effect than paracetamol.
  • Antimalarial Terpenes/ Leaves: Eleven terpenes extracted from C. alata and O. gratissimum leaves were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falcifarum. Nine terpenes showed promising antimalarial activity with IC50 values below 1 µg/ml; two terpenes showed good activity with IC50 below 4 µg/ml.
  • Abortifacient / Effect of Post-Coital Leaf Alkaloids: Study investigated the pregnancy terminating effects of alkaloids from S. alata leaves on pregnant rats. The leaf alkaloids exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activity. The alkaloids may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.
  • Bronchorelaxant, Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Effects: Study evaluated an aqueous-ethanolic extract of C. alata (AECal) and its fractions for bronchorelaxant, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects. Results suggest (1) muscarinic receptors contribute in part to the relaxant effects of CF-AECal; (2) CF-AECal interferes with membrane polarization; and (4) AECal is not genotoxic in vivo and contains chemopreventive phytoconstituents offering protection against CP-induced genotoxicity.
  • Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase / Antidiabetic: Study investigated the inhibitory effect of S. alata leaf extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and its potential for reducing postprandial blood glucose level of rats.. Results showed S. alata leaf extracts inhibit α-amylase as well as as α-glucosidase and reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.
  • Nutritional Analysis / Leaves and Flowers: Antinutritional analysis of flowers and leaves yielded alkaloids (L 6.75 g/100g, F 5.16), saponins (L 2.00, F3.50), and oxalates (L8.03, F 3.50). Vitamin analysis showed the leaves and flowers are excellent sources of ß-catotene, vitamin C and vitamin E. The leaves and flowers are rich in some nutrients, and antinutritional factors should pose no problem since they may be lost during the process of domestication.
  • Leaf Essential Oil / Antimicrobial: Study of leaf essential oil yielded seven compounds. Extract exhibited marked antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, S. faecalis, E. coli, and P. mirabilis which was attributed to the presence of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, as well as monoterpene lactone through its synergistic effects.
  • Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxicological effects of aqueous dried leaf extracts in Wistar rats. In acute toxicity testing, no deaths were recorded up to 10 g/kbw. In sub-acute toxicity study at doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg for 14 days in wistar rats, while the extract did not exhibit changes iin RBC parameters, there were significant differences (p<0.05) were noted in WBC, platelet, urea, AST, AP, TC, HDL and LDL. Histopath of the liver and kidney did not reveal pathologic changes. Results suggest aqueous dried leaf extract is not toxic at tested doses. (50) Study evaluated acute and sub-acute toxicity of leaf extracts in Swiss albino mice using doses of 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/kbw. Test animals were observed for signs of acute toxicity every two hours for 24 hours and for subacute toxicity with further administration for 15 days, measuring physical, biochemical, hematologic, and histopathological parameters. The highest dose did not produce mortality or changes in general behavior. All parameters were unaltered. Results indicate safety with oral administration of the extract
  • Antimicrobial / Roots and Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of root and leaf extracts of Senna alata plant against some infectious bacteria (E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, etc.) and fungi (A. flavus, A. niger, C. albicans, etc.). All extracts showed considerable activity against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria and some fungi with organic extracts showing higher activity than aqueous extracts. (see constituents above)
  • Antiviral / Dengue Virus Serotype-2 / Leaves: Study evaluated the activity and toxicity of 4 subfractions of C. alata leaves to Dengue virus serotype-2 strain New Guinea C in human cell line Huh-7 it-1. CA and CA3 showed potent antiviral activity against DENV-2. Further studies were suggested to explore inhibition mechanism.
  • No Effect in Colorectal Cancer Model / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of Cassia alata leaves extract in Intraperitoneal DMH (dimethyl hydrazine) induced tumors in rats. Results showed Cassia alata leaves extract was not able to reduce inflammation and dysplasia and failed to reduce tumors in DMH induced colorectal cancer model.
  • Antibacterial / Nucleic Acid Degradation Property / Leaves: Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded tannins, phlobatanins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Multiple solvent soxhlet extract of C. alata showed promising activity against S. typhi but failed to control K. pneumonia. Multiple solvent based hot extract significantly degraded the total nucleic acids content in sensitive S. typhi but not degrading total nucleic acids of extract of resistant K. pneumonia. Results suggest a promising lead for the formulation of new antimicrobial drugs.
  • Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated chloroform fraction of leaves for potential antitumor properties in vitro. MTT assay examined the cytotoxic effect on three human cancer cell lines viz., HepG2, MDA-MB-231 and Caco2. The chloroform fraction showed remarkable cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells with IC50 37.4 µg/ml. The fraction exhibited weak anti-proliferative effect on Caco2 and MDA-MB-231 cells. (see constituents above)
  • Studies on Laxative Properties / Antibacterial / Senna alata and Hollandia yoghurt: Study evaluated aqueous extract of Senna alata and Hollandia yoghurt for compounds responsible for their laxative properties. Phytochemical screening of S. alata yielded alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids. S. alata showed activity against Penicillium spp., Trichophyton spp. and Rhizopus spp. The antibacterial property and bioactive compounds provided insight into their usage for relieving constipation.
  • Nutrient Content of Seeds / Potential Livestock Feed: Study investigated the nutrients and anti-nutrients in the seed of Senna alata. Results showed a high nutrient content for the plant seed and a potential as alternative feed source for livestock.
  • Formulation of Herbal Ointment / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on the formulation of a dermal ointment from whole leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Physicochemical characteristics of formulation viz., pH, composition and chromatographic profile were studied. Gentamicin and ketoconazole discs were used as controls. The formulated herbal ointment was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans strains. Overall, the ointment demonstrated higher antifungal activity than antibacterial activity based on zones of inhibitions.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa, and stem bark of Polyscias fulva collected in Cameroon. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both H2O2 and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. Effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by dose dependent reduction in TNF-a production in the presence of Cassia alata, C. papaya, E. speciosa, E. indica and P. fulva.
  • Treatment for Tinea imbricata / Leaf Decoction: Tinea imbricata is a rare form of tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton concentricum, which is endemic among the T'boli tribe in Sarangani, Philippines. There are anecdotal reports on the use of S. alata for treatment of T. imbricata. Study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a community-prepared Senna alata leaf decoction for the treatment of tinea imbricata to be applied as a body wash once a day for 28 days. Results have been submitted but is not available on-line at present.
  • Silver Nanoparticles / Antioxidant and Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the green synthesis of nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Cassia alata leaves as reducing agent. Inhibition of bacterial growth was highly dependent on concentration of the extract. The SNPs exhibited better percentage inhibition at 1000 µg/ml on DPPH and DMPD assays. Among the extract, standard and SNPs tested for antioxidant activity, SNPs showed highest activity at 300 µg/ml at TAC (0.224 ± 0.01) assay.
  • Healing of Burns / Leaves: Study evaluated the optimization of S. alata leaves extract in healing burns using white rats (Tattusnorvigicus). Results showed S. alata leaves extract demonstrated significant effects in healing burns based on treatment concentration; a 95% concentration gave optimal effect.
  • Herbal Antimicrobial Gel / Enhanced Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vivo wound healing potential of an herbal antimicrobial gel containing pure bioactive leaf extract of Cassia alata (1% w/w) in a rat model with surgical site infection in the dorsal area. The methanolic leaf extract exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against tested bacteria (S. aureus MTCC 9542) and fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 4842). The leaf extract gel significantly enhanced wound healing as evidenced by contraction of wound length and bio burden characteristics. Results suggest a promising and innovative non-toxic topical alternative for treatment of skin infections caused by bacteria and fungal strains
  • Toxicity Evaluation / Stems: Study evaluated phytochemicals, proximate, and toxicity effect of aqueous stem extracts of S. alata using wistar rats. Acute toxicity testing at 10 g/kbw orally did not produce any mortality. In subacute toxicity using doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg for 14 days, there were significant differences (p>0.05) on ALT, AST, and ALP. Results showed dried stem of S. alata is not toxic at the tested doses.
  • Mosquitocidal Against Dengue and Zika Virus Vector / Aedes aegypti / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of S. alata methanolic leaf extract on larvicidal, pupicidal, ovicidal and ovipositional deterrence against dengue and zika virus vector Ae. aegypti. Results showed larvicidal and pupicidal property of the plant. Young larvae were relatively more susceptible than the older ones. Results suggest the leaf extract can be used as alternative in dengue and zika virus vector management programs.

Use of Akapulko:

  • The seeds used for intestinal parasitism.
  • Tincture from leaves reported to be purgative.
  • Decoction of leaves and flowers for cough and as expectorant in bronchitis and asthma. Also used as astringent.
  • Crushed leaves and juice extract used for ringworm, scabies, eczema, tinea infections, itches, insect bites, herpes.
  • Preparation: Pound enough fresh leaves; express (squeeze out) the juice and apply on the affected skin morning and evening. Improvement should be noticed after 2 - 3 weeks of treatment.
  • Decoction of leaves and flowers used as mouthwash in stomatitis.
  • In Africa, the boiled leaves are used for hypertension.
  • In South American, used for skin diseases, stomach problems, fever, asthma, snake bites and venereal disease.
  • In Thailand, leaves are boiled and drunk to hasten delivery.
  • As laxative, boil 10-15 dried leaves in water, taken in the morning and bedtime.
  • For wound treatment, leaves are boiled and simmered to one-third volume, then applied to affected areas twice daily.
  • In India, plant used as cure for poisonous bites and for venereal eruptions.
  • In Nigeria locally used for treatment of ringworm and parasitic skin diseases.
  • In the Antilles, Reunion, and Indo-China, plant is used as hydrogogue, sudorific, and diuretic.
  • Decoction of roots used for tympanites.
  • Wood used as alterative.
  • Sap of leaves used as antiherpetic.
  • Leaf tincture or extract used as purgative.
  • Juice of leaves mixed with lime-juice for ringworm.
  • Leaves taken internally to relieve constipation.
  • Strong decoction of leaves and flowers used as wash for eczema.
  • Infusion of leaves and flowers used for asthma and bronchitis.
  • Strong decoction of leaves used as abortifacient.
  • Seeds used as vermifuge.

Ampalaya is a climbing vine, nearly or quite smooth, annual vine. Tendrils are simple, up to 20 centimeters long. Leaves are 2.5 to 10 centimeters in diameter, cut nearly to the base into 5 to 7 lobes, oblong-ovate, variously toothed, and heart-shaped at the base. Male flower is about 12 millimeters long, and is peduncled, with a rounded, green, and about 1 centimeter long bract approximately at the middle. Female flower is yellow flower, about 15 millimeters long, long-stalked with pair of small leaflike bracts at middle or toward base of stalk. Fruit, in cultivated form, is green, fleshy, oblong, cylindric, 15 to 25 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, ribbed and wrinkled, bursting when mature to release seeds; in wild forms, ovoid, about 2 to 4 centimeters long. Seeds are oblong, compressed 10 to 13 millimeters long, and corrugated on the margins.

Constituents:

  • Phytochemical study yielded alkaloids, glycosides, aglycone, tannin, sterol, phenol and protein.
  • 1898 study reported a bitter alkaloid and a glucoside.
  • Leaves and fruit yielded a bitter principle, momordicin.
  • A petroleum ether extractive yielded a highly aromatic ethereal oil, a fixed oil, traces of free fatty acids and carotene.
  • Ethyl ether fraction yielded chlorophyll, a glucoside-like substance and resin.
  • Water soluble extractive yielded a saponin-like substance and mucilaginous bodies.
  • Study for chemical constituents of leaves isolated five compounds from an 80% ethanol extract, identified as: Momordicin I, Momordicin IV, Aglycone of MomordicosideI, Aglycone of Momordicoside L and Karavilagenin D. Isolated compounds were all triterpenoids.
  • Proximate composition of bitter gourd leaf (L), fruit (F) and seed (S) yielded moisture % 17.97 L, 10.74 F, 20.69 S; total ash % 15.42 L, 7.36 F, 9.73 S; crude fat % 3.68 L, 6.11 F, 11.50 S; fiber % 3.31, 1.7 F, 29.6 S; crude protein % 27.46 L, 27.88 F, 19.50 S; carbohydrate % 32.34 L, 34.31 F, 9.18 S; caloric value (k/cal/100g) 213 L, 241 F, 176 S. (Bakare et al., Nutritional and chemical evaluation of Momordica charantia. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010; 4:2189-2193).
  • Vitamin composition (PPM) yielded A traces, E 800±14, C 66000±141, B12 5355±7.10, folic acid 20600±42.43. Mineral analysis (PPM) yielded calcium 20510±5.77, magnesium 255±0.69, sodium 2200±1.15, potassium 413±1.45, iron 98±0.23, zinc 120±1.15, manganese 156±0.33, copper 32±1.85. (Bakare et al., Nutritional and chemical evaluation of Momordica charantia. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010; 4:2189-2193).
  • Preliminary phytochemical screening of fruit extract yielded alkaloids, saponin, glycosides, steroids, and sterols. (see study below).
  • Proximate and mineral composition of fruit yielded moisture 93.20%, ash 7.36%, lipids 6.11%, fiber 13.60%, protein 27.88 6.11%, carbohydrate 34.31%, energy 241.66 kcal/100 g, magnesium 0, sodium 2.40 mg/100g, potassium 171.00 mg/100g, iron 1.8 mg/100g, zinc 0, manganese 0.08 mg/100g, copper 0.19 mg/100g, phosphorus 70 mg/100g, vitamin C 96 mg/100g.

Properties:

  • Considered astringent, antidiabetic, abortifacient, antirheumatic, contraceptive, galactagogue, parasiticide, anthelmintic, purgative, emetic, antipyretic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, cooling , tonic, vulnerary.
  • Fruit considered tonic and stomachic.
  • Studies have shown antidiabetic, adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, membrane stabilizing, antioxidant, cholinomimetic, analgesic, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-dengue, antifungal properties.
  • Analgesic / Cholinomimetic: A methanol leaf extract study of Momordica charantia in rodents suggested cholinomimetic and analgesic activities.
  • Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties: Adaptogenic properties are indicated by the delay in the appearance of cataracts, the secondary complications of diabetes and relief in neurological and other common symptoms even before the hypoglycemia occurred.
  • Anti-inflammatory / Membrane Stabilizing Property: The study reports the anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing property of an aqueous extract of Momordica charantia leaves in rats. The results suggest the anti-inflammatory activity may not be related to membrane-stabilization.
  • Antimicrobial: Study on various extracts of Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Momordica charantia showed activity against all tested bacteria, Staph aureus being more susceptible to the aqueous extracts.
  • Larvicidal: Study showed M. charantia to have good larvicidal activity against three container breeding mosquitoes: An. stephensi, Cx quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti suggesting a potential for the fruit extracts use in potable waters against mosquito larvae. A methanolic leaf extract of M. charantia showed larvicidal and pupicidal activity against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malarial vector Anopheles stephensi.
  • Antidiabetic / Estrous Cyclicity Effect: Study results suggest the antidiabetic potential of MC and AP could restore the impaired estrous cycle in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
  • Antidiabetic / Saponins: Study showed the saponin constituents extracted from MC induced significant hypoglycemic activity in hyperglycemic and normal mice.
  • Anxiolytic / Antidepressant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of methanol extract of dried leaves of MC showed significant anxiolytic activity and antidepressant and anti-inflammatory activities.
  • Antidiabetic / Glucose Lowering: A water soluble extract of the fruit significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations in diabetic and after force-feeding in rats. Fried karela fruits consumed as daily dietary supplement produced a small but significant improvement in glucose tolerance.
  • Antidiabetic: An aqueous powder extract of the fresh unripe whole fruit reduced fasting glucose by 48% comparable to glibenclamide, a known synthetic drug. Testing showed no nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. As an edible vegetable, it presents a safe alternative to reducing blood glucose.
  • Antidiabetic: Study targeted a 1% decline in A1c with an estimated power of 88%. With the observed decline of 0.24%, the achieved power was only 11%. Study failed to make a definite conclusion on M. charantia's effectiveness.
  • Anti-Ulcerogenic / Gastroprotective: An olive oil extract of M charantia showed ulcer inhibition a gastroprotective effect against indomethacin.
  • Phytochemicals: Study of chemical constituents of unmatured fruits yielded vincine, mycose, momordicoside A and momordicoside B.
  • Phytochemicals / Extract-Metformin Synergism: Study yielded alkaloids, glycosides, aglycone, tannin, sterol, phenol and protein. Use of the extract for pharmacologic interactions with half doses of metformin or glibenclamide or both in combination caused a decrease in blood sugar greater than that caused by full doses in a 7-day treatment study. Results suggest a synergism activity.
  • Antioxidant: Study of Momordica charantia fruit extract exerts a protection to AC-induced hyperammonemic rats against oxidative stress possibly through prevention or inhibition of the lipid peroxidative system by its antioxidant, hepatoprotective effect and maintenance of cellular integrity.
  • Antioxidant / Chemoprotective: Study demonstrated the antioxidant and chemoprotective activities of M. charantia fruit extract in experimental rat models. Results strongly suggest chemoprotective action against CCl4-induced toxicity. Indirect inhibition of CYP1A dependent activities suggest a promising cancer chemopreventive action by lowering metabolic activation of various carcinogens and/or procarcinogens.
  • Review / Cucurbitane-type Triterpenoids / Charantin: Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids are the main active constituents of M. charantia. Some have potential biological and pharmaceutical activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anticancer, anti-HIV, antifeedant and antioviposition activities. Charantin, an anti-diabetic compound, is a typical cucurbitane-type triterpenoid, with a potential for the the treatment of diabetes.
  • Antioxidant / Chemoprotective: Study of bitter melon extract modulates signal transduction pathways for inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and can be used as a dietary supplement for breast cancer prevention.
  • Obesity / Adipogenesis Reduction: Study of bitter melon juice showed potent inhibition of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ can be an effective alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.
  • Antileukemic Potential / Seeds: Study of fractionated seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells showed differentiation inducing activity with potential for use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.
  • Anti-Dengue: Study of evaluated the antiviral effects of six plants on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results showed the methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro studies.
  • Anti-Diabetes / Review: Bitter gourd increases insulin secretion of the pancreas, decreases intestinal glucose uptake, and increases uptake and utilization of glucose in peripheral tissues. Although human studies are weak in design and results, some studies do indicate safety and anti-diabetic effects.
  • Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen Intoxication: Study evaluated the hepatocurative effects of Mormodica fruit extracts in rabbits intoxicated with acetaminophen. Results showed animals treated with the fruit extract had less liver damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating hepatoprotective properties.
  • Inhibition of Human Adipocyte Differentiation: Study showed bitter melon is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. Results suggest bitter melon juice may prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.
  • Antifungal: Study showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. Phytochemicals identified included steroids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and terpenoids.
  • Hypoglycemic and Antiglycation Activities: Two-arm, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial evaluated the fruit pulp effect of bitter melon on long-term glycemic control and glycation status in T2 diabetic patients. Results showed reduction of A1C from baseline greater than the placebo group, with a significant decline of total advanced glycation end-products. Study concludes bitter melon is beneficial not only for glycemic control, but also on potential systemic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Effects on Blood Rheological Properties in Diabetic Patients: Study showed PEG microspheres adsorbed with nanofraction extracts of M. charantia reduced blood viscosity. The use of nanoparticles extract of M. charantia and its absorption on PEG microspheres may represent an alternative for control and treatment of blood disorders in diabetic patients.
  • Biodiesel Potential of Seed Oil: Study showed M. charantia oil has potential as nonedible raw material for biodiesel production. The low value oxidative stability of MSOMEs can by solved by adding antioxidant additives.
  • Antimicrobial / Foodborne Pathogens: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 24 hydroalcoholic extracts from stem-leaf, pulp, seeds of M. charantia against bacteria and fungal strains. Gram negative Pseudomonas spp. was more susceptible towards all the extracts than gram positive and fungal strains investigated. Results suggest a potential for use of the extracts in control of Pseudomonas spp. in food industry ad well as for therapeutic purposes.
  • Acute Toxicological Study: Study evaluated the toxicity level of M. charantia by acute toxicity test using Sprague Dawley rats. Results suggests M. charantia was safe at 2000 mg/kg. According to OECD guidelines, the toxicity level of this plant is class 5: >2000 mg/kg. (35) Study evaluated the acute oral toxicity effects of Momordica charantia in Sprague Dawley rats based of OECD Guidelines 423. Results suggest the LD50 of the ethanolic extract of M. charantia is considered safe to be consumed below 2000 mg/kg. The highest dose can provoke toxic effects to the blood, tissue and vital organs, especially liver. The study results aid in providing information on safety level recommendations and dosage of the EE for further applications or commercialization.
  • Beneficial in Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis: Study evaluated the effect of M. charantia fruit extra ct on hyperglycemia induced cardiac fibrosis in male Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed the fruit extract possess antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardiac protective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.
  • Lectin / Ribosome Inactivating Protein / Antitumor / Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Study investigated the antitumor activity of M. charantia lectin, a type II ribosome inactivating protein. The MC lectin showed potent cytotoxicity , induced apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, G1-phase arrest, and mitochondrial injury in both types of NPC (nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells. Results showed the potential of type II RIP, MCL for prevention and therapy of NPC.
  • Antibacterial / E. coli Prophylaxis: Study evaluated MC extract for secondary metabolites and antibacterial activity. Results showed maximum activity against E. coli and suggest a potential as prophylactic medicine for E. coli.
  • Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit: Study evaluated a fruit extract for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in rat models. Results showed analgesic activity with significant inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing and tail immersion test induced pain. Extract also showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan induced paw edema testing.
  • Anthelmintic / Antioxidant / Fruit: Study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of whole fruit, fruit peels, seed and fresh juice against Indian adult earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and antioxidant activity using the DPPH scavenging assay method. The methanol extract of fruit peels showed potent anthelmintic activity similar to standard albendazole. Whole fruit and seed extract, whole fruit juice and peel juice also showed in vitro anthelmintic activity. Methanol extract of fruit peel showed strong DPPH scavenging activity; juice of fruit peel showed good radical scavenging effect.
  • Momordica charantia as a Probable Cause of a Case of Atrial Fibrillation: Study reports a case of a 22-year old man who complained of palpitations and weakness, and found to have atrial fibrillation. The history suggested the consumption of M. charantia juice as the "probable cause" of the cardiac arrhythmia, scoring 6 on the Naranjo adverse drug reaction category: 9 or >, definite; 5-8, probably; and 1-4, possible, and 0, doubtful.
  • Inconclusive Anti-Diabetic Effects on Meta-Analysis: Previous data has showed inconclusive and inconsistent results about the benefits of bitter melon in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine if bitter melon has a favorable effect in lowering plasma glucose in diabetic patients. The meta-analysis included a total of four RCTs (randomized controlled trials), each with 40-66 participants. Study concluded that bitter melon supplementation compared with no treatment did not show significant glycemic improvement on either A1c or fasting plasma glucose. Study suggests a larger sample of patients evaluated over a longer period of time to determine whether bitter melon is truly ineffective in diabetic patients.
  • Charantin: Charantin is a steroidal glycoside, existing as equal mixture of stigmasterol glucoside and ß-sitosterol glucoside and considered to have blood sugar lowering property equivalent to insulin. Study suggests generation of further and substantial clinical data to establish its hypoglycemic potential.
  • Charantin / Antimicrobial: Charantin confirmed better antimicrobial activity of charantin when compared with standard, against bacterial species such as gram positive B. subtilis, gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  • Antimutagenicity / Chemopreventive: Study investigated the antimutagenicity and chemopreventive activity of an 85% ethanol extract of bitter melon against the formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Results showed significant inhibition of ACF formation in the colon, suggesting possible chemopreventive potential against colon carcinogenesis.
  • Evaluation of Antidiabetic Properties by Metabolomics: Study investigated changes in urinary metabolic profile of normal, STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Results showed diabetic rats had higher levels of succinate, creatine, creatinine, urea and phenylacetylglycine in the urine. Administration of M. charantia extract regulated the altered metabolic processes, and, thus, has the potential for treating diabetic patients.
  • Cardioprotective / Cholesterol Effects: Study showed M. charantia plant extract has cardioprotective properties by its dose-dependent effects on blood cholesterol. Longer duration of treatment may play a role development of higher HDL/LDL rations.
  • Increase Glucose and Amino Acid Uptakes in L6 Myotubes / Fruit Juice: Study investigated the effect of M. charantia juice on either 3H-2-deoxyglucose or N-methyl-amino-a-isobutyric acid (14C-Me-AIB) uptake in L6 rat muscle cells cultured to the myotube stage. Results showed M. charantia fruit juice acts like insulin to exert its hypoglycemic effect and can stimulate amino acid uptake into skeletal muscle cells just like insulin.
  • Kuguacin / Anticarcinogenic Properties: Study has isolated and elucidated nineteen cucurbitcins names kuguacins A-E from the roots and kuguacin F-S from vines and leaves of M. charantia. Study evaluated the underlying potential of kuguacin J as an anticancer agent. Findings suggest kuguacin J exerts anticancer properties in various experimental models. Kuguacin J exerted a marked decrease of LNCaP cell proliferation and viability, suggesting a possible role in the growth inhibition of LNCaP. One of the mechanisms by which it inhibits proliferation of cancer cells could be through regulation of cell cycle progression. Kuguacin J caused significant induction of apoptosis and presents a potential for prostate cancer inhibition.
  • MOCHA DM Study / Effect of M. charantia Tablets on Glucose and Insulin Levels in the Postprandial State Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Study evaluated the effect of MV and placebo on insulin and glucose among type 2 diabetic patients. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial on 40 type-2 diabetic subjects receiving a single dose of 100 mg/kg/day of ampalaya, results showed an incremental dose effect with more rapid and shorter-lived stimulation of insulin secretion than placebo, resulting in lower meal-related glucose excursions.
  • Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Toxicity: Study showed the protective effect of Ucche (Momordica charantia var. muricata (Willd.) against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats indicated by diagnostic indicators of liver damage and histopathological analysis. Activity was attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidant activity and ability to modulate inflammation and fibrosis in the liver.
  • Benefits of Roasting Bitter Gourd / Increased Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated the effect of roasting bitter melon fruits, leaves, stems, and roots on antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, reducing power, and FRAP assays. The roasted bitter melon exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity than unroasted BM in the test methods used. Roasted roots showed higher antioxidant activity than other extracts. Antioxidant compounds including flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids increased, while flavanols decreased following the roast processing.
  • Improved Glycemic Control in Patients with Insulin Resistance and Pre-Diabetes: Review discusses the benefits and limitations of bitter melon supplementation in the context of epidemic levels of insulin resistance and pre-diabetes in the world. Overall, it remains controversial whether bitter melon has proven benefits in lowering blood sugar among pre-diabetics or helps in slowing the progression of the disease. While evidence, examined as a whole, suggests possible beneficial effect, further clinical studies that meet rigorous methodological standards are warranted before policy recommendations are established.
  • Effect on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium / Potential for Adjuvant Therapy: Study tested the hypothesis whether M. charantia can favorably alter processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Results suggested bitter melon extract failed to positively affect type 2 DM and cardiovascular-related outcomes at a level suggesting use as stand alone treatment. However, the encouraging effects on cardiac function enhancement, suppression of post-ischemic/reperfused infarct size extent and capacity to modulate serum cholesterol, suggest a potential use as adjuvant therapy for the management of T2DM.
  • Antiglycation / Antioxidant: The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Study compared the antiglycation and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of pulp (MCP) and flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. MCF antioxidant activity was higher than MCP. All extracts inhibited the formations of AGEs and CML (carbxymethyllysine) in a dose-dependent manner. Activity may be attributed to its antioxidant properties, in particular, the total phenolic content of the extracts. The use of MC may not only reduce hyperglycemia but also protect against build-up of tissue AGEs and reduce oxidative stress in diabetic patients.
  • Effect on Liver Function / Fruit: Study evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of M. charantia on liver function and tissue structure in mice. Results showed a single dose of fruit extract at doses up to 4000 mg/kg cause no significant adverse effects on liver enzymes and tissue structure.
  • Seasonal Variations in Anti-Diabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects / Fruit: Study investigated the seasonal variation in anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic activities of M. charantia fruits harvested at different seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter). Results showed antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of fruit extracts vary during seasons of the year. Spring sample produced the highest activity.
  • Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on an eco-friendly and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles using M. charantia leaf extract as reduction agent. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria.
  • Cytotoxicity / Seeds: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity on bitter melon seed powder extracts against HEK293 cells and RBCs. The water-ethanol extract showed the highest cytotoxicity in inhibiting cell growth but with less cytotoxicity on RBC lysis. The ethanol extract had less cytotoxicity on cell growth inhibition but lyzed RBCs completely.
  • Topical Bitter Melon for Atopic Dermatitis: Study reports on a case of a 6-year old female with severe refractory atopic dermatitis that responded to treatment with topical bitter melon in an open half-side comparison study. The bitter melon was prepared by boiling 3-4 fresh bitter melons until they attain the consistency of boiled squash, cooling, and then pureeing, including peel, pulp, and seeds, straining and rubbing the stew-like paste to the patient's skin.
  • Anti-Cancer via Caspase Activity, Cytochrome-C release and Calcium Overloading: Study investigated the anti-cancer effect of an active water-soluble extract of M. charantia on cell viability and cellular mechanisms in inducing cell death using six different cancer cell lines. The crude water extract could stimulate release of cytochrome-c and elevated intracellular free calcium concentrations in different cancer cell lines. Results clearly show that M. charantia exerts an anti-cancer effect via an insult to mitochondria resulting in apoptosis, calcium overloading, and subsequently, cell death.
  • Adaptation Capability Study / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the adaptation capability of bitter melon, which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical countries, under climatic conditions of northern parts of Turkey. Adaptation capability was done in measures of plant height, number of fruits, fruit length and width, number of seeds and fruit weight. Highest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by fruit extract (17.33 mm zone diameter). The effectiveness of ethanol extract of fruit and seed oil was highest than ampicillin. Also, fruit and seed ethanol extract showed equal or higher antimicrobial effect on A. Niger than Nystatin. The ethanol extract of seeds showed significant antimicrobial effect on E. Coli, S. Typhi and A. niger.
  • Review / Antidiabetic Effects and Medicinal Potency: This 2013 review commented that clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by small sample size, poor design study and low statistical power. Review highlights the antidiabetic activity and phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better designed clinical trials to elucidate the possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.
  • Improved Insulin Secretion: Improvement in parameters of glycemic control has been observed with M. charantia in patients with T2DM. it is unknown whether this occurs through modification of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, or both. Study evaluated the effect of M. charantia on insulin secretion and sensitivity in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 24 patients receiving 2000 mg/day of M. charantia or placebo for 3 months. Results showed reduction of HbA1c, 2-h OGTT, glucose AUC. BMI. fat percentage and waist circumference, with an increment of insulin AUC, first phase and total insulin secretion.
  • Maintenance of Normal Glucose Levels and Lipid Profiles / Prevention of Oxidative Stress: Study evaluated the effects of M. charantia on glucose level, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats on chronic sucrose load. Results showed M. charantia maintained normal glucose levels in all experimental groups, reduced triglycerides and LDL lipoprotein levels, and increased HDL, along with improvement in antioxidant status. After termination of treatment rats reverted to diabetic conditions and were found to be under oxidative stress.
  • Clinicopathological Studies on Effects of M. charantia: Study evaluated the effects of M. charantia on STZ-induced male diabetic Wistar rats on clinicopathological effects on the liver, pancreas, and kidney. Results showed alleviation of pancreatic, hepatic, and renal dysfunction induced by diabetes as evidenced by histopathological, hematological and serobiochemical parameters. Results suggest potential for the fruits as antidiabetic herbal medicine.
  • Mosquito Larvicidal / Nanopowder Formulation / Fruits: Study evaluated the mosquito larvicidal activity of M. charantia fruit extracts in the form of nanopowder. Results showed nanopowder from M. charantia fruit extract is an effective mosquito larvicide against fourth instar larvae of the common household mosquito species Culex pipiens. The herbal mosquito larvicide presents as ecofriendly, cost-effective, and easily available alternative approach in curbing the mosquito menace.
  • Hepatoprotective / Carbon-Tetrachloride Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of M. charantia leaf extract in Wistar rats with toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride. CCl4 induces hepatic damage by causing lipid peroxidation due to tis metabolite free radical CCl3. Results showed hepatoprotective activity as evidenced by decrease in elevated enzymes. Activity was attributed to flavonoids and other phytochemical agents.
  • Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by Polypeptide Binding to Insulin Receptor: Study analyzed the therapeutic targets contributing to the hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of MC seeds by transcription analysis The inhibitor against trypsin (YI) of MC directly docked into IR (insulin receptor) and activated the kinase activity of IR- in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest that the MC seed extract regulated glucose metabolism mainly via the insulin signaling pathway. The TI was identified as a novel IR-binding protein of MC that triggered the insulin signaling pathway via blinding to IR.
  • Impact on Kidney Function and Structure: Study evaluated the effects and safety of bitter melon fruit on kidney function and structure in laboratory mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with single doses of 0, 100, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg and multiple doses of 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days. All single dose groups showed normal behavior with no statistical changes in blood parameters (p>0.05), with normal organ structures on histological examinations. However, the group treated for 7 days showed statistically significant change in BUN (p=0.002) and borderline significance in Cr (P=0.051). Results showed doses of up to 4000 mg/kg did not have effect on mice kidney function and histology. However, chronic administration was nephrotoxic. Long term treatment warrants regularly checkup and the drug di9scontinued with evidence of disrupting effects.
  • Saponins / Stimulation of Insulin Secretion: Study evaluated insulin secretion in MIN6 ß-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M charantia, 3ß,7ß,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-ß-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). A saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay.
  • Antidiabetic Effects in Insulin Resistant db/db Mice: Study demonstrated that bitter gourd is involved in protein tyrosine phosphatase 21B (PTP 1B) regulation, which explains one possible biochemical mechanism underlying the antidiabetic effects of bitter gourd in insulin resistance and T2DM.
  • Philippine News: A Philippine herb that has recently gained international recognition for its possible benefits in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Despite its bitter taste, it has also become a popular nutritional drink for a boost of vim and vigor. In fact, the more bitter, the better, as it is believed that the bitterness is proportionate to its potency.
  • Studies have suggested that ampalaya contains a hypoglycemic polypeptide, a plant insulin responsible for its blood sugar lowering effect. Other benefits suggested were body detoxification (including removal of nicotine), strengthening of the immune system and fertility regulation.
  • It is increasingly recommended as an adjunct or supplement to traditional therapeutic regimens for diabetes mellitus.

Use of Ampalaya:

  • Both wild and cultivated forms are edible.
  • Fruit of wild form usually roasted over fire and eaten with salt or "heko".
  • The leaves and fruit - used as vegetables - are excellent sources of Vit B, iron, calcium, and phosphorus. It has twice the amount of beta carotene in broccoli and twice the calcium content of spinach. Characteristically bitter-tasting, slight soaking in salty water before cooking removes some of the bitter taste of the fruit.
  • In India, fruit eaten in curries.
  • In the Philippines, juice expressed from the green fruit is given for chronic colitis: also used for bacillary dysentery.
  • Astringent powdered leaves or root decoction can be applied to hemorrhoids.
  • Leaf juice for cough and as a purgative and anthelminthic to expel intestinal parasites, and for healing wounds.
  • Seeds also used to expel worms.
  • The vine or the juice of leaves used as mild purgative for children.
  • In large doses, the fresh juice is a drastic purgative.
  • Decoction of roots and seeds used for urethral discharges.
  • Juice of leaves used for chronic coughs.
  • Leaves and shoots used as vulnerary.
  • Sap of leaves used as parasiticide.
  • Fruit macerated in oil used as vulnerary.
  • Fruit considered tonic and stomachic; used in rheumatism, gout, and diseases of the spleen and liver.
  • Pounded leaves used for scalds.
  • Infusion of leaves or leaf juice used for fevers.
  • Used for chronic stomach ulcers.
  • Root sometimes used as ingredient in aphrodisiac preparations.
  • Decoction of root used as abortifacient.
  • Fruit in large doses considered a drastic purgative and abortifacient.
  • In India, root used as astringent; applied externally to hemorrhoids.
  • In Lagos, decoction of leaves used as stomachic.
  • Leaves used as anthelmintic and antipyretic, and applied externally to leprosy.
  • In India and Malaya, pounded leaves are applied to skin diseases, burns and scalds.
  • Poultice of leaves used for headaches.
  • Infusion of flowers used for asthma.
  • Olive or almond oil infusion of the fruit, without the seeds, used for chapped hands, hemorrhoids, and burns.
  • Root, along with fruits and seeds, used as abortifacient, as well as remedy for urethral discharges.
  • In Batavia, vine used as anthelmintic, purgative, and emetic.
  • In Jamaica, leaf decoction or infusion is taken for colds, as laxative and blood cleanser. Warm tea infusions also used for toothaches and mouth infections. Also used as a bath/wash for skin eruptions and acne.
  • Used for eczema, malarial, gout, jaundice, abdominal pain, kidney (stone), leprosy, leucorrhea, piles, pneumonia, psoriasis, rheumatism, fever and scabies. Also, boiled leaves and decoction of plant used to promote lochia.
  • In Antilles, sweetened decoction of leaves used as emmenagogue and vermifuge.
  • In Cuba, used for diabetes mellitus; used for wounds refractive to other treatments, for skin disease, and for sterility in women.
  • In Puerto Rico, used for diabetes.
  • In Indo-China, fruit macerated in salted water used for fluxes, catarrh, and children's coughs. Seeds employed in the treatment of dysentery.
  • In Brazil, seeds used as anthelmintic.
  • In China, used as hypoglycemic and antidiabetic.
  • In Turkey, used for healing of cutaneous lesions and peptic ulcers.
  • Seeds with oil, employed as cosmetic.
  • Leaves used to clean metals.

Bawang is a low herb, 30 to 60 centimeters high. True stem is much reduced. Bulbs are broadly ovoid, 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter, consisting of several, densely crowded, angular and truncated tubers. Leaves are linear and flat. Umbels are globose, many flowered. Sepals are oblong, greenish white, slightly tinged with purple. Stamens are not exerted from the perianth.

Constituents:

  • Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids, and minerals. The sulfur compounds are responsible for the pungent odor and many of its medicinal effects.
  • Saponins; tannins; sulfurous compounds; prostaglandins; alkaloids; volatile oils; allicin (bulb).
  • The antihelmintic property is due to allyl disulphide content.
  • The most important chemical constituents are the cysteine sulfoxides (alliin) and the nonvolatile glutamylcysteine peptides which make up more than 82% of the sulfur content of garlic. Allicin, ajoenes and sulfides are degradation products of alliin.
  • Some of garlic's effect is attributed to alicin, its active ingredient, which is converted to ajoene, allyl sulfides and vinyldithiins.
  • Allicin (dially thiosulfinate or dially disulfide) is generated only when the garlic is crushed or cut, which activates the enzyme allinase which metabolizes alliin to allicin.
  • Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allycysteine.
  • Bulb: allicin; volatile oil, 0.9% - allyl disulfide, allypropyl disulfide; inulin; protein; fat, 1.3%; carbohydrates, 0.2%; ash, 9.4%; choline, 0.7%; myrosinase.
  • Leaves: Protein, i.2%; fat, 0.5%; sulfides.
  • Proximate analysis of bulb extract g/100g yielded carbohydrate (66.0%), protein (16.23%), fats (2.44%), crude fiber (03.96%), moisture (5.52%) and ash (05.85%). Mineral analysis yielded calcium (23.40%), [potassium (10.95%), magnesium (3.90%), zinc (0.44%), phosphorus (9.85%), iron (5.20%), and copper (0.05%).
  • Nutrient value per 100g yields: 623 kkJ (149kcal), carbohydrates 33.06 g, sugars 1 g, dietary fiber 2.1 g, protein 6.36 g; (Vitamins) thiamine/B1 0.2 mg riboflavin/B2 0.11 mg, niacin/B3 0.7 mg, pantothenic acid/B5 0.596 mg, vitamin B6 1.235 g, folate/B9 3 µg, vitamin C 31.2 mg; (Minerals) calcium 181 mg, iron 1.7 mg, magnesium 25 mg, manganese 1.672 mg, phosphorus 153 mg, potassium 401 mg, sodium 17 mg, zinc 1,16 mg.

Properties:

  • Considered antibacterial, anthelmintic, antimycotic, antiviral, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, fibrinolytic, hypotensive, promoting leucocytosis, lipid lowering and platelet aggregation inhibition.
  • Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer, chemopreventive, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, analgesic, virucidal, nephroprotective, anti-H. pylori, repellent properties.
  • Antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic: Topically, ajoene 0.4% cream, has been found 70% effective in certain dermatologic fungal infections. A 0.6% gel was effective in tinea corporis and tinea cruris.
  • Anticandidal: Study on the mode of action of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) against Candida albicans showed garlic treatment affected the structure and integrity of the outer surface of the yeast cells. Growth was affected in a number of ways: decreased total lipid content, higher phosphatidylserines and lower phosphatidylcholines, and decrease oxygen consumption of AGE-treated C. albicans. AGE exerts its effect by oxidation of thiol groups causing enzyme inactivation and subsequent microbial growth inhibition.
  • Antihypertensive: Studies suggest a beneficial antihypertensive effect but blood-lowering effects probably not dramatic. Other studies show a vascular benefit through improvement of aortic elasticity and possible slowing of the rate of atherosclerosis progression.
  • Antihyperlipidemia / Antioxidant:Controversial, but probably has beneficial effect on serum cholesterol and LDL levels. Some studies have shown a 4% to 12% lowering of total cholesterol. It seems to have no effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL).
  • Hypocholesterolemic / Fresh Bulbs: Study of feeding of fresh garlic bulbs to induced-hypercholesterolemic rats showed decrease in total and LDL cholesterol and increase in HDL levels.
  • Lipid Profile Benefits: Study concluded that garlic extracts may have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status. Study evaluated the effect of Allium sativum on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in guinea pigs. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts showed significant hypolipidemic activity with significant reduction in triglycerides, LDLc, VLDLc and atherogenic index.
  • Anti-cancer / Chemoprotective: Possible anticarcinogenic properties, specifically colon, stomach and prostate cancers, in stomach cancers, probably through its inhibitory effect on H. pylori. In epidemiologic studies on stomach and colorectal cancer prevention, the garlic use was 3.5 grams to 30 grams of fresh or cooked garlic per week. Studies provide ample evidence for a role of garlic in cancer prevention. The tumor inhibition may be through compounds like organosulfur in garlic.
  • Effect on Salivary Gland Tumorigenesis: Study showed garlic may have an adjuvant effect on various defense mechanisms against -induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary salivary glands of rat through increased availability or utilization of beta-carotene.
  • Hepatoprotective / Hematologic Effects: Study results on female Wistar rats suggest garlic and vitamin C have some hepatoprotective and hematological effects.
  • Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the effect of increasing doses of A. sativum aqueous extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed promising hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. Glibenclamide was used as standard. Study results of ethanolic extracts of AS in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suggest that A. sativum can be considered an excellent candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.
  • Sperm Immobilization Activity : Study of crude extract of A. sativum bulb showed spermicidal activity in vitro.
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Treatment: A trial showed garlic may improve oxygenation and symptoms in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome.
  • Anti-Thrombotic Activity : Study of extracts of Allium sativum and Vernonia amygdalina showed both extracts offered protection against thrombosis produced by an intravenous injection of ADP and adrenalin, with A sativum showing the stronger activity.
  • Diallyl Sulfide / Anti-Cancer: Study showed diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, when given by gavage to mice, inhibited by 74% the incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine.
  • Cardiovascular Benefits: Garlic is an ideal herb with its several cardiovascular benefits: blood pressure lowering, antihyperlipidemic effects, platelet inhibition and fibrinolytic effects, antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic effects.
  • Antibacterial / Anti-Staph aureus: Study of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Antitumorigenesis: Study showed garlic oil may have an adjuvant effect on host defense mechanisms against DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary glands of rat through increased availability and utilization of beta-carotene.
  • Antimicrobial / Crude Juices: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, and Allium sativum. Results showed strong antibiotic properties, and the complete absence of development of resistance from juices of Allium species merit consideration.
  • Antioxidant: In a study using DPPH scavenging method, raw garlic extract showed a color change from deep violet to yellow, indicating antioxidant activity.
  • Essential Oil / Antibacterial / Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Essential oil extract from Allium sativum bulbs showed inhibitory activity on growth of over 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains tested.
  • Antibacterial / Garlic and Ginger Comparative Study: In a study comparing the antimicrobial potency of various extracts of garlic and ginger, results showed all the bacterial strains to be most susceptible to garlic aqueous extract while showing poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract.
  • Chemoprevention: Experimental studies provide compelling evidence that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of tumor growth.
  • Anti-Ulcer: Study showed the protective role of raw Nigelia sativa, garlic, and onion against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion. Raw or boiled Nigella sativa, garlic or onion significantly inhibited histamine stimulated acid secretion. Raw Nigella sativa and garlic showed a decrease in ulcer index. Boiling reduced the potency of garlic and onion.
  • Allyl Alcohol and Garlic in Oxidative Stress Effects on C. Albicans: Study evaluated on the effects of purified constituents, in particular, allyl alcohol, a metabolic product that accumulates after titration of garlic cloves on anticandidal activities. Typical changes of oxidative stress were observed, NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion, and increased reactive oxygen species.
  • Antimicrobial Effects with Combined Extracts: Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (A. sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) against S. aureus, Bacillus spp., E. coli and Salmonella spp. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger did not inhibit any of the test organisms. The highest inhibition zone was seen with combination of extracts on Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Antibacterial Against Multiple-Drug Resistant Pathogens / Cloves: Ethanol extracts of cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger showed effective antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens. The highest inhibition zone observed with garlic was against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Effect on Systolic and Diastolic Pressure in Essential Hypertension: Study evaluated the effect of garlic on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Study showed a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic pressure in a dose- and duration-dependent manner, when compared to atenolol and placebo.
  • Improved Diabetic Control with Garlic Supplementation: Study evaluated the potential effect of garlic in T2DM with the addition of garlic tablets to standard antidiabetic therapy. Results showed the combination of garlic with typical antidiabetic remedy improved glycemic control in addition to an antihyperlipidemic activity.
  • Anthelmintic: An alcoholic extract of bulb of A. sativum has shown moderate in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. (20) Study evaluated methanol extracts of various plant materials of ethnoveterinary importance in Pakistan, including A. sativum, for in vitro anthelmintic activity. All the studied plants showed anthelmintic activity.
  • Analgesic / Antinociceptive: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-nociceptive effects of Allium sativum powder in animal models. Results showed the ASP to be effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting possible peripheral and central mechanisms as well as peripheral pathways through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.
  • Immune System Enhancement / Black Garlic: Study evaluated black garlic—created from ordinary fresh garlic—for antitumor activity. Heat extracts of black garlic were rich in S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and enforced anti-tumor activity with a 50% cure rate of BALB/c mouse fibrosarcoma. The black garlic enhanced cellular immunity by raising the activity of NK (natural killer cell) cells which may play a critical role in eradication of tumor cells inn vivo. There was also generation of cytokines of NO, IFN-y, IL-2, and TNF-a from the extract-treated mouse spleen cells.
  • Antihypertensive : Study evaluated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous extracts of garlic on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one clip model. Aqueous garlic extracts caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely peripheral hypotensive mechanism.
  • Effect on the Pharmacokinetic of Metformin / Herb-Drug Interaction: Study evaluated the pharmacokinetic interactions of Metformin with Allium sativum. Allium sativum altered the pharmacokinetics of Metformin in rats, increasing bioavailability by significantly increasing its Cmax and AUC0-12hr and a slight increase in t1/2. (34) Study evaluated the effect of garlic on metformin in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
  • Effect on Liver Glycogen Deposition and Gonadal Protein Metabolism: Study evaluated the effect of garlic extract on glycogen deposition in the liver and protein metabolism in gonads of female albino rats. Results showed a significant increase in glycogen and protein level on low and medium dose of garlic extract, with a significant decrease in glycogen level with high dose of extract. The quantity of protein depends on rate of protein synthesis or on rate of degradation.
  • Pharmacodynamic Interaction with Cilostazol in Diabetic Patients: Garlic is known to have antiplatelet properties. Garlic showed significant inhibition of platelet aggregation. Cilostazol showed significant inhibition at all three time points tested. In the randomized, open label, placebo-controlled, crossover study of type II diabetes patients, coadministration of aged garlic extract and cilostazol did not produce any significant change in the antiplatelet activity of the individual drugs.
  • Virucidal: Garlic has been shown to have antiviral activity. Study identified garlic associated compounds: diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thiosulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, ajoene, alliin, deoxyalliin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide. Activity was determined against selected viruses including, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human rhinovirus type 2. Virucidal activity was: ajoene > allicin > allyl methyl thiosulfinate > methyl allyl thiosulfinate. Results indicate virucidal activity and cytotoxicity may depend upon the viral envelope and cell membrane, respectively.
  • Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage: Study showed administration of A. sativum extracts protected against paracetamol liver damage in rats.
  • Nephroprotective / Cisplatin Toxicity: Study evaluated the in vivo antioxidant and nephroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of garlic against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar male rats. Cisplatin induction decreased renal antioxidants with associated increase in kidney weight, lipid peroxidation and serum kidney markers. Treatment exhibited a protective effect as evidenced by boosting of antioxidant levels and markers reverting back to near normalcy.
  • Antibacterial / Anti-Pseudomonas / Anti-Staph: Study evaluated the effect of crude preparation of garlic on clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed the targeting of bacterial cell wall and bacteriolytic action of the extract. The extract appeared to interfere with DNA and RNA synthesis.
  • Effect on Systolic Blood Pressure / Pilot Study: Pilot study showed individuals with blood pressures on the lower side are more likely to consume more garlic in their diets. Findings were statistically significant for systolic blood pressure only. The average garlic use was 134 grams per month; 67 % of use was cooked in foods while the rest consumed it in raw form or in pickles.
  • Processed Black Garlic / Enhancement of Anti-Tumor Potency / Antibacterial: Black garlic processed from ordinary white garlic clove in temperature- and humidity-controlled conditions showed enhanced anti-tumor potency. The aged black garlic yielded an increased amount of amino acids and organo-sulfur substance, S-allyl-L.cysteine (SAC), which might have contributed to the anti-tumor potency. Tumor cure rate was 50% against Meth A fibrosarcoma of BALB/c mouse.
  • Antifibrinolytic: The fibrinolytic system dissolves fibrin clots in circulation. Study showed the garlic extract exhibited fibrinolytic effect. Minimum concentration and maximum time showed the best results.
  • Antihyperglycemic / Antihypercholesterolemic /Combination with Ginger: Study evaluated the single and combined effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale (ginger) against hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed the combined use of garlic and ginger is more effective in controlling hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia compared to either one alone.
  • Hypocholesterolemia: Study evaluated the effect of garlic supplementation on reducing cholesterol levels on 50 healthy patients given 3 g of raw garlic daily for a period of 90 days. Results showed a significant decrease in cholesterol levels: 13% (p<0.001) from 269.30 to 233.93 mg/dL in male patients and 10% (p<0.001) from 260.30 to 233.90 mg/dL in female patients.
  • H. pylori Inhibition: Study investigated the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic against Helicobacter pylori. The concentration of AGE (aqueous garlic extract) required to inhibit bacterial growth was between 2-5 mg/ml. Boiling and heat treatment reduced the efficacy of the AGE. An antibacterial synergistic effect was seen in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor (omeprazole) in rate of 250:1.
  • Effect on Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Heat-Stressed Mice: Study evaluated the effects of garlic extract on reproductive hormones in female mice under heat stress. Results showed significant increase in estrogen and progesterone levels and suggests potential to neutralize negative effects of stress affecting the pituitary-gonadal axis and ovarian hormonal secretion.
  • Benefit in Type 2 DM Patients / Powder and Aqueous Extract of Bulbs: Study showed both dry powdered plant and aqueous extract of bulbs of Allium sativum decrease blood and urine glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, especially in the group taking oral hypoglycemics with inadequate blood glucose control.
  • Effect of Supplementation on Biomarkers and Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis / Clinical Trial: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of garlic supplementation on serum levels of some inflammatory biomarkers, clinical symptoms, and fatigue in women with active rheumatoid arthritis. After intervention, serum levels of CRP and TNF-a were significantly decreased. Pain intensity, tender joint count, disease activity score and fatigue were significantly decreased. Swollen joint count was decreased. No significant changes were observed for ESR. The improvement in inflammatory mediators and clinical symptoms suggest potential use of garlic as adjunct therapy in patients with RA.
  • Antifungal / Aspergillus sp in Otomycosis: Otomycosis is due to saprophytic fungi in a small percentage of otitis externa. Study evaluated the efficacy of garlic extracts against fungi of the genus Asergillus. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and concentrated garlic oil (CGO) were used in the in vitro study. AGE and especially CGO showed antifungal activity with similar or better inhibitory effects than pharmaceutical preparations.
  • Ajoene / Antimicrobial, Antithrombotic, Cytotoxic: Ajoene, an organosulfur garlic compound, was extracted and evaluated for antithrombotic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects. Ajoene showed the ability to dose-dependently inhibit microbial growth. Antithrombotic activity was visually confirmed by reduction in the size of the blood clot. Cytotoxicity testing showed non toxicity to VERO cells.
  • Co-Administration of Garlic and Black Seed (Nigella sativa) in Dyslipidemia / Clinical Trial: A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the therapeutic effect of combination of blackseed with garlic for treatment of dyslipidemia. Results showed the combination was effective in correction of dyslipidemia and suggests large scale clinical trials to compare different doses.
  • Effect on Male Fertility: Systematic review studies the effects of garlic on male fertility in accordance with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. A total of 18 experimental studies were included; 13 evaluated garlic and 5 compared garlic effect with various chemicals. All studies were conducted in invivo condition. Results indicated the potential effect of garlic on enhancing fertility and spermatogenesis, increasing the level of testosterone and improving testicular structure. Garlic can increase fertility probably due to its antioxidant properties.
  • Effect of Combined Herbal Formulation on Female Rat Fertility: Study evaluated the efficacy of Allium sativum, Curcuma mangga, and Acorus calamus extract combination on female rat fertility. All treatment compositions affected reproductive hormone and uterine histology profile. The composition of 36% A. sativum, 36% C. mangga, 28% A. calamus produced the highest estrogen and progesterone levels. Results suggest the combination therapy could be used to increase fertility in female rat.
  • Effect on Biofim Formation / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms using disc diffusion method. Results showed the extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, the MICs of 0.078-25 mg/ml confirmed the high ability of the extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. The extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures in a concentration directly related to the inhibitory effect. Results suggest the extracts can be applied as antimicrobial agents against the pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms.
  • Suppression of Cytokine Production in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study evaluated the possible therapeutic effects of garlic in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Via inhibition of Th1 while upregulating IL-10 production, garlic extract treatment may help resolve inflammation associated with IBD. An invivo animal model determine the significance of these findings.
  • Toxicity and Repellency / Tribolium castaneum: Study evaluated the repellent activity and fumigant toxicity of garlic extract against larvae and adults of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The extract exhibited mortality that increased with increasing concentration and time. Results showed lethal and repellent effects of the extracts on T. castaneum.
  • Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitory: Study evaluated the inhibition efficiency of an aqueous extract of garlic in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in well water in the absence and presence of Zn by mass loss method. The formulation of 2 ml garlic extract and 25 ppm Zn offered 70% inhibition efficiency to carbon steel immersed in well water. FTIR spectra showed the protective film consists of Fe2+-allicin complex and Zn(OH)2.
  • Antibacterial Against Human Dental Plaque Microbiota: In-vitro study the antibacterial effect of different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 100%) of garlic extract against human dental plaque microbiota viz. Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus spp. Results showed all bacterial strains were inhibited by all test materials. Since all concentrations had similar effects further studies were suggested for the 5% extract.
  • Alleviation of Tebuconazole-Induced Liver Oxidative Stress: Study -evaluated the protective effect of Allium sativum oil against tebuconazole (TEB)-induced oxidative stress in the liver of adult rats. Results showed significant changes in some hematological parameters, along with changes in total cholesterol level and activities of hepatic enzymes ALS, , LDH, ALP) and 7-glutamyl transpeptidase. The co-administration of of ASO improved the status of all studied parameters, The protective effects against TEB-iduced liver injury was attributed to phenolic compounds.
  • Protective in Lead-Induced Hepatic and Testicular Damage / Combined A. sativum and Zingiber officinale: Study -evaluated the protective effects of combined aqueous extracts pf Allium sativum and Z. officinale against lead acetate-induced hepatic and testicular damage. Results showed a synergistic effect of A. sativum and Z. officinale in ameliorating the lead acetate induced hepatic and testicular damage as well as reduction in blood lead level in the rats. The synergisms may add to the reservoir of pharmaceutical and chemical templates for the exploration of new drugs.
  • Potent Anti-Bacillus anthracis Activity: Anthrax, a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, remains an important but relatively neglected endemic disease of animals and humans in remote areas of the Indian subcontinent. Study evaluated commonly available edible plants used in traditional medicine for anti-Bacillus anthracis activity in a form amenable to use in endemic areas. Garlic (Allium sativum) was identified as the most promising candidate with bactericidal activity against Bacillus anthracis, consistently inhibiting its growth in agar-well diffusion assay and decreased viable colony forming units. GC-MS analysis of bioactive fractions showed the presence of phthalic acid derivatives, acid esters, phenyl group containing compounds, steroids, etc. The AGE displayed acceptable thermostability (>80%) anti-B. anthracis activity without antagonizing the activity of FDA-approved antibiotics used for anthrax control. Authors suggested further exploration of possible applications/use of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) in preventing anthrax incidences in endemic areas.
  • Antimicrobial Against Periodontal Pathogens: Study evaluated the efficacy of Psidium guajava and Allium sativum on periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Results showed both plants displayed significant antibacterial effect. The aqueous garlic extract (AGE) showed greater bacteriosatatic activity against P. gingivalis with MIC of 16.6 µK/mL.
  • Inhibitory Activity Against S. pyogenes and P. aeruginosa: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of Allium sativum against Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed antibacterial activity with the extract showing greater effect on P. aeruginosa. (69)
  • Natural Remedy for Metabolic Syndrome: The major features of Metabolic Syndrome includes central obesity, hypertriglyceredemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Study investigated the effect of garlic extract on the risk factors in metabolic syndrome patients along with conventional treatment. Results showed significantly improved glycemic control and HbA1c in the study group, along with improved lipid profile. Garlic can be used as adjunct therapy with diet and medicines in the management of metabolic syndrome.
  • Effect of Pre- and Post-Harvest Conditions on Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds: Garlic is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables throughout the world, either raw for culinary purposes or as ingredient in traditional and modern medicine. It has been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds among usually consumed vegetables. The review examines all aspects related to chemical composition and quality. The quality of garlic, expressed by chemical composition and bioactive compounds content, is highly dependent of both pre- and post-harvest conditions. Chemical compounds studied include (E)-ajoene, (Z)-ajoene, allicin, alliin, allixin, y-glutamyl-S-2-kpropenyl cysteine, diallyl disulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, S=allyl cysteine, and 1,2-vinyldiithin. Maximum quality is affected by cultivation practices, genotype selection, growing conditions, the processing chain. and genetic variability among different garlic population and germplasm content of bioactive compounds.
  • Inhibitory Activity on Multi-Drug Resistant Streptococcus mutans: Study evaluated the in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg/ml. Study data suggest that mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

Use of Bawang:

  • Widely used by Filipinos for flavoring dishes.
  • In the Philippines, bulbs used for hypertension. Also used as diuretic, and eaten fresh or burned for coughs in children.
  • Arthritis, rheumatism, toothaches: Crush several cloves and rub on affected areas.
  • Crush clove applied to both temples as poultice for headache.
  • Crush garlic or cut clove crosswise and rub directly to areas of insect bites.
  • Decoction of leaves and bulbs for fever and as hypotensive, carminative, expectorant, and antihelmintic.
  • Juice from freshly crushed garlic used for colds, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, asthma and bronchitis.
  • Decoction use for tonsillitis.
  • Steam inhalation of chopped garlic and a teaspoon of vinegar in boiling water used for nasal congestion.
  • Fresh garlic has been used as a complement to INH therapy for tuberculosis. In Mexico, fresh bulb is eaten as a preventive for tuberculosis.
  • In India, garlic juice diluted in water, applied externally to prevent hair from turning grey.
  • Diluted juice used for earaches and deafness.
  • In the Antilles, used as vermifuge.
  • Also used for menstrual cramps.
  • Used for digestive problems and gastrointestinal spasms.
  • Infusion of a peeled broiled clove used for gas pains.Juice of bulb with common salt applied to bruises and sprains; also used for neuralgia and earache.
  • Rubbed over ringworm for soothing effect.
  • Fresh raw juice was used as antiseptic for control of wound suppuration.

Bayabas is a somewhat hairy plant reaching a height of 8 meters. Young branches are 4-angled. Leaves are opposite, oblong to elliptic, and 5 to 1 centimeters long, the apex being pointed, and the base usually rounded. Peduncles are 1- to 3-flowered. Flowers are white, 3 to 3.5 centimeters across, with in-curved petals, coming out solitary or two to three in the leaf axils. Numerous stamens form the attractive part of the flower. Inferior ovaries develop into round or obovoid green fruits 4 to 9 centimeters long, turning yellow on ripening and have edible, aromatic, seedy pulp.

Constituents:

  • Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, reducing compounds, saponins and tannins.
  • Leaf products have isolated more than 20 compounds, including alkaloids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, essential oils, fatty acids, lectins, phenols, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, and vitamin C.
  • Leaves contain a fixed oil (6%) and volatile oil (0.365%).
  • Fixed oil, 6%; volatile (essential) oil, 0.365%; eugenol; tannin 8-15%; saponins; amygdalin; phenolic acids; malic acid; ash, aldehydes.
  • Fruit contains "glykosen" 4.14 to 4.3%, saccharose 1.62 to 3.4 %, protein 0.3%, etc.
  • Bark contains 12 to 30% tannin. Roots are also rich in tannin.
  • Contains catequinic components and flavonoids.
  • Major constituents of leaves are tannins, ß-sitosterol, maslinic acid, essential oils, triterpenoids and flavonoids.
  • Chloroform-methanol extracted lipids of guava seeds was 9.1% on a dry weight basis. Analysis yielded 12 fatty acids, with a pattern similar to cottonseed oil. Protein content of seeds was 9.73% on a dry weight basis.
  • Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoid, tannin, terpenoids and steroids from the leaves, and saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids from the bark.
  • Preliminary phytochemical analysis of powdered leaves by four solvent extracts (H20/H, EtOH/E, CHCl3/C, and Benzene/B) yielded flavonoids (CB), terpenoids (HEC), quinones (E), oil and fat (HECB), phenols (HECB), starch (ECB), protein (E), carbohydrate (HECB), cellulose (HECB).
  • GC-MS analysis of fruit yielded 65 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, β-caryo- phyllene, nerolidol, globulol, C6 aldehydes, C6 alcohols, ethyl hexanoate and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Unique fruit flavor was attributed to the presence of C6 aldehydes, C6 alcohols, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, terpenes and 1,8-cineole.
  • GC-MS analysis of leaves for bioactive components yielded alpha - bisabolol, 1, 2- benzenedicarboxylic acid, hexadeca-2, 6, 10, 14-tetraen, caryophyllene, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, nerolidol and germacrene.
  • Ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves yielded tannin, phlobatannins, saponin, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, triterpenoids, carbohydrate, polyphenol and glycoside. From leaf powder, phenol yield was 9.33 mg/gm, tannin 4.30 mg/gm, flavonoids 6.42 mg/gm, and saponin 3.67 mg/gm.
  • Study of leaves yielded five constituents: one new pentacyclic triterpenoid guajanoic acid, 3β-p-E-coumaroyloxy-2α-methoxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and four known compounds: ß-sitosterol, uvaol (3), oleanolic acid (4), and ursolic acid.
  • Main constituents of guava leaves are phenolic compounds, isoflavonoids, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, naringenin, kaempferol. Pulp is rich in ascorbic acid, carotenoids (lycopene, ß-carotene, and -cryptoxanthin). Seeds and bark yielded glycosides, carotenoids and phenolic compounds.
  • Analysis of guava leaf hexane fraction of leaves yielded 60 compounds, including ß-eudesmol (11.98%), a-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), a-patchoulene (3.76%), ß-caryophyllene oxide (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methl isoeugenol (1.98%), a-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). (see study below) 

Properties:

  • Bark and leaves are astringent and vulnerary.
  • Studies have suggested antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, antitumor, trypanocidal, antiproliferative, antispasmodic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, anti-solar, gastroprotective, analgesic, antipyretic, hematopoietic, anti-plaque, nephroprotective, immunomodulatory properties.
  • Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays: Study on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the plants provide info on its safety for use as therapeutic agents.
  • Antihypertensive / Antidiarrheal: In the study, P guajava leaf extracts was more active than D mespiliformis in their antagonistic effects on caffeine-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle. Results might explain their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrheal agents in traditional medicine through an inhibition of intracellular calcium release.
  • Antidiarrheal / Quercetin: Quercetin is a main active constituent. Spasmolytic and antidiarrheal effects are attributed to quercetin-derived flavonoids and glycosides.
  • Hypoglycemic / Hypotensive: The leaf of Psidium guajava is used extensively in African folk medicine. The study shows that the aqueous leaf extract of P. guajava possesses hypoglycemic and hypotensive properties and provides pharmacological credence to the folkloric use of the plant for type-2 diabetes and hypertension in some rural African communities.
  • Microbicidal / Antidiiarrheal: Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn.) upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children: Study concludes that guava sprout extracts is a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or S. aureus-produced toxins, with quick curative effect, easy availability and low cost.
  • Antimicrobial / Leaves: Aqueous extracts of leaves have shown antimicrobial activity against Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., S aureus, B-strep, E coli, P aeruginosa and B subtilis.
  • Guava Extracts and Radiolabelling: Study showed aqueous PG extract could present antioxidant action and affect membrane structures in ion transport altering radiolabelling of blood constituents with Technitium (Tc99m) and precautions applied to nuclear medicine procedures on patients using guava extracts.
  • Antidiabetic: Study of extract of leaves of PG showed to possess antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice model, the effect in part, mediated via the inhibition of PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B).
  • Trypanocidal: Study showed that PG leaf extract possessed trypanocidal properties attributed to broad antimicrobial and iron chelating activity of flavonoids and tannins. Iron chelation was suggested as a effective way of killing trypanosomes.
  • Antitumor: Study showed P guajava extracts to be efficacious in preventing tumor development by depressing Tr cells (regulatory).
  • Radical Scavenging: Study showed extracts from distilled water, 65% ethanol and 95% ethanol with significant dose-dependent effects on scavenging hydroxyl radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Flavonoids may be one of the antioxidative components.
  • Antiproliferative / Anticancer / Leaf Oil: A study on the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines. In the KB cell line, Psidium guajava leaf oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity, more than 4x more potent than vincristine. The results suggested the potential of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment.
  • Spasmolytic / Leaves: A morphine-like spasmolytic action involving the inhibition of acetylcholine release and the transmural transport of electrolytes and water has been reported as possible modes of antidiarrheal action of P guajava leaf extracts. The extract also inhibited the growth of causative agents for enteric fever, food poisoning, dysentery and cholera.
  • Antispasmodic: In a study of acute diarrheic disease, a phytodrug developed from guava leaves, standardized with its quercetin content, exhibited a decrease in the duration of abdominal pain.
  • Antioxidant / Hypocholesterolemic: A study done to determine the effects of guava consumption on antioxidant status and lipid profile in normal male youth showed a significant increase in level of total antioxidants and reduced oxidative stress and also increase the level of HDL cholesterol significantly.
  • Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study showed rats pretreated with P guajava extract from fresh tender leaves showed antiulcer activity in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model with a significant reduction of ulcer index, pepsin activity, free and total acidity, volume and mucus content of gastric juice. (17) Study investigated the anti-ulcer activity of methanol extract of leaves on ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in adult Wistar rats. Acute toxicity study up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kbw showed no mortality nor physical signs of toxicity. Results showed dose dependent decrease in ulcer indices.
  • Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanol-water extracts from leaves, roots and stem bark of P. guajava. The AE of leaves roots and stems were active against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and B. subtilis and virtually ineffective against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The EW showed higher activity than the AE. (19) Study of ethanolic and methanolic crude leaf and bark extracts of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and S. pneumoniae with inhibitory zones ranging from 15-22 mm and 13-20 mm.
  • Leaves Extracts / Differences in Hypoglycemic Potential: In a mice model, study showed the water soluble, edible alcohol, and edible alcohol-soluble extracts of wild Psidium guajava leaves may have different hypoglycemic potential.
  • Hepatoprotective / Hematopoietic / Leaves: Study in male and female rats showed the aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves may be hepatoprotective (not hepatotoxic), with hematopoietic potentials. Histopathology showed no adverse effect of hepatic morphological architecture. RBC, Hct, and Hb counts significantly (p<0.05) increased.
  • Anticancer Activity / Review: Review of a limited number of studies revealed guava extracts may have anti-cancer activity. One study tested guava fruit extract against a proliferation of cancer cell lines. One study in mice used a combination of bark, leaf, and root extract to inhibit growth of B16 melanoma cells.
  • Corrosion Inhibition / Mild Steel: Study evaluated the corrosion inhibition behavior of an extract of guava leaves towards mild steel in HCl media. Results showed the extract has good inhibition efficiency (IE) and acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. As extract concentration increases, IE also increases.
  • Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of P. guajava in CCl4-, paracetamol- and thioacetamide-induced liver injury. Results showed significant reduction of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Higher doses prevented increases in liver weight. (27) Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of P. guajava in acute experimental injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or thioacetamine and chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. Results showed the aqueous extract of leaves possess good hepatoprotective activity in both acute and chronic liver injury models.
  • Antihyperglycemic / Unripe Fruit Peel: Study evaluated the glycemic potential of an aqueous extract of unripe fruit peel in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed normal, mild, and severely diabetic rat models had hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect.
  • Analgesic / Antipyretic / Dried Leaves: Study of an ethanol extract produced significant reduction of pyrexia in yeast induced hyperpyrexia and hot plate latency assay. Analgesic activities were observed in early and late phase of formalin induced paw licking tests in rats.
  • Anti-Epileptic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti epileptic activity of a leaves extract of P. guajava in seizure induced by maximal electroshock and pantaloon territorialize. Results showed the leaves extract at higher and medium doses produced highly significant and sustained increases in onset of convulsions and decrease in rate of convulsion. Activity may be due to presence of flavonoids and saponins.
  • Effect in Hyperactive Gut Disorders / Diarrhea and Gut Spasm: Study evaluated the mechanisms responsible for its use in diarrhea and gut spasm. A crude extract showed protection in castor oil-induced diarrhea model, similar to loperamide. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, crude extract showed potent effect against high K+ than spontaneous pre-contractions, similar to verapamil. Results indicate the crude extract possesses Ca++ antagonist-like constituent/s to explain its inhibitory effect on gut motility.
  • Antibacterial / Leaves and Essential Oil: Study evaluated essential oils and various leaf extracts of P. guajava for antimicrobial effect. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited, with the methanol extract showing greatest bacterial inhibition. Essential oil extract showed inhibitory effect against S. aureus and Salmonella spp.
  • Antibacterial / Infectious Diarrhea: Study evaluated crude decoction and quercetin for antibacterial effect on virulence of common diarrheal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of endotoxins. Decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae, with decreased production of E. coli labile toxin and cholera toxin. Its spectrum of antidiarrheal activity is not due to quercetin alone.
  • Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves and Bark / Skin Disorders: Study evaluated the effects of P. guajava on organisms responsible for skin disorders. P. guajava solutions of leaf and bark extracts were effective in inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus. aureus and S. epidermis, and fungi Mentagrophytes gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Tetracycline as control showed significantly stronger inhibition, which may be due to the fact that it is a pure chemical vs the crude extracts of P. guajava solutions.
  • Wound Healing Potential / Cytotoxic Effects: Study evaluated the wound healing potential in vivo and cytotoxic effects in vitro of P. guajava leaf extract and commonly used corticosteroids. In vitro, the extract caused a decrease in cell viability and growth compared to control and corticosteroids. In vivo, the extract caused acceleration of wound healing.
  • Periodontal Disease / Adjunctive Therapy: Study evaluated the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Guava's properties as an excellent antiplaque, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant lends to potential applications as adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy.
  • Gastroprotective / Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Study evaluated a leaf extract for gastric secretory and protective properties on ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Results showed gastroprotective properties attributed to stimulation of mucus secretion by the guava extract.
  • Antibacterial / Wound, Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Study evaluate crude aqueous extracts of leaves against bacteria associated with surgical wound, burns, skin and soft tissue infections. Results showed potent inhibitory activity against growth of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis, Strep pyogenes, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa.
  • Hepatotoxic and Hepatoprotective Disease / Erythromycin Induced Liver Damage:Study of aqueous extract of leaves on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity at lower dose and hepatotoxic property at higher dose.
  • Anti-Trypanosomal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic extracts of leaves for anti-trypanosoma and cytotoxicity activity in bloodstream species of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (BS427) and HEK293. Results showed inhibition of growth of T. b. brucei, with selectivity index comparing favorably with pentamidine and diminazne.
  • Antidiarrheal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous leaf extract for antidiarrheal activity in experimentally induced diarrhea in rodents. PGE (50-400 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.01) protection of rats and mice against castor oil-induced diarrhea, inhibited intestinal transit, and delayed gastric emptying. Like atropine, it produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.01) anti-motility effect and caused inhibition of castor-oil induced enteropooling. Like loperamide, PGE induced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.01) delay in onset of castor-oil induced diarrhea, decreased frequency of defecation and decreased severity of diarrhea in rodents. (42) An aqueous leaf extract showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity comparable to standard drug Diphenoxylate. Extract reduced intestinal transit time in a charcoal meal test and showed an anti-enteropooling effect comparable to chlorpromazine.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Activity / Leaves and Bark: Study of leaf and bark tannin fraction of Psidium guajava showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in in-vitro models. The anti-inflammatory activity is probably due to the presence of tannin (gallic acid).
  • Wound Healing / Tannins / Leaves and Bark: Study of P. guajava leaf and bark tannin fraction showed significant effect on wound healing models. A tannin-rich fraction formulated in ointment form showed significant percentage wound protection at tested concentrations. The wound healing activity was attributed to the presence of tannin (gallic acid).
  • Cardioprotective in Diabetes / Antiglycative / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant decrease in liver alpha 2 macroglobulin, a protein associated with early stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Results suggest the PGEt extract may be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes.
  • Hyperglycemic Effect / Fruit Peels: Study evaluated the glycemic potential of P. guajava fruit peel extract on blood glucose of normal and STZ-induced sub-diabetic female albino Wistar rats. Results showed a hyperglycemic effect from a single oral administration of variable doses of P. guajava fruit peel extract. Results suggest diabetic patients should peel off the guava fruit before consumption. On the other hand, the fruit peel could be useful for hypoglycemia induced by excess insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs.
  • Antibacterial Microcapsules for Cotton Fabric / Leaves: Study prepared antibacterial cotton fabric by using microcapsules containing P. guajava leaf extract. Leaf extract was applied to cotton fabric by direct printing with a binder and assessed for antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Results showed cotton fabric finished with microcapsules containing P. guajava leaf extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, but not against E. coli.
  • Testosterone Effect / Contraceptive / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of PG leaves on testosterone level and serum lipid parameters in rats. Results showed male fertility regulation with reduction in serum testosterone suggesting significant contraceptive efficacy, together with sizable reduction in weight of organs, i.e., testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle.
  • Antidiarrheal Activity / Fruits Study evaluated the antidiarrheal potency of ethanolic fruit extract of Psidium guajava using Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) antidiarrheal activity evidenced by reduction in rate of defecation (78.33% at 600 mg/kg body weight compared to loperamide at 100%). The activity was attributed to flavonoids and tannins probably through denaturation of proteins and forming protein tannates which minimize intestinal mucosal permeability. LD50 of the crude methanolic extract was 10,715 mg/kg.
  • Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Antitumor: Study evaluated the phenolic and flavonoid levels, antioxidant activity, lethality assay, antibacterial and antitumor activities of dried P. guajava extract. The guava extract yielded high levels of phenolics (766.08 ± 14.52 mg/g) flavonoids (118.90 ± 5.47 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (87.65%). LD50 was 185.15 µg/ml. MIC was 250 µg/ml for Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, and S. oralis. IC50 in HeLa, RKO and Wi cell lines were 15.6 ± 0.8 µg/ml, 21.2 ±1.1 µg/ml and 68.9 ± 1.5 µg/ml, respectively. Results suggest the dry extract of leaves has potential as topical application in the oral cavity, the development of antitumor formulation, and, also as functional food.
  • Sperm Boosting Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of P. guajava leaves on serum parameters of healthy male wistar rats. Results showed a dose-dependent increase in percentages of motile spermatozoa in guava leaf extract treated animals.
  • Amelioration of Arsenic Toxicity: Study evaluated the effect of P. guajava leaf extract on arsenic induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats. Results suggest kidney damage caused by arsenic can be repaired to some extent by AEPG50.
  • Antioxidant / Leaves: Study investigated the antioxidant activity of Psidium guajava leaf extract for antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging method using ascorbic acid as standard. The leaf extract showed strong antioxidant activity. IC50 of the P. guajava extract was 45.5 ± 0.044 µg/mL compared to ascorbic acid standard of 25.8 ± 0.204 µg/mL.
  • Antiplaque Activity: Aqueous extracts of P. betle and P. guajava showed profound effect on the ultrastructure of selected dental plaque bacteria viz., Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mitis, and Actinomyces sp. Extracts interfered with normal growth cycle and development of bacterial cells slowing down plaque development.
  • Comparative Antidiabetic Activity / Fresh and Dry Leaves: Study evaluated the comparative antihyperglycemic activity of fresh and dry leaves of P. guajava against alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The fresh leaf extract showed significant anti-hyperglycemic activity compared to dry leaves, producing nearly equal reduction in blood glucose compared to that of standard glibenclamide 10 mg/kg.
  • Antioxidant / Antimutagenic / Leaves: Study evaluated various solvent fractions of P. guajava leaf for antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. A methanolic extract showed maximum antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT as tested by DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAX reducing ability assays. The methanolic fraction at 80 µg/ml concentration inhibition above 70% mutagenicity. Findings suggest high amount of phenolics responsible for the broad spectrum antimutagenic and antioxidant properties in vitro.
  • New Source of Antioxidant Dietary Fiber / Fruit: Study of pulp and peel fractions showed high dietary fiber (48.55-49.42%) and extractable polyphenols (2.62-7.79%). All fractions showed remarkable antioxidant capacity correlating with total phenolic content. Results showed the peel and pulp can be used to obtain antioxidant dietary fiber, a new product which combines dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds.
  • Analgesic / Dried Leaves: Study evaluated methanolic and aqueous extracts of dried leaf of P. guajava for analgesic property inn adult male wistar albino rats using formalin and acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Results showed analgesic property in the order of methanolic < aqueous < combined methanolic and aqueous.
  • Hepatoprotective Fruit Polysaccharide Supplementation / Paracetamol Toxicity: Study evaluated the effect of polysaccharide from guava fruit on paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver injury on Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed PCM induced alterations (glycogen depletion, vacuolization, loss of cell membrane, inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatocellular distortions) were attenuated by PPG supplementation.
  • Biocidal Triterpenoids / Betulinic Acid and Lupeol / Leaves: Study isolated two triterpenoids viz., betulinic acid and lupeol from the leaf extract of P guajava. The two compounds were found active against all tested bacteria and fungi. Compound 1 showed better antimicrobial activity compared to compound 2.
  • Nephroprotective / Doxorubicin Induced Renal Toxicity / Leaves: Study investigated the protective effect of ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaves against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Results showed amelioration of doxorubicin-induced toxicity at 100 and 300 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract.
  • Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on a simple, rapid, cost-effective, and environment friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava leaf extract. The nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed promise as an alternate antibacterial agent in the field of agriculture for large-scale production.
  • Immunostimulatory Ingredient / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract and water and ethanol solvents as functional ingredient for immunstimulant. Results showed a high content of total phenols in the extract, with higher stimulation index value in both solvents. The immunostimulatory activity was probably another active compound other than the polyphenolic antioxidant.
  • Antifungal / Fungistatic / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of leaves to verify antifungal potential. Liquid chromatography demonstrated flavonoids and phenolic acids. Extracts showed fungistatic effect with MIC >8192 µg/mL, MFC above 8192 µg/mL. IC50 ranged from 1803.02 to 5623.41 µg/mL. Study suggests teas and tinctures have antifungal potential through inhibition of fungal multiplication, virulence factor, and cell dimorphism preventing tissue invasion.
  • Inotropic / Leaves: Study evaluated a crude extract from macerated dry leaves of P. guajava on its effect of guinea pig atrial contractility Results showed reversibly decreased myocardial force in a concentrated-dependent fashion, suggestion of decrease in cellular inward calcium current, increased relaxation time, and an inotropic effect abolished by cholinergic receptor blockade. Study suggests leaf extracts depress myocardial inotropism.
  • Inhibitory Effect of Active Cutanenous Anaphylaxis Reaction / Leaves: Study showed the inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of leaves on active cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by ovalbumin in rats. Histopathologically, EEPG lead showed an inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation process.
  • Mouthwash for Aphthous Ulcers / Clinical Trial / Leaves: Randomized prospective open label clinical trial evaluated the effect of P. guajava leaves as mouthwash in the management of 32 patients with aphthous ulcers. Guava leaves mouthwash was shown to be effective for aphthous ulcers in terms of reduction of symptoms of pain and faster reduction of ulcer size.
  • Activity of Leaf Extracts on Bacterial Pathogens Causing Diarrheal Infections: Study investigated the antibacterial property of leaves extract against diarrhea-causing bacterial pathogens. Results showed the methanol extract of guava leaves could serve as potential source of drugs fro control of diarrheal infections.
  • Interaction with Receptor Systems / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous leaf extract of P. guajava on receptor systems using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus, and trachea, respectively. Results showed concentration-dependent contractile response indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic systems, Relaxant effect of PC on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicating agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Study concludes PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic, and adrenegic receptor systems.
  • Antioxidant / Antiglycative / Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of guava leaves. Oral administration of the extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level. It also showed improved antioxidant potential as evidenced by decreased lipid peroxidation and significant increase in activity of various antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, indicators of glycation, were significantly reduced in the treated groups.
  • Anticancer / Prostate Cancer / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer effects of guava leaves and its ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p7) S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. Results showed the guava leaf hexane fraction was the most potent induces of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. Overall, study suggests that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and offers a potential source of therapeutic compounds for prevention and treatment of cancer.
  • Wound Healing Effect / Ointment Formulation / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing ability of guava extract ointment formulation in comparison to Fucidin and Topiderms on wounds made on male ICR mice using. Results showed wound healing activity, although slower capacity compared to Fucidin and Topiderm. Study suggests an increase in leaf extract concentration.
  • Radiomodulatory Against X-ray Induced Genotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis / Leaves: Study evaluated hydroalcoholic leaf extracts for radioprotective activity in rats exposed to X-rays. Results suggest the guava leaf extract has radiomodulating activity in vivo due to its powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and has potential as antioxidant supplement to minimize the damaging effects of radiation, preventing DNA damage and apoptosis.
  • Antimicrobial Effect / Enteric Pathogens: Study evaluated various solvent extracts of leaves for antimicrobial activity against nine enteric pathogens viz., E. coli, S. typhi, S. paratyphi A and B, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. An EE showed highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella paratyphi A, a ME against Citrobacter spp, an diethyl ether extract against Klebsiella spp., and an acetone extract against Shigella dysenteriae.
  • Hyperglycemic / Peel: Study has shown the fruit extract to have hypoglycemic effect in alloxan treated mice and human subjects. This study evaluated the glycemic potential of P. guajava fruit peel extract on blood glucose level of normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats using FBS and GTT tests. Results showed fruit peel extract to have a hyperglycemic effect. The hyperglycemic effect of the fruit peel advises that diabetic patients should peel off the guava fruits before consuming. Study suggests possible use in controlling hypoglycemia due to excess of insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs.
  • Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in T2 diabetic rats. Acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in blood sugar in diabetic rats fed with the extracts of guava leaves (p<0.05). Long-term administration increased plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. there was also higher activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and G6PD in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts.
  • Anti-Solar Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-solar activity of P. guajava aqueous extract from pulverized dried leaves. Photo-protective activity was evaluated using UV visible spectrophotometry. The UV scanning absorption spectra of the extract showed very strong absorption at 0.279A with max at 268 nm. Results suggest an ability to absorb the entire UV range. Activity was attributed to flavonoids. The anti-solar activity suggests potential utility in anti-solar formulations and a cheaper and safe alternative to chemical sunscreens.
  • Antimicrobial / Periodontal Disease / Leaves:Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of ethanolic (EGE) and aqueous (AGE) guava leaf extracts on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and assessed its antiproteolytic activity on P. gingivalis. Results sowed significant activity against the periodontal pathogens and suggests potential therapeutic agent against periodontitis.
  • Antifungal / Fruits and Leaves: Study evaluated the antifungal activities of ethanolic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hot water extracts from leaves and fruits of P. guajava against four fungal species i.e., M. canis, T. rubrum, A. niger, and C. albicans. The methanolic fruit extract showed best activity with zone of inhibition of 29 mm against Trichophyton rubrum. Antifungal activity was attributed to tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and polyphenols.
  • Antidiarrheal Mechanisms of Action / Leaves: Study evaluated a hot aqueous extract of dried leaves on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhea, seeking to understand possible mechanisms of action in controlling infectious diarrhea, and comparing it with quercetin. Results suggest components other than quercetin contribute to the antidiarrheal action. Various mechanisms are proposed viz., antimicrobial activity, antispasmodic activity, inhibition of watery secretion and inhibition of acetylcholine release.
  • Preferential Inhibition of Bacterial Elastase / Leaves:Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of P. guajava leaf extracts on bacterial elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). The methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves inhibited both bacterial elastase and HNE. The inhibition was more potent toward bacterial elastase. The inhibitory effect was attributed to phenolic compounds.
  • Anticestodal / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticestodal efficacy of P. guajava leaf extract using experimental Hymenolepis diminuta infection in rats. Results showed reduction in EPG of faeces count in a dose-dependent manner, low recovery of worms remaining in the intestine, and dose-dependent host clearance. In all experimental models, the anticestodal efficacy was significantly comparable with that of praziquantel (PZQ), the standard anticestodal drug. Results support its folkloric medicinal use in the treatment of intestinal-worm infections in northeast India.
  • Increase Platelet Count / Combination of Red Yeast Rice, Red Guava Leaf Extract and Red Guava Fruit: Dengue fever leads to decrease in thrombocytes. Decreased platelet count was induced by quinine to produce a dengue-like thrombocytopenic state. Study evaluated the effect of combination of angkak (red yeast rice), guava fruit juice and guava leaf extract on blood hematology profile of quinine-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats. The highest increase in platelet count (up to 127%) was seen with 400 mg/kbw of angkak combined with guava juice 10 g/kbw per day (p<0.05). Combination of angkak and leaves ethanol extract significant increase erythrocyte count and hematocrit value.
  • Anti-Hemolytic Activity / Leaves:Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava for the anti-hemolytic activity against H2O2 induced hemolysis in chicken erythrocytes. Results showed moderate anti-hemolytic activity in the range from 12.5% to 43.75% at varying extract concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/ml.

Use of Bayabas:

  • Well known for its edible fruit.
  • Fruit can be eaten raw or processed into beverages, ice cream, syrup, jellies and jams.
  • Ripe fruit is eaten as vegetable and used as seasoning for native dishes, like sinigang, etc.
  • Very high in vitamin C (80 mg in 100 gm of fruit) with large amounts of vitamin A.
  • In the Philippines, the astringent, unripe fruit, the leaves, bark cortex, and roots - though more often the leaves only - are used in decoction for washing ulcers and wounds.
  • Fresh leaves used for wounds and toothache.
  • Decoction or infusion of fresh leaves used for wound cleaning to prevent infection and to facilitate healing.
  • Warm decoction of leaves for aromatic baths.
  • For pasma, the salt residue from home ice-cream makers is mixed with water and bayabas leaves, boiled and used as a healing wash to the extremities.
  • Decoction of bark and leaves used for diarrhea.
  • For diarrhea, boil for 15 minutes 4 to 6 tablespoons of chopped leaves in 18 ounces of water. Strain and cool. Drink 1/4 of the decoction every 3 - 4 hours.
  • Bark used internally for chronic diarrhea of children and adults - half an ounce of the bark or root bark in six ounces of water is boiled down to 3 ounces, and given in teaspoon doses. Also used for prolapsus ani of children.
  • Decoction of rootbark also used as mouthwash for swollen gums.
  • Root-bark has been recommended for chronic diarrhea.
  • For toothache, chew 2-3 young leaves and put into the tooth cavity.
  • In India, water decoction of leaves used for treatment of jaundice.
  • In Mexico, decoction of leaves used for cleaning ulcers. Ground leaves used as poultice. Leaves also used as remedy for itches. Fruit also used as anthelmintic.
  • In Uruguay, decoction of leaves used as vaginal and uterine wash, especially in leucorrhea.
  • In the West Indies, decoction of young leaves and shoots used as febrifuge and for antispasmodic baths. Infusion of leaves used for cerebral affections, nephritis, and cachexia. Pounded leaves used locally for rheumatism; extract used for epilepsy and chorea.
  • In Costa Rica, decoction of flower buds used for diarrhea and to improve blood flow.
  • In African folk medicine, leaves used for treatment of diarrhea.
  • For gum swelling, chew leaves or use the leaf decoction as mouthwash 3 times daily; chewed leaves.
  • For skin ulcers, pruritic or infected wounds: Apply decoction of leaves or unripe fruit as wash or the leaf poultice on the wound or use the decoction for wound cleansing. It is also popularly used for the wound healing of circumcision wounds.
  • Guava jelly used as heart tonic; also for constipation.
  • Ripe fruit is used as aperient.
  • Water in which the fruit is soaked used for diabetes.
  • In a, used as a chewing stick for oral care.
  • In Nicaragua, P. guajava is a traditional treatment for Giardia-induced diarrhea.
  • For nosebleeds, densely roll the bayabas leaves and place into the nostril cavity.
  • As vaginal wash, warm decoction of leaves as vaginal wash (after childbirth) or douche.
  • Leaf extract used in skin whitening products.
  • Toothbrush au-natural: Bayabas twigs, chewed at the ends until frayed, used as alternative for toothbrushing with whitening effect.
  • Inspired by the folkloric use of bayabas leaves for wound healing and treatment of acne, study reports on making soap out of boiling bayabas leaves and mixing the extract with sodium hydroxide, oil, and water.
  • Wood: Suitable for carpentry, turnery, fuel or charcoal. A favorite rural use for tool handles.

Lagundi is an erect, branched tree or shrub, 2 to 5 meters high. Leaves are usually 5-foliate, rarely with 3 leaflets only, and palmately arranged. Leaflets are lanceolate, entire, 4 to 10 centimeters long, slightly hairy beneath, and pointed at both ends, the middle leaflets being larger than the others, and distinctly stalked. Flowers are numerous, blue to lavender, 6 to 7 millimeters long, borne in terminal inflorescences (panicles) 10 to 20 centimeters long. Calyx is hairy, and 5-toothed. Corolla is densely hairy in the throat, and the middle lobe of the lower lip is longest. Fruit is a succulent drupe, globose, black when ripe, about 4 millimeters in diameter.

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil; resin; alkaloid; lichen acids; glucoside.
  • Constituents of oil: sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, ß-caryophyllene, α-guanine and globulol.
  • Study on essential oils showed ß-chlorophyll common to leaves, flowers and dried fruits.
  • Leaves yield a colorless essential oil and a resin; the fruit yields an acid resin, an astringent organic acid, mallic acid, and coloring matter.
  • Leaves contain an alkaloid nishindine, flavones, luteolin-7-glucoside, casticin, iridoid glycosides.
  • Phytochemical screening of ethanol leaf extract yielded alkaloids, iridoids, phenolic acids, flavonols and flavonoids.
  • Seeds contain hydrocarbons, B-sitosterol, benzoic acid and phthalic acid, anti-inflammatory diterpene, flavonoids and triterpenoids.
  • Essential oil of seeds yielded forty-two components representing 91.36% of the oil. Major constituents were n-Hexadecanoic acid (17.68%), eudesm-4-14-en-11-ol (12.39%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.79%) were found to be the major constituents.
  • Essential oil analysis fresh leaves, flowers and dried fruit yielded main constituents, viz., leaves: α-guaiene, caryophyllene epoxide and ethyl-hexadecenoate; flowers:-α-selinene, germacren-4-ol, caryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol; fruit: β-selinene, α-cedrene, germacrene D and hexadecanoic acid.
  • Aerial parts of Vitex negundo var. cannabiolia yielded four phenolics, salviaplebeiaside, γ-tocopherol, chrysosplenol-D, and isovitexin, along with α-tocoquinone and β-sitosterol.
  • Methanolic leaf extract by FTIR spectroscopy yielded alcohols and phenols, alkane, alkene, carboxylic acid, aromatic compound, alipathic nitro compound, primary alcohol, para-benzene, meta-benzene, and bromo alkanes.
  • Study on leaves yielded pure compounds of triterpenoidal nature, i.e. oleonolic acid and lupeol for the first time.
  • A callus culture extract yielded oleanane-type triterpenes. The major triterpenes were (2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 2α,3α,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, and oleanolic acid) were identified using 1H and 13C NMR, MS and IR, while the minor triterpenes (2α,3α,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid methyl ester, 11-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid propyl ester, 11-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid butyl ester, and β-amyrin) were identified through their EIMS fragmentations alone.
  • Review reports on the chemical profile of volatile oils extracted from leaves of V. negundo. Major constituents were δ-elemene, β-eudesmol, camphor, camphene, carene, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, 1,8-cineole [eucalyptol], globulol, linalool, 1-oceten-3 ol, α-pinene, sabinene, terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol, γ-terpinene, and viridiflorol. (86)

Properties:

  • Plant is considered anti-inflammatory, astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, alterant, depurative, rejuvenating, stomachic.
  • Roots considered tonic, febrifuge, anti-rheumatic, diuretic and expectorant.
  • Leaves and seeds considered vulnerary.
  • Leaves are considered aromatic, bitter, anti-inflammatory, bronchial smooth muscle relaxant, lactagogue, emmenagogue, insecticide, and vermifuge.
  • Flowers are astringent, carminative, hepatoprotective, digestive, vermifuge and febrifuge.
  • Fruit is considered nervine, cephalic, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue and vermifuge.
  • Studies have suggested antivenom. anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic, antifungal, insecticidal, anticonvulsant, larvicidal, anthelmintic, antioxidant, anxiolytic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antiamnesic, antidiabetic, antieosinophilic, antiproliferative, mosquitocidal, anti-scabies, anti-typhoid properties.
  • Anti-Venom: Tested against Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom, a methanolic extract study of VN showed it possesses potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and suggests further investigation.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / Potentiation of Phenylbutazone and Ibuprofen: Study showed sub-effective dose of VN significantly potentiated anti-inflammatory activity of phenylbutazone and ibuprofen in albino rats in carrageenan induced hind paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma models.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Study suggests VN possess anti-inflammatory activity against acute and sub-acute inflammation probably due to prostaglandin inhibition and reduction of oxidative stress.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study showed the fresh leaves of VN have anti-inflammatory and pain suppressing activities possibly mediated through PG synthesis inhibition, antihistamine, membrane stabilizing and antioxidant activities.
  • Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oils and extracts to have antibacterial activity. Essential oil and extracts showed promising results against B subtilis and E coli. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against all tested strains.
  • Antibacterial / Leaf, Flower and Fruits: Study of extracts of leaf, flower and fruit of VN was done to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against phytopathogens Pseudomonas solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodis. The ethyl acetate extract showed significant inhibition. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids.
  • Antifungal: New antifungal flavonoid glycoside from Vitex negundo: Study found a new isolated flavone glycoside and a known compound to have significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans. Ethanol extract of fruit seeds showed significant activity against Fusarium solani and moderate response against Microsporum canis with no effect against C albicans.
  • Larvicidal: Differential larvicidal efficacy of four species of Vitex against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae: The methanolic extracts of all Vitex species showed varying levels of larvicidal activity.
  • Anthelmintic / Leaves and Roots: Study of ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera and Vitex negundo on anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma showed both to have dose dependent activity, with Moringa oleifera showing more activity. Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of ethanol extracts of leaves and roots of V. negundo, leaves of Moringa oleifera, and roots of Tamarindus indica on Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Piperazine citrate was used as reference standard. Results showed M. oleifera and V. negundo leaves extract showed remarkable anthelmintic potential against intestinal parasitism.
  • Antioxidant: Report indicated VN can produce reduction of oxidative stress mainly by reducing lipid peroxidation. Study of ethanolic leaf extract showed antioxidant activity attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and flavonols. Study showed the leaves showed 23.21 mg/100 of Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (AEAC). Study of 17 Indian medicinal plants, including the alcoholic extract of VN, all showed dose-dependent nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity.
  • Anticonvulsant / Adjuvant Therapy: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of VN leaf extracts in albino mice. Results suggest that VN possesses anticonvulsant activity particularly against PTZ (pentylenetetarazole) induced seizures, with a significant reduction of number and duration of convulsions. The potentiation of diphenylhydantoin and valproic acid suggests it may be useful as adjuvant therapy to lower the requirements of the drug therapies.
  • Insecticidal / Pesticidal: Studies have shown the plant products to possess insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae, houseflies and stored product pests.
  • Pharmacokinetic Interaction / V. negundo and Paracetamol: Study showed a significant decline in plasma concentration of paracetamol. Results conclude that if the VN extract or an ayurvedic formulation is co-administered with an allopathic drug like paracetamol, the allopathic drug has to be adjusted for achieve its desired therapeutic response.
  • Antibacterial / Cytotoxic: Study showed all fractions with prominent zones of inhibition against B subtilis, B megaterium, S typhi, Vibrio mimicus and a fungal strains, A niger. Results also showed significant cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp nauplii.
  • Antimicrobial: Extracts were tested against five bacterial species (S aureus, P vulgaris, B subtilis, E coli, P aeruginosa) and three fungal species ( A niger, A flavon, C albicans). Among all extracts the water/ethanol extract showed maximum antimicrobial activity and the water extract, maximum antifungal activity against all species tested.
  • Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer / Flavonoids: Study in albino rats investigating the gastroprotective activity of the aqueous extract of VN against aspirin-induced mucosal damage revealed VN to have a pivotal role in treating ulcer. Phytochemical studies yielded the presence of flavonoids probably responsible for its gastroprotection.
  • Hepatoprotective / Negundoside: Negundoside, an iridoid glycoside from the leaves of VN was studied for its hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced liver toxicity. Results showed NG exerts a protective effect of CYP2E1-dependent CCl4 toxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, followed by improved intracellular calcium homeostasis and inhibition of Ca-dependent proteases.
  • Anxiolytic: Study showed VN is an effective anxiolytic agent. The action of the extract upon anxiety models tested were consistent with the traditional use of VN and presents a potential for use in primary medical care.
  • Essential Oil / Flowers: Study on the essential oil of flowers of VN yielded 45 components. The major compounds were sabinene (20.3%), B-caryophyllene (14.1%) and globulol (19.2%).
  • Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study showed ethanol extract of VN seeds interacted with the opioid system and may be more effective on inflammatory pain. Further results suggest that the analgesic effects may be partially mediated by it anti-inflammatory activity. The analgesic activity could be due to the abundance of fatty acids with synergistic effects.
  • Anti-Microfilarial: Study investigated the antifilarial effect of V. negundo against Brugia malayi microfilariae. A root extract of VN caused complete loss of motility of microfilariae after 48 hrs of incubation. Study yielded the presence of alkaloids, saponins and flavanoids from the roots of VN.
  • Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study in mice investigating the antinociceptive activity of an ethanolic leaf extract showed significant dose-dependent analgesic activity. Ten times the extract dose produced the effects comparable to the standard drug meperidine. Naloxone did not reverse the analgesic effect of the VN extract. Results suggest both central and peripheral analgesic activity and also suggests a potential as adjuvant therapy with analgesic drugs.
  • Antiamnesic: Study investigated the anti-amnesic activity of VN in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Results showed that VN treated groups had decreased phenomenon of amnesia by increasing learning of memory through antioxidant effect and decreasing AChE activity.
  • Cytotoxicity / Antitumor / Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma / Leaves: Study of ethanol and aqueous extract of leaves of Vitex negundo against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma showed antitumor effect. Study of showed a hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts showed higher in vitro cytotoxicity activity against Dalton's ascites lymphoma line.
  • Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Injury: Study of ethanolic extract showed V. negundo was effective in protecting the liver against paracetamol-induced injury in rats.
  • Antioxidant / Antiproliferative / Pass-Predicted V. negundo: VN extract showed the strongest free radical scavenging power compared to two commercial antioxidants. An ethanolic extract showed cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. The experimental studies verified the predictions obtained by a PASS-predicted design strategy.
  • Amelioration of Induced Colitis / Leaves: An ethanolic extract of leaves of V. negundo showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.
  • Larvicidal / Mosquitocidal / Leaves: Study showed V. negundo ethanol leaf extracts had larvicidal activity against mosquito larvae. Study evaluated crude leaf extracts of Leucas aspera, Vitex negundo and Eucalyptus for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Eucalyptus and V. negundo showed good larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Leucas aspera showed poor mortality. Four different solvent extracts of V. negundo showed good larvicidal activity. Results suggest a potential for the crude extracts for mosquito control and replacement of chemical pesticides.
  • Antidiabetic Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of V. negundo for antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rat models. Results showed the aqueous extract with significant activity, greater than the ethanol extract, and comparable to glibenclamide, the standard antidiabetic drug. Study of crude ethanolic extracts of V. negundo leaves extract showed significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity against streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
  • Dermal Toxicity Study / Essential Oil: Study evaluated V. negundo essential oil for potential acute and subchronic dermal toxicities in Wistar rats for five weeks. Results showed all animals to be normal without any behavioral, chemical, hematological, necroscopical and histopathological changes, with NOEL (no observed effect level) and NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) on 250 to 1000 mg/kbw/day, respectively.
  • HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibition / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects f an ethanolic leaf extract of Vitex negundo against HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and to identify and quantify the flavonoids present. Results showed VN possess anti-RT substances. The activity was attributed possibly to the presence of flavonoids, in particular, the high quantity of kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin.
  • α-Amylase / Lowering of Post Prandial Hyperglycemia: Study evaluated the alpha amylase inhibitory effects of flavanoid extracts of different part of V. negundo and A. paniculata. Except for Vitex leaf flavonoid extract, all other tested flavonoids of both plant parts showed ore than 50% inhibition of α-amylase activity, indicating the flavonoids of both plants may be effective in lowering post prandial hyperglycemia.
  • Miticidal / Anti- Scabies: Study evaluated the miticidal effect of a methanolic extract of V. negundo through topical applications on scabies-affected camel, buffalo, goat, dog, and man. Results showed 10, 20, and 30% concentrations to cause 70, 80, and 90% mortality of Sarcoptes scabei mites, compared to ivermectin (85%) and methyl alcohol (5%) mortality.
  • Antifungal / Essential Oil: Study investigated the constituents and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from V. negundo seeds. Results yielded forty-two components, and the oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans.
  • Anxiolytic / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficacy of ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo in animal tests of anxiety. In mice using the elevated plus maze test, results showed anxiolytic behavior similar to diazepam.
  • Antieosinophilic / Anti-Asthma / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts and fractions for action on bronchial hyperresponsiveness using egg-albumin induced asthma in guinea pigs. Results showed the aqueous subfraction of leaves possessed antieosinophilic activity, reducing bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Results suggest potential usefulness in the treatment of asthma and various inflammatory, allergy, and immunologic disease.
  • Antibacterial / Essential Oils: Essential oils from fresh leaves, flowers, and fried fruits were evaluated for antibacterial potential against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. All the essential oils and successive extracts showed activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. EA and ethanol extracts showed activity against all tested strains. Fruits and leaves were most active against E. coli and S. aureus. Only the flower oil was active against P. aeruginosa.
  • Toxicity Studies / Essential Oils: Study evaluated combined extracts of V. negundo, V. leucoxylon, and V. trifolia for toxicity in mice. Results showed no toxicity or evidence of adverse effects in mice following acute oral administration at highest dose of 2000 mg/kg crude extracts.
  • Neuroprotective / Ethanol Induced Cerebral Oxidative Stress / Leaves: Study evaluated various fractions of hydromethanolic extract of leaves against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Results showed protective action on the brain, attributed to its antioxidant potential. The chloroform fraction activity was comparable to standard α-tocopherol.
  • Anti-Typhoid Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the methanolic leaf extracts of V. negundo and A. vasica for anti-typhoid activity against Salmonella typhi. Leaf extracts of both V. negundo and V. vasica showed considerable antioxidant activity and anti-typhoid activity.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated Vitex negundo, A. marmelos and B. serrata for potential anti-inflammatory activity in LPS treated human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The methanolic extract of all 3 plants significantly decreased the LPS induced NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Of the 3, Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos leaf extracts showed potent anti-inflammatory activity at 50 and 100 µg/mL.
  • Antiseptic / Aerial Parts: Study yielded four phenolics (1-4), along with a-tocoquinone and ß-sitosterol from aerial parts of V. negundo var. cannabifolia. Compound 4, chrysosplenol-D exhibited antibacterial activities against four spoilage test microorganisms viz. E. coli, B. subtilis, Micrococcus tetragenus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens.
  • Antibacterial against Multidrug Resistant Bacterium: Study investigated the antibacterial activity of extracts and essential oils of V. negundo leaves against an unknown bacterium resistant to various antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of V. negundo showed ability to inhibit growth or kill concerned multidrug resistant bacterium (B. cereus strain mmm86) and can be used for pharmaceutical purposes The activity may be due to presence of some compounds like ß-caryophyllene, Ag (silver) nanoparticles, betulinic acid, etc.
  • Anti-Microfilarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the possible antifilarial effect of an ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo leaves against Setaria cervi filarial parasite in vitro. Complete inhibition of motility was observed in motility assay. Antifilarial effect was found to be a function of relative concentrations. Inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.16 mg/ml.
  • Antivenom / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study investigated a hydroethanolic extract of V. negundo leaves (blue and green) for antioxidant, antiplatelet, antihemolytic, and in-vitro antivenom potential against Naja naja and Daboia russelii venoms. Results showed the blue leaf extract of V. negundo exerted potent antioxidant and venom neutralizing effect compared with the green leaf extract.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanolic extract of Vitex negundo roots in rats. Results showed considerable (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory effect in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model.
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease / Leaves: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in albino rats. Activity was attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.
  • Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Acute oral toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract of leaves of V. negundo was done using OECD guidelines. Results showed safety even at doses more than 2000 mg/kg without any sign of toxicity or mortality. Preliminary acute toxicity study of ethanolic leaf extract in albino rats by oral route showed it to be practically nontoxic with an LD50 of 7.5 g/kbw. (Tandon and Gupta, 2003). Study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of methanol leaf extracts of Vitex negundo and C. halicacabum. Acute oral toxicity using OECD guidelines showed no sign of toxicity viz., lethargy, jerking, convulsions, and mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. For sub-chronic toxicity study, single dose of 400 mg/kg and combined doses (400 mg/kg each for both) in equal proportion did not show any signs of toxicity of mortality.
  • α-Chymotrypsin Inhibition of Vitex negundo Lignans / Roots: Lignans isolated from the roots of Vitex negundo were screened against serine proteases α-chymotrypsin, thombin, and prolyl endopeptidase. Compounds 3 and 4 were active only against α-chymotrypsin as competitive and non-competitive inhibitors of the enzyme, respectively.
  • Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic injury in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed hepatoprotective effect as evidenced by intervention in the progression of liver fibrosis induced by TAA in rats.
  • Antiulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of V. negundo leaves in pylorus ligation and aspirin induced gastric ulcer models in rats. In the pylorus ligation model, study showed reduced ulcer index (1.66), decrease in total gastric acid and free acid (p<0.0001), increase in pH value (p<0.0001), and reduced gastric volume (p<0.0003), increase percentage of ulcer protection (61.66%). In the aspirin induced model, there was decrease in ulcer index (10.66) and increase in ulcer protection (72.09%).
  • Effect on Surgically Induced Endometriosis / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of V. negundo aqueous leaf extract on surgically induced endometriosis in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed reduction in endometriosis cyst size, adhesion, histological grading, and oxidant levels as well as elevation in antioxidant level. Activity may be associated with multiple synergistic mechanisms due to the presence of various phytochemicals such as carbohydrate, coumarins, flavonoids, phenol, resins, saponins, tannin, and terpenoid.
  • Antidiarrheal / Antispasmodic: Study evaluated the pharmacologic basis of its medicinal use in hyperactive gut disorders. A crude extract showed dose-dependent protection (53-71%) in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model, similar to loperamide. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparation, there V. negundo showed inhibition of spontaneous and high K+-induced contractions. Data results suggest that the antidiarrheal and spasmolytic effects of crude extract may be mediated through the presence of CCB (calcium channel blockade)-like constituent/s.
  • Testosterone Lowering Potential in Induced PCOS / Seeds: Study evaluated the testosterone lowering potential of Vitex negundo seed extract in hyperandrogenised female Sprague Dawley rats induced with PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome). Results showed significant reduction of serum testosterone and serum glucose. Histopathology showed less follicular cysts and lesions. Study showed promising potential as an anti-androgen which may be due to phytosterols and flavonoid contents.
  • Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen and Galactosamine Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluated the liver protective efficacy of a standardized bioactive fraction (SF) from V. negundo against acetaminophen (APAP) and galactosamine (GaIN) hepatotoxicity. Results showed significant hepatoprotective activity attributed to its antioxidant mechanism as evidenced by protection against increased lipid peroxidation and maintained glutathione status. Study showed agnuside and negundoside were active ingredients i the standardized fraction.
  • Herbal Bath Soap / Antibacterial and Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated the formulation of an herbal bath soap using V. negundo leaf extract. Results showed the formulation to be a stable solid and categorized as Grade 2 soap. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the formulated soap were significantly higher than commercial antibacterial and antifungal soaps.
  • Medicinal Value / Review: This review compiles the medicinal properties of V. negundo in various diseases. Bioactive compounds from various parts i.e., leaves, seeds and roots were volatile oils, flavonoids, lignans, iridoids, terpenes, and steroids. Bioactive compounds exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancerous, antimicrobial properties. VN has roles in the process of apoptosis, cell cycle, sperm motility, polycystic ovary syndrome and menstrual cycle. It modulates functioning of P-38, p ERK1/2, and p-JNK in LPS-elicited cells, N-terminal kinase, COX-1 pathways, TNF-a, Akt, mTOR, VEGF and HIF-1a.
  • Total Lignans / Effect on Collagen-Induced Arthritis / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic effects of total lignans of V. negundo seeds on collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Results showed significant inhibition of paw edema and decrease in arthritis index, with no influence on body weight and indices of thymus and spleen of rats. Results showed significant anti-arthritic effects which may be attributed to inhibition of levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, TNF-a, MMP-3, and MMP-9. with increase of IL-10. down-regulation of protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Study suggests a promising candidate for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.
  • Anti-Cancer / Human Cancer Cell Lines:Study of ethanol extract of Vitex negundo and H. indicum displayed cytotoxic activity as evidenced by dose-dependent mortality of brine-shrimp larvae. Crude ethanol extract and solvent fractions of bark of V. negundo showed marked cytotoxic effect in brine shrimp larvae. Study points to potential anticancer activity of chloroform and ethanol extracts of V. negundo and H. indicum.
  • Cytotoxic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol extracts of Vitex negundo, Lantana camara, Bauhinia variegata, and Bauhinia racemosa for antioxidant activity using DPPH. superoxide scavenging, and metal chelation methods and cytotoxic potency using MTT assay on human cancer cell lines. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in the methanol extract of V. negundo at 173.3 ± 1.54 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 24.41 ± 1.5 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW contents, respectively. Vitex negundo and L. camara leaves showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against HELA and KB human cancer cell lines with LD50 values of 222±3.35 and 188.69±1.4 µg/ml, respectively. Results suggest potential for VN and LC as source of natural antioxidants and anticancer drugs.
  • Comparative Elemental Composition of Wild and Cultivated Plants: Study evaluated the elemental of composition of wild and cultivated medicinal plants such as Vitex negundo, Solanum surattense and Andrographis paniculata. Minerals such as Na, K, Mg, and Zn were studied in both wild and domestic conditions. These minerals reflect on the medicinal value of the plants. Results showed the cultivated plants contained more concentration of all four investigated elements compared to plants collected from the wild area.
  • Preparation of Oil for Topical Application / Anti-Inflammatory: Vitex negundo has been used as massage oil in traditional Ayurveda as an herbal drug for relieving pain. Study reports on the preparation of oil containing V. negundo extract from different organic solvents and evaluation for anti-inflammatory activity by topical application. The oil obtained was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and compared with the marketed sample of mahanarayan oil. The oil extracted using methanol showed highest activity on application compared to all of the oils prepared from other organic solvents.
  • Bronchodilatory Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of V. negundo in hyperactive respiratory disorders. Crude extract of leaves were used to evaluated in vivo bronchodilatory activity in anesthetized rats and underlying mechanisms studies in isolated guinea-pig tracheal strips. Results suggest V. negundo possesses a combination of papaverine-like PDE inhibitor and diltiazem-like Ca(++) entry blocking constituents, which partly explain the bronchodilatory effect.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / 3.4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a leaf extract on topical administration using TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol acetate)-induced mouse ear inflammation model. Bioassay guided chromatography of fractions isolated 3.4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as bioactive principle responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity.
  • Antitussive / No Toxicity: Study evaluated the anti-tussive effect of a butanolic extract of V. negundo on sulphur-dioxide-induced cough in mice. At 1000 mg/kg, Vn caused maximum cough-suppresant effects (67% at 60 min). compared to codeine (10 ,mg/kg) and dextromethorphan (10mg/kg) with cough inhibitory potential of 75.7 and74.7%, respectively. LD50 of V. negundo was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In toxicity tests, no signs of neural impairment of acute behavioral toxicity were observed at antitussive doses. Results show an antitussive effect which was devoid of toxicity.
  • Bioactive Chromone / Alleviation of Pain and Inflammation: Study of Vitex negundo isolated two new chromone derivatives, namely, methyl 3-(2-(5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)ethyl)benzoate and 3-(1-hydroxy-2-(5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)ethyl)benzoic acid. Results showed significant attenuation (p<0.001) of tonic visceral nociception and potent amelioration (p<0.001) of carrageenan-induced paw swelling. Results suggest a potential source of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agents.
  • Anti-Arthritic Activity Against Denaturation of Protein: Study evaluated the in vitro antiarthritic activity of aqueous extract of V. negundo buy denaturation of protein methods. V. negundo was screened for anti-arthritic activity by denaturation of egg albumin and bovine albumin proteins. Results showed a marked in vitro antiarthritic effect as evidenced by concentration dependent inhibition of protein (albumin) denaturation by aqueous extract of V. negundo.
  • Comparative Study of Volatile Constituents / Leaves: Review reports on the chemical profile of volatile oils extracted from leaves of V. negundo. Major constituents were δ-elemene, β-eudesmol, camphor, camphene, carene, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, 1,8-cineole [eucalyptol], globulol, linalool, 1-oceten-3 ol, α-pinene, sabinene, terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol, γ-terpinene, and viridiflorol. Chief constituents were ß-caryophyllene, viridiflorol, and ß-eudesmol.
  • Anti-Hemolytic Activity: Study evaluated the phytochemicals, antioxidant properties, and anti-hemolytic activity of Adhatoda vasica and Vitex negundo. Phytochemicals were higher in V. negundo, except for alkaloids. Tannins were high in both plants. The plants showed strong antioxidant and reducing power ability, which supports their use as antioxidant supplement. Both plants prevented hemolysis of goat erythrocytes, and were considered safe and useful for medical formulations.
  • Cardiotonic / Leaves: Study evaluated the cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of V. negundo using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Results showed significant increase in the height of force of contraction (positive inotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) at dose of 0.4 mg. The effect increase as dose was increased.
  • Antiestrogenic / Anti-Implantation / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-implantation potential of various fractions of V. negundo leaf extract in female Swiss albino mice. Animals treated with n-hexane fraction showed altered level of superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase activity. The possible mechanism of inhibition of blastocyst implantation is through the anti-inflammatory and antiestrogenic potential.
  • Antitubercular Activity / Leaves: Study focused on identification, isolation, and characterization of lead constituents and to determine the antitubercular activity of their fractions and isolated compounds. Ethanol extract, petroleum ether, and chloroform fraction showed antitubercular activity at 150 µg/ml. Petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of the EE which contains betulinic acid, ursolic acid, and ß-sitosterol showed anti-TB activity.
  • Blood Pressure Lowering / Vasodilator / Cardiac Suppresant: Study evaluated the scientific basis for the medicinal use of Vitex negundo in hypertension. Crude extract of VN produced a dose-dependent fall in arterial pressure of anesthetized rats. The extract also shifted Ca++ concentration response curves to the right dose-dependently, like that caused by verapamil. In isolated guinea pig atria, the extract caused inhibition of atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions, similar to verapamil. Results suggest V. negundo exhibits BP lowering, vasodilator and cardiac suppressant activities, mediated predominantly through K+ channel activation combined with Ca++ channel inhibition.
  • Cytotoxic Flavone Analogues of Vitexicarpin / Leaves: Bioassay-guided fractionation of chloroform-soluble extract of leaves of Vitex negundo isolated a known flavone vitexicarpin (1), which exhibited broad cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line panel. To increase its cytotoxic potency, a series of acylation reactions yielded methylated (2), acetylated (3), and six new acylated (4-9) derivatives. Compound 9, 5,3'-dihexanoyloxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, showed comparative cytotoxic potency to compound 1.
  • Antileukemic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential and anti-proliferative activity of V. negundo methanolic leaf extract. Crude and chloroforms extracts showed good antioxidant activity by DPPH, FRAP, and nitric oxide methods. The plant extract exhibited poor cytotoxicity against erythroid cell lines but showed good activity on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
  • Lagundi has been proven to be an effective analgesic and antitussive (prepared as a pleasant tasting cough syrup) and has been considered as a replacement for dextromethorphan in the public health system.
  • Studies have shown benefit through reduction of coughing and relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscles. Being promoted by the Department of Health (DOH) for cough and asthma. One of a few herbs recently registered with the Bureau of Foods and Drugs (BFAD) as medicines.

Use of Lagundi:

  • Seeds used as condiment as pepper substitute.
  • Leaves and roots used in making tea.
  • Decoction of leaves used externally for cleaning ulcers and internally for flatulence. Also used as a lactagogue and emmenagogue.
  • Decoction of bark, tops and leaves used as antigastralgic.
  • Leaves used in aromatic baths; also as insectifuge.
  • Vapor bath prepared with the plant used for treatment of febrile, catarrhal, and rheumatic affections.
  • Decoction of leaves used as warm bath by women suffering with after-pains in the puerperal period. Also used as baths for new born children.
  • Seeds are boiled in water and eaten or the water drunk to prevent the spread of toxin from bites of poisonous animals.
  • Infusion of seeds used for disinfecting wounds and ulcers.
  • Infusion of seeds in wine used for dropsy.
  • Pounded leaves applies on the forehead and temples for headaches.
  • Leaf decoction for fever, headache, toothache, cough, asthma.
  • Root used as tonic, febrifuge and expectorant.
  • Fruit used as nervine, cephalic, and emmenagogue.
  • Tincture of root bark used for irritable bladder and for rheumatism.
  • Powdered root used for piles as demulcent; also for dysentery.
  • Root used for dyspepsia, colic, rheumatism, worms, boils, and leprosy.
  • Flowers are used for diarrhea, cholera, fever, and diseases of the liver; and also as cardiac tonic.
  • Powdered flowers and stalks are used for bleeding from the stomach and bowels.
  • Fruit used for headaches, catarrh, and watery eyes. Dried fruits are used as vermifuge.
  • Seeds are prepared as cooling medicine for skin diseases, leprosy, and inflammation of the mouth.
  • Oil prepared with the juice used for sinuses and scrofulous sores. Oil also used as a rubbing application to glandular or tubercular swelling of the neck. Oil also used for treatment of sloughing wounds and ulcers.
  • Leaves used for reducing inflammatory and rheumatic swellings of the joints and testicular swelling associated with gonorrheal epididymitis and orchitis. Poultice of leaves also applied to sprained limbs, contusions, leech bites, etc. For these, fresh leaves in an earthen pot are heated over fire, and applied and applied as tolerated over the bruised parts. Leaves heated over fire are also applied with oil externally on wounds.
  • Pillow stuffed with leaves is placed under the head for relief of catarrh and headache. Dried leaves when smoked also used to relieve catarrh and headaches.
  • Decoction of leaves and long pepper used for catarrhal fever associated with head congestion and dullness of hearing.
  • Juice of leaves used to remove fetid discharges and worms from ulcers.
  • Plaster of leaves applied to enlarged spleens.
  • For fever and toothaches, boil 6 tbsp of the chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes; strain and cool. Divide the decoction in 3 parts and take one part every 3-4 hours. Also, bruised leaves may be applied to forehead.
  • For asthma and cough: Take 1/4 of the decoction three times a day.
  • Aromatic bath or sponge bathing: Boil 4 handfuls of leaves in a pot of water for 5 minutes; use the lukewarm decoction for sponge bathing.
  • In Ayurveda and Unani, leaves and seeds used for rheumatism and joint inflammation. Decoction of leaves taken as a diuretic. Used for pacifying vata nerves.
  • In Bangladesh, used for headaches, weakness, vomiting, malaria black fever.
  • In Indo-China, root decoction used for intermittent fevers.
  • In Sri Lanka, used for eye disease, toothache, rheumatism; used as tonic, carminative and vermifuge.
  • Insecticide / Fumigant: Leaves considered insecticide and placed between pages of books and folds of silk and woolen clothing to preserve them from insects. Fresh leaves burnt with grass as fumigant against mosquitoes.
  • Dyeing: Ashes much used as alkali in dyeing.
  • Basketry: Young stems used for making baskets.
  • Stems used for making wattles.

Niog-niogan is a large climbing, woody shrub reaching a length of 2 to 8 meters. Brown hairs give the younger parts a rusty appearance. Leaves are oblong to elliptic, opposite, 7 to 15 centimeters long, rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are fragrant, tubular, showy, first white, then becoming red, reddish-purple or orange, exhibiting the range of colors in clusters, on the same flower stalk. Fruit is narrowly ellipsoid, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long, with five, sharp, longitudinal angles or wings. Seeds are pentagonal and black.

Constituents:

  • Phytochemical screening yields major classes of constituents: alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, saponins, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds.
  • A water extract of gum from the seeds gave an alkaloidal reaction; 3.87% of potassium sulphate was found.
  • Seeds yielded the presence of oleic acid and palmitic acids in the oil; and sitosterol and isolated acetyl derivative from the saponifiable matter.
  • Plant yields a fatty oil, 15%; gum; resin.
  • The nut yields 12.96 percent moisture; a yellow oil, 28.37 percent of the original nut.
  • Studies yield quisqualic acid, quisqualin A.
  • An analysis of the seed reported the presence of oleic and palmitic acids in the oil, in addition to sitosterol, and an acetyl derivative from the saponifiable matter.
  • Leaves yield rutin, trigonelline, L-proline, L-aspargine, and quisqualic acid.
  • Flower gum yields pelargonidin-3-glucoside.
  • Floral volatiles by n-hexane extraction yielded 24 constituents, amounting to 74.88% of the total composition. Major components of the oil were hydrocarbons (61.38%) among which α-pinene, the major terpenoid, and 1-ethyl-1-phenyl decane (8.13 %), the dominant aromatic. Petroleum ether extract of of leaves yielded palmitic acid (27.73%) as the major component of the saponifiable component, and α-amyrin, of the unsaponifiable portion. Crude protein was 2.06%. An unusual protein, dihydro-quisqualic acid, was isolated for the first time. Galactose, glucose, arabinose and L-rhamnose were identified as free sugars.
  • Study of Q. indica bark extract showed an extractive yield of 0.96 g and a total flavonoid content of 61.43 ± 1.16 mg rutin equivalent/g DW.

Properties:

  • The taste resembling coconuts.
  • Oil from the seeds are purgative.
  • Considered anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory.
  • Study on ascariasis reported the plant to possess anthelmintic properties.
  • Excessive dosing reported to cause hiccups.
  • Fruit is considered tonic and astringent.
  • Polyphenols / Antioxidant: Flower extract yielded high polyphenol contents and showed strong antioxidant activity.
  • Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor: Acetylcholine is one of the most important neurotransmitters in the central or peripheral nervous system. The methanolic extract of Q indica flower dose-dependently inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity.
  • Fixed Oil Storage Effect: Study showed one year storage does not significantly affect the physical constants of the fixed oil.
  • Larvicidal Activity / Aedes aegypti Mosquito: In a study screening 11 plant species of local flora against the IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Quisqualis indica was one of the plants that showed some larvicidal activity against Ae aegypti, albeit, at comparatively higher doses.
  • Antipyretic: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of leaves of Q. indica in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia model in rat. Results showed significant dose-dependent antipyretic activity.
  • Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydroalcoholic extract in Wistar rats. Oral administration of the extract showed dose-dependent and significant anti-inflammatory activity in acetic acid- induced vascular permeability and cotton-pellet granuloma model, comparable to Diclofenac. the anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to bradykinin and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition property of the polyphenols.
  • Immunomodulatory: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of flowers in Wistar rats in a cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression model. Results showed significant immunomodulatory activity.
  • Phytochemicals / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anticonvulsant / Antihyperglycemc / Antipyretic:Phytochemical studies floral volatiles and leaves were done. (See constituents above) Alcoholic extract showed remarkable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant and antipyretic effects. The isolated mucilage exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic effect. Antimicrobial testing showed pronounced effects against most of the tested microorganisms.
  • Intestinal Ascariasis / Comparative Study with Pyrantel Pamoate: In a comparative study of Q. indica and pyrantel pamoate in the treatment of intestinal ascariasis, 85% complete cure was seen with Quisqualis indica and 90% for Pyrantel pamoate. There was 15% and 10% decrease in ova count for Q. indica and P. pamoate, respectively. A second dose resulted in compete eradication. QI had 10% side effects compared to 55% with PP.
  • Anti-Diarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated a petroleum ether extract of leaves of Q. indica against experimentally induced diarrhea. The plant extracts showed dose-dependent significant anti-diarrheal effects in all treated groups, with results compared to loperamide PO and atropine sulfate IP.
  • Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Q. indica leaves in rodents. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory and both central and peripheral analgesic activities.
  • Hypolipidemic Effect / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extracts of aerial parts and flowers on passive smoking induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Results showed significant concentration- and dose-dependent reduction of harmful lipid layer in blood serum. There was reduction of LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides with elevation of HDL.
  • Antimicrobial Effect / Flowers: In a study of methanol extract of flowers of Q. indica, C. gigantea, P. tuberose, the dry flower extract of Quisqualis indica showed the best antimicrobial property of the flowers studied.
  • Antimutagenic: Expressions from 17 plants, including Quisqualis indica, reduced the mutagenicity potential of mitomycin C, dimethylnitrosamine and tetracycline and exhibited antimutagenic effects.
  • Antibacterial / Flowers / Aerial Parts: Study investigated the antibacterial activity of crude flower extracts of Combretum indicum against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacterial strains. Different solvent extracts showed marked inhibition against the tested human pathogenic bacterial strains, with Staphylococcus aureus showing higher susceptibility compared to the other bacterial strains. The methanol extract was the most effective compared to ethanol and aqueous extracts. Study of various extracts from dried aerial parts showed significant activity against four bacteria viz., E. coli, K. pneumonia, S. aureus, and S. pneumonia, comparable with ampicillin.
  • Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Flowers: Study investigated crude extracts of leaves and flowers of Quisqualis indica for cytotoxic activity on MTT assay of L269 cells. Various extracts of leaves and flowers showed varying cytotoxic activity. The ethyl acetate extract of flower showed the most effective cytotoxic activity at 500 µg mL-1 (70.3%).
  • Acute and Subacute Toxicity Study / Seeds: Study investigated the toxicity of seeds of Quisqualis indica in mice and rat to gain information on safety as a human anthelmintic. Mice receiving a water extract equivalent of 20.0 g/k/d orally showed no acute toxicity. Subacute toxicity study in Wistar rats showed that after receiving the extract equivalent to the seed of 6.0, 10.0 and 20.0 g/kg/day for 2 days the animals showed abnormal clinical signs; the notable ones were clonic with tonic seizures followed by respiratory arrest and death. All rats died after receiving the highest dose only for 3 consecutive days.
  • Silver Nanoparticles / Petals: Study reports on the ecofriendly, cost effective, and convenient green synthesis of AgNPs using flower petal extract of Combretum indicum.
  • Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration / Flowers: Study reports on the use of Combretum indicum flower ethanol extract in the development of a green indicator as alternative to synthetic acid-base titration indicators in the laboratory.
  • Insecticidal / Flower: Study evaluated methanol and EA extracts of Quisqualis indica flowers for antifeedant and insecticidal action against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura Fabricius under laboratory conditions. Antifeedant activity was significantly superior in crude 5% methanol extract of flower (31.87%) compared to other treatments. Maximum insecticidal action (93.51% larval mortality) was seen with the 5% methanol extractant, comparable to chemical quinalphos 0.05%. Results suggest a potential for botanical pesticide production.
  • Phytoconstituents / Biologic Activities: Quisqualis indica yields phytoconstituents such as trigonelline (alkaloid), L-proline (a-amino acid), L-asparagine (a-amino acid), quisqualic acid (agonist for AMPA receptors), rutin (flavonoid), and two forms of cysteine synthase, isoenzyme A and isoenzyme B. Various activities are attributed to these phytoconstituents viz., anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, immunomodulatory, anti-staphylococcal, anthelmintic, antiseptic activities, among others.
  • Effect on Experimental Esophagitis / Flowers: Study investigated a flower extract of Q. indica for free radical scavenging effects against experimental esophagitis in albino Wister rats. Results showed treatments with pantoprozole and flower extracts significantly inhibited gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. Various oxidative stress parameters were restored to normal level. Collectively, the findings suggest anti-esophagitis potential for the flower extract.
  • Antioxidant / Total Phenolic Content / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and total phenolic content (TPC) of different fractions of Q. indica leaves. Antioxidant activity on DPPH assay ranged from 24.38 to 72.10 µg/ml. Among all tested fractions EtOAc was the most active. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) and MTT assay against liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Defatted 90% MeOH and n-BuOH fractions showed highest TPC (345.99 ± 1.45 and 3.8078 ± 1.46 mg GAE / g DE, respectively). Cytotoxic activity against HepG2 showed the CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH to be the most cytotoxic fractions (IC50=11.9, 17.9 µg/ml, respectively) compared to Doxorubicin (IC50=4 µg/ml). (32)

Use of Niog-niogan:

  • Flowers are edible.
  • Tender shoots are edible.
  • Anthelmintic: Dried seeds preferable for deworming.
  • Adults: Dried nuts-chew 8 to 10 small- to medium-sized dried nuts two hours after a meal, as a single dose, followed by a half glass of water. If fresh nuts are used, chew only 4-5 nuts. Hiccups occur more frequently with the use of fresh nuts.
  • Children 3-5 years old: 4-5 dried nuts; 6 - 8 years old: 5-6 dried nuts; 9-12 years old: 6-7 dried nuts.
  • Roasted seeds for diarrhea and fever.
  • Plant used as a cough cure.
  • Leaves applied to the head to relieve headaches.
  • Pounded leaves externally for skin diseases.
  • Decoction of boiled leaves used for dysuria.
  • Ifugao migrants use it for headache.
  • Ayta communities in Dinalupan, Bataan, apply heated leaves on snake and animal bites. (30)
  • Ripe seeds roasted and used for diarrhea and fever.
  • In Thailand, seeds used as anthelmintic; flowers for diarrhea.
  • In India and Ambonia, leaves used in a compound decoction to relieve flatulent distention of the abdomen. Leaves and fruits are reported to be anthelmintic; also used for nephritis.
  • In India and the Moluccas, seeds are given with honey as electuary for the expulsion of entozoa in children.
  • In Indo-China, seeds are used as anthelmintic and for rickets in children.
  • The Chinese and Annamites reported to use the seeds as vermifuge.
  • In China, seeds macerated in oil are applied to parasitic skin diseases. Seeds are also used for diarrhea and leucorrheal discharges of children.
  • In Amboina, compound decoction of leaves used for flatulent abdominal distention.
  • In Bangladesh, used for diarrhea, fever, boils, ulcers and helminthiasis.
  • In Vietnam, fruits used for treatment of ascariasis and oxyuriasis in children and for infantile malnutrition due to intestinal parasitosis. Fruit decoction used as gargle for toothache. In Thailand, seeds used as anthelmintic and leaves used for healing of abscesses. In the Moluccas and India, seeds given with honey as electuary for expulsion of entozoa in children; roasted ripe seeds used for diarrhea and fever. Malays use leaf juice as lotion for boils and ulcers; leaves applied directly to headaches.

Pansit-pansitan is an erect, branched, annual herb, shallow rooted, reaching up to 40 centimeters high, with very succulent stems. Stems are round, often about 5 millimeters thick. Leaves are alternate, heart-shaped and turgid, as transparent and smooth as candle wax. Spikes are green, erect, very slender, 1 to 6 centimeters long. Tiny dot-like flowers scattered along solitary and leaf-opposed stalk (spike); naked; maturing gradually from the base to the tip; turning brown when ripe.

Constituents:

  • Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extracts of stems yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, with the absence of saponins and proteins.
  • Study yielded 5 new bioactive compounds: two secolignans, two tetrahydrofuran lignans, and one highly methoxylated dihydronaphthalenone.
  • Proximate analysis of leaves yielded a high ash content, a higher crude fiber content, and a still higher carbohydrate content. Mineral analysis showed low manganese, iron, zinc and copper, with high sodium content. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, cardenolides, saponins and tannins, with an absence of anthraquinones.
  • An ether soluble fraction of the whole plant yielded 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-1, 3-benzodioxole or apiol, in a liquid state, 2,4,5,-trimethoxy styrene, mp 138°, and three phytosterols, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol.
  • Study of essential oil showed the main components to be dillapiole (39.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (10.7%).
  • An ethanol extract of leaves yielded fifteen compounds: bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene, 10,12-octadecadiynoic acid, 3,7,11,11-tetramethylbicyclo [8.1.0] undeca-2,6-diene, 2,6-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenol, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl) benzene, 1,3-benzodioxole, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl), oxalic acid, cyclohexylmethyl tridecyl ester, ethyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, 10-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, (Z)6,(Z)9-pentadecadien-1-ol, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester and N,N-dimethyldodecanamide.
  • Proximate analysis showed P. pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high ash content (31.22%) suggests a high-value mineral composition of potassium, calcium, and iron.
  • GC-MS study of whole plant for bioactive components yielded 32 compounds. Major components was apiol (22.64%) followed by (3-Methoxy-nitrophenyl) acetic acid, methyl ester (8.14%), phytol (7.47%), n-hexadeconoic acid (7.29%), E-2-tetradecen-1-ol (6.92%), 5H-cyclopropa (3,4) benz (1,2-e) azulen-5-one, 4,9,9a- tris(acetyloxy)-3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]- (5.89%), stigmasterol (4.60%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (4.00%), campesterol (3.19%), a- sitosterol (2.92%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.79%), Z,Z- 2,5-pentadecadien-1-ol (2.53%) and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (2.01%).
  • Study of leaves and stems for essential oil by GC and GC-MS analysis. yielded sesquiterpenes as the most abundat class of compounds, followed by phenylpropanoids.Main constituents of the leaf oil were were γ-gurjunene (11.34%±0.01), 1,10-di-epi- cubenol (11.27%±0.02), (E)-caryophyllene (8.71%±0.02) and dillapiole (8.50%±0.03). The major constituents of the stem oil were carotol (9.77%±0.01), dillapiole (9.18%±0.01), trans-β-guaiene (9.05%±0.02) and (E)-caryophyllene (8.53%±0.02).

Properties:

  • Considered anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, refrigerant, analgesic, antifungal, anticancer.
  • Studies have shown analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant, antioxidant, antihyperuricemic, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, antibacterial, antiarthritic, anticancer, antiedematogenic, anti-amoebic, gastroprotective, and hemostatic properties.
  • Analgesic / Antiinflammatory / Aerial Parts: Extract study of aerial parts of PP tested in rats and mice exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The antiinflammatory activity was attributed to interference with prostaglandin synthesis. Results also showed low toxicity. Study of methanol extract of P. pellucida aerial parts showed significant analgesic activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.
  • CNS Depressant Activity: Study of peperomia leaf extract showed dose-dependent depressant effects probably due to psychoactive substances that are CNS depressant.
  • Antipyretic: Study of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of an ethanol leaf extract of Peperomia pellucida on rabbits showed antipyretic effects comparable to a standard aspirin. In a study that evaluated the effect of Peperomia pellucida crude leaf extract on boiled milk-induced fever in male white mice, results showed no antipyretic effect.
  • Antibacterial: Study of methanolic extract of PP exhibited a very good level of broad spectrum antibacterial activity. A methanol crude extract showed growth inhibition for E. coli at 1% and 10% concentration, but no inhibition of growth of S. aureus.
  • Phenological Antiedematogenic: P pellucida has a phenological cycle of about 100 days. The aqueous extract is used as antiedematogenic during pheophases 1 and 2 of winter and spring.
  • Anti-Cancer: Study isolated five new compounds, including two secolignans, two tetrahydrofuran lignans, one highly methoxylated dihydronaphthalenone with known peperomins A, B, C and E. Compound 1 and peperomin E showed growth inhibitory effects on three cancer cell lines.
  • Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the potential systemic toxicity of acute oral use of P. pellucida freeze-dried aqueous extract powder in mice. In excessive amounts, P. pellucida showed a dose-dependent increase in adverse effects in the major systems of the body. The moderate slope of the dose-response line was suggestive of a moderately wide margin of safety of the plant.
  • Analgesic / Anti-Arthritic Study: Study showed both twice daily P. pellucida decoction and ibuprofen treatment significantly lowered the mean scores on pain, stiffness and disability on the WOMAC arthritis index on patients with knee joint rheumatism.
  • Xanthone Glycoside / Antibacterial: Study isolated patuloside A, a xanthone glycoside from P. pellucida. The compound showed significant antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive bacteria (B subtilis, B megaterium, S aureus, Strep ß-hemolyticus) and six Gram-negative bacteria (E coli, S dysenteriae, S sonnei, S flexneri, P aeruginosa and S typhi).
  • Antihyperuricemic: A randomized controlled study of the effect of freeze-dried aqueous extract powder of P. pellucida in male adult Sprague Dawley rats showed a mean % decrease from hyperuricemic level of 44.1% compared to allopurinol's 64.0%. Results indicate P. pellucida may be used as an alternative medication for hyperuricemia.
  • Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: A petroleum ether extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. The methanol extract showed the strongest free radical scavenging activity. Results suggest the plant is a good natural source for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapy.
  • Phytochemical / Antimicrobial / Toxicological Evaluation: Photochemical studies yielded alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. Extracts inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and B. subtilis, while only the methanol extract inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. Oral doses as high as 5g/kg did not cause death or toxicological symptoms in mice. Histopathological effects of an aqueous methanol extract on the liver, spleen kidney and heart of rats showed mild to moderate congestions and infiltrations of chronic inflammatory cells.
  • Mineral Composition / Nutritional Attributes: Study evaluated the proximate and mineral composition and nutritional attributes of P. pellucida. Results showed it to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate, and total ash contents. The ash content suggest a high-value for potassium, calcium, and iron as main elements. Results suggest P. pellucida can serve as a good source of protein, energy, and micronutrients.
  • Hypotensive Effect / Cytochrome P450 Effect: Study evaluated P. pellucida for its use as an antihypertensive remedy and its impact on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. Results showed a dose-dependent hypotensive, bradycardic, and vasorelaxant effects probably mediated through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. An aqueous extract showed poor in vitro inhibition on CYP3A4 enzyme making it unlikely to cause clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions via the enzyme inhibition.
  • Anticancer / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study showed P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities. The plant extract was found to inhibit growth of various bacterial pathogens and inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol was the major compound in the plant extract, followed by 2-naphthalenol, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, and (Z,Z)-methyl ester. Results indicate the leaf possessed vast potential as a medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.
  • Fracture Healing by Anabolic Effect on Osteoblasts: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of P. pellucida on bone regeneration following bone and marrow injury in rats. Results showed the EE dose-dependently induced bone regeneration at the fracture site, with significantly increased mineral deposition compared to controls. Findings suggest acceleration of fracture repair via stimulatory effect on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization.
  • Hemostatic Effects: Study of P. pellucida plant crude extract showed coagulation properties that can induce blood clotting and augment thrombocyte production.
  • Antibacterial / Leaves: An ethanol extract of leaves yielded fifteen compounds and showed marked antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Proteus mirabilis. The synergistic effect of the compounds might have caused the high antibacterial activity.
  • Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic: Study investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Peperomia pellucida in alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats. Diabetic rats on diets supplemented with P. pellucida showed reduction in blood glucose, significant reduced serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, and significantly reduced lipid peroxidation.
  • Antiamoebic: Study evaluated P. pellucida for antiamoebic activity. A methanol fraction of dried plant caused morphological and structural changes in Acanthamoeba cysts.
  • Antihypertensive: Study evaluated the anti-hypertensive effects of Peperomia pellucida extract on arterial blood pressure in male, normotensive rats. Intravenous administration of the extract produced marked fall in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate.
  • Hypoglycemic / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of an ethyl acetate extract in alloxan induced diabetic mice showed significant hypoglycemic effect. Results also showed significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing model, which may be attributed to the presence of flavonoid, steroid, alkaloid, tannin and saponin noted on phytochemical screening.
  • Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of aerial parts of P. pellucida in necrotizing agent and indomethacin induced models in rats. Results showed significant protection in various experimental models with significant pretreatment inhibition of gastric mucosal damage.
  • Anti-Hyperuricemic Effect on Potassium Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia: Study showed an anti-hyperuricemic effect of Peperomia pellucida extract in potassium oxonnate induced hyperuricemia in white male rats.
  • Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical properties. Extracts yielded flavonoids and saponins while alkaloids, steroids, and tannins were absent in the methanol and EA extracts. Extracts showed antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. typhii, and S. dysenteriae, comparable to standard antibiotic streptomycin.
  • Acceleration of Fracture Healing / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous whole plant extract of P. pellucida on fracture healing in female Wistar rats. The extract accelerated bone healing partly due to the mineral content. There was a significant increase in amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and AP. There was a dose dependent effect on callus formation. Results suggest osteoblastic effects responsible for enhancement of bone repair process.
  • Capacity for Bioaccumulation of Lead: Some plants species absorb large quantities of heavy metals like lead which can accumulate in the body and lead to heavy metal poisoning. A greenhouse study showed showed application of 100-400 ppm Pb had no significant effect on shoot and root growth. Results showed P. pellucida can tolerate Pb levels as high as 400 ppm without affecting its growth.
  • Radical Scavenging / Antibacterial / Leaves and Stem Essential Oils: Study evaluated leaves and stem essential oils of P. pellucida for in vitro antibacterial and radical scavenging activities. The EOs showed strong antibacterial activities against bacterial strains viz., E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Myobacterium smegmatis, Listeria ivanovii, S. aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Vibro parahaemolyticus with MIC range between 0.95 and 0.20 mg/ml for both EOs. Leaf EO showed more radical scavenging (1.67 mg/mL) than the stem EO (2.83 mg/mL.
  • Protective Effects on Pancreas / Potential Antidiabetic Treatment: Study evaluated the crude methanolic extract of P. pellucida for antihyperglycemic property and its effect on pancreatic histology in high fat-diet/STZ-induuced diabetic mice. While a two-week administration showed no signficant effect on blood glucose levels, the extract prevented necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation of the Islets of Langerhans. Results suggest a protective effect on the pancreas and a potential alternative to metformin in the treatment of T2DM.
  • Dillapiole / Gastroprotective / Ethanol-Induced Lesions: Study of a hexane and dichlormethane extract of P. pellucida yielded dillapiole as the most active compound. The compound was evaluated for gastroprotective effect using an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model. Dillapiole showed gastroprotection unrelated to endogenous NO, prostaglandins or sulfhydryl groups.
  • Natural Radioactivity of P. pellucida Used as Medicinal Herb: Study evaluated the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides U, U, Th, Th, Ra, Ra and Pb in a sample of Peperomia pellucida and in the surrounding soil. An emerging concern in many developing countries is industrial pollution that may threaten the health of local government by contamination of vegetation with heavy metals, pesticides, or radioactivity. In this study, the level of radionuclides showed much higher concentrations than that present in day-to-day diet. In the context of plant extraction for phytotherapies and the consumption of herbs by the population, the study of radionuclide concentration in medicinal plants has great significance.
  • Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated various extracts of P. pellucida for phytochemical constituents and cytotoxicity potential by in vitro MTT assay using HEK 293 (human epithelial kidney) HeLa (human cervical cancer) and HepB2 (human hepatic carcinoma) cell lines. The methanol extract showed maximum phytochemicals and significant cytotoxic activity against the test cancer cell lines and showed less cytotoxicity against normal human kidney cells (HEK293) suggesting safety for normal cells.
  • Antifungal / Leaves: Study of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract showed most effective antifungal activity against C. albicans colony growth inhibition at 70% concentration.
  • Patuloside A / Xanthone Glycoside / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity: Study pf Peperomia pellucida isolated a xanthone glycoside, Patuloside A (3-β-D glucopyranosyloxy-1,5,6-trihydroxy-9H-xanthene-9-one). The compound showed significant antibacterial activity against four gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria and weak antifungal activity against A. flavus and C. albicans. It showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an IC50 of 18.24 µg/ml.
  • Acaricidal / Essential Oils: Study evaluated leave and stem for essential oil by GC and GC-MS analysis. Sesquiterpenes were the most abundant class of compounds. Activity of the oil against Tetrnychus urtifcae showed the stem oil were fourfold more toxic thn the leaf oil, but 2.5-fold less activity than eugenol which was used as postive control.

Use of Pansit-pansitan:

  • Leaves and stems may be eaten as vegetable.
  • In salads, the fresh plant has the crispness of carrot sticks and celery.
  • Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems are used for gout and arthritis.
  • Decoction of leaves used for urinary tract infections.
  • Externally, as a facial rinse for complexion problems.
  • In Ayurveda, used to pacify vitiated cough, pitta, constipation, kidney diseases, urinary retention, dysuria, urinary tract infection, emaciation, edema and general weakness.
  • Pounded whole plant used as warm poultice for boils, pustules and pimples.
  • In Jamaica and the Caribbean used for colds and as a diuretic for kidney problems.
  • In South America, solution of fresh juice of stem and leaves used for eye inflammation. Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems used for gout and arthritis.
  • In Brazil, used for abscesses and conjunctivitis.
  • In Bolivia, decoction of roots used for fever; aerial parts for wounds.
  • In Nigeria used for hypertension.
  • In Bangladesh, leaves used in the treatment of excited mental disorders.
  • In Africa, used for convulsions and tumors.
  • Used for headaches, rheumatic pains, impotence.
  • In Cameroon used for fracture healing.
  • In Brazil, used to lower cholesterol; for treatment of abscesses, furuncles and conjunctivitis.
  • Belongs to the "preferred list" of Philippine medicinal plants, being studied for its use in the treatment of arthritis and gout.
  • For arthritis: Leaves and stems of the fresh plant may be eaten as salad. Or, as an infusion, put a 20-cm plant in 2 glasses of boiling water; and 1/2 cup of this infusion is taken morning and evening.

Sambong is a half woody, strongly aromatic shrub, densely and softly hairy, 1 to 4 meters high. Stems grow up to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptic- to oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 20 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, pointed or blunt at the tip, narrowing to a short petiole which are often auricled or appendaged. Flowering heads are stalked, yellow and numerous, 6 to 7 millimeters long, and borne on branches of a terminal, spreading or pyramidal leafy panicle. Discoid flowers are of two types: peripheral ones tiny, more numerous, with tubular corolla; central flowers few, large with campanulate corolla. Involucral bracts are green, narrow and hairy. Anther cells tailed at base. Fruits are achenes, dry, 1-seeded, 10-ribbed, hairy at top.

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil, 0.1 - 0.4% - l-borneol, 25%, l-camphor, 75%, limonene, saponins, sesquiterpene and limonene, tannins, sesquiterpene alcohol; palmitin; myristic acid.
  • Yields flavonoids, terpenes (borneol, limonene, camphor, a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, triterpenes, and cryptomeridiol), lactones (blumealactone A, B, C).
  • Fractionation of ethylacetate extract of leaves isolated nine flavonoids.
  • Main essential oil components are 1,8-cineole (20.98%), borneol (11.99%), β-caryophyllene (10.38%), camphor (8.06%), 4-terpineol (6.49%), α-terpineol (5.91%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%).
  • Study yielded two new sesquiterpenoid esters and nine known flavonoids.
  • Studies have isolated more than 100 volatile or non-volatile constituents, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, flavonoids, organic acids, esters, alcohols, dihydroflavone, and sterols.
  • Study of volatile oil of B. balsamifera yielded 42 kinds of compounds. The volatile oil contains mainly sesquiterpenoids. (see study below)
  • Study of powdered dried leaves for quercetin collected from three different places in the Philippines yielded 0.2337 mg, 0.1350 mg, and 0.2940 mg per gram.
  • Study has yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins with the absence of terpenoids and phlobotaninaas.
  • Study of aerial parts yielded twelve compounds identified as 3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone, 3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone, chrysoeriol,3',4',5-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, diosmetin, 3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 3,5-dihydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone, chrysosplenol C, 3,3',5-trihydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavanone, blumeatin, 3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone, and 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone.
  • Study of ethanol extract of aerial parts isolated ten new sesquiterpenoid esters, blumeaenes A-J. with 13 known flavonoids.
  • Study of leaves yielded five new guaiane sesquiterpenes, blumeaenes E1, E2, K, L and M and one new eudesmane sesquiterpene, samboginone (6), along with three known compounds, cryptomeridiol, 3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone, and austroinulin.
  • Twenty-seven compounds were identified from 29 peaks of total flavonoids, including twenty-one flavonoid analogs, five CQA derivatives and one coumarin.
  • Quantitative analysis of five naturally occurring flavonoids on addition to lyophilized powder and subsequent extraction showed average recoveries of pure flavonoids: dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether (DQDE) 100.6%, blumeatin (BL) 100%, quercetin (QN) 97.4%, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (THFE) 99.9%, and dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether (DQME) 99.8%.

Properties:

  • Considered anthelmintic, antidiarrheal, antigastralgic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, stomachic, and vulnerary.
  • Sesquiterpenoids and Plasmin-Inhibitory Flavonoids: Study yielded two new sesquiterpenoid esters 1 and 2. Compound 2 showed to be weakly cytotoxic against Jurkat human T-cell leukemia cells. Nine known flavonoids were also isolated, two of which showed plasmin-inhibitory activity.
  • Anticancer / Hepatoma: Study of methanolic extract of Blumea balsamifera induced growth inhibitory activity in rat and human hepatocellular cells without cytoxicity in rat hepatocytes used as cell model. suggest a possible therapeutic potential in hepatoma cancer patients and the depletion of cellular APRIL (proliferation related ligand) may be an important mechanism in the growth inhibitory effect of the extract.
  • Anticancer / Growth Inhibitory Effect / Hepatoma: Study of B balsamifera extract induced growth-inhibitory activity in rat and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells without cytotoxicity. Findings suggest a possible therapeutic role for the B balsamifera methanol extract in treatment of hepatoma cancer patients.
  • Chemolytic Effect / Urolithiasis / Calcium Stones: In vitro study shows sambong to be a promising chemolytic agent for calcium stones. Results showed statistically significant stone dissolution of a 1 cm stone sample. A 40 mg/day dose showed maximum therapeutic effects.
  • Antispasmodic / Cryptomeridiol: Study isolated cryptomeridiol from the dried leaves. Results showed antispasmodic activity from various plant parts.
  • Antifungal / Antibacterial: Phytochemical study of leaves yielded icthyothereol acetate, cyptomeridiol, lutein and ß-carotene. Antimicrobial tests showed activity against A niger, T mentagrophytes and C albicans. Results also showed activity against P aeruginosa, S aureus, B subtilis and E coli.
  • Dihydroflavonol / Abrogation of TRAIL Resistance in Leukemia Cells: Study shows combined treatment with a dihydroflavonol extracted from Blumea balsamifera exhibited the most striking synergism with TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and suggests a new strategy for cancer therapy.
  • Antibacterial: Study of 12 crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts from 5 medicinal plants, including B balsamifera, showed potential antibacterial effect against S aureus.
  • Radical Scavenging: Study of Blumea balsamifera extracts and flavonoids showed the methanol extract exhibiting higher radical scavenging activity than the chloroform extract.
  • Leaf Volatile Oil Components: Analysis of leaf essential oil revealed 50 components contributing to 99.07 % of the oil: borneol (33.22%), caryophyllene (8.24%), ledol (7.12%), tetracyclo[6,3,2,0,(2.5).0(1,8) tridecan-9-ol, 4,4-dimethyl (5.18%), with phytol(4.63%), caryophyllene oxide(4.07%), guaiol (3.44%), thujopsene-13 (4.42%), dimethoxydurene (3.59%) and γ-eudesmol (3.18%).
  • Antiplasmodial Activity: Study of roots and stem showed significant antiplasmodial activity.
  • Hepatoprotective Activity: Study isolated blumeatin (Blu, 5,3,5'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-dihydro-flavone and showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide. It also shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time in CCl4-intoxicated mice.
  • Antimicrobial Activity / Essential Oil: In a study of various extracts and essential oil for antibacterial and antifungal activities, results showed the essential oil to be most potent. The oil showed significant activity against B. cereus, S. aureus and C. albicans; a hexane extract, against E. cloacae and S aureus. Results showed B. balsamifera extracts have activity against various infections and toxin-producing microorganisms.
  • Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts yielded a new dihydroflavonol, (2R,3S)-(−)-4′-O-methyldihydroquercetin, together with seven known compounds. Most of the compounds showed significant concentration-dependent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 6, and 8 showed more potent inhibitory activity than control allopurinol.
  • Urinary Stone Dissolution: Sambong used in-vitro showed dissolution of urinary stones, with a faster activity on uric acid stones. No significant effect was noted with struvite and calcium stones.
  • Anti-Tyrosinase / Anti-Cancer Activities: An ethylacetate extract of leaves yielded nine flavonoids. The anti-tyrosinase activity of dihydroflavonols (1,2) and flavonols (5,6,7) were stronger than arbutin. In cytotoxicity evaluation, compounds 2,4 and 9 were active against KB cells. Compound 9 showed strong cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines and moderate toxicity against oral cavity (KB) cancer cell lines.
  • Fumigant Compounds / Essential Oil: Essential oil was found to have fumigant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Essential oil components 1,8-Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults, more toxic than camphor. The crude essential oil also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults.
  • Apigenin / Aldose Reductase (AR) Inhibitory Agent: Study evaluated fractions of Blumea balsamifera for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase activity in rat lenses. Apigenin, identified from the active EtOAc fraction, exhibited high AR inhibitory activity. Results suggest a useful natural source for a novel AR inhibitory agent against diabetic complications.
  • Insect-Repellent Potential: Study evaluated 54 species of plants from 49 genera and 26 families for insect-repellent activity. Blumea balsamifera (UV=0.09) was one of 7 species with insect repellency based on their UVs (useful value). The leaves and stems, dried and burned, is said to drive insects away.
  • Hepatoprotective / Blumeatin: Study showed oral blumeatin (5,3',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxydihydro-flavone) exhibited significant protective activity against liver injury cause by paracetamol and prednisolone. (Xu, S.B.; Hu, Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Yang, Z.B. Study on protection of blumeatin against experimental liver injury and aggregation of platelet. Suppl. J. Sun Yatsen Univer. 1994, 48–53)
  • Volatile Oil / Biologic Activities: Study of volatile oil from dried leaf powder yielded 42 kinds of compounds. Screening for biologic activity showed relatively strong antitumor activity and anti-plant pathogenic fungi and some antioxidation activity.
  • External Application of Volatile Oil / Safety Study: Study of volatile oil yielded 41 components. Damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver was assessed. Results confirm the safety of short term BB oil consumption, although high oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and the response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds.
  • Anti-Arthritic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the effect of an ethyl acetate fraction of BB residue on rats with adjuvant arthritis immunized through Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Results showed high dose BBE could significantly ameliorate joint swelling and arthritis index, effectively inhibit synovial hyperplasia, down-regulate the levels of MDA, NO, OH, ALP, AST, ALT, NAG, SA, IL-1, IL-6, TNFa and up-regulate serum levels of SOD and GSH.
  • Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant property of hydro-ethanolic extract of leaves of B. balsamifera in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose. There was also significant alteration in elevated lipid profile along with serum marker enzymes. Antioxidant potential was evidenced by significant increase in GSH and CAT measurements.
  • Wound Healing / Volatile Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the effectiveness of volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera leaves on wound healing in mice. Results showed promotion of capillary regeneration, blood circulation, collagen deposition, granular tissue formation, epithelial deposition and wound contraction. Wound healing mechanism may be related to the induction of SP (neuropeptide substance P) secretion and the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells.
  • Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization: Study showed B. balsamifera extract increased the crystallization rate of calcium. The increased crystallization rate would favor the formation of smaller crystals that are easily eliminated from the urinary system. (29) Study evaluated the effect of BB extract on morphology of calcium oxalate crystals. Results showed decreased crystal size, shifted crystal phase from COM to COD and prevention of aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.
  • Quercetin / Leaves: Quantitation study of powdered dried leaves for quercetin collected from three different places (Cotobato, Nueva Ecija, and Leyte) in the Philippines yielded 0.2337 mg, 0.1350 mg, and 0.2940 mg per gram. The variations may be due to various factors such as cultivation conditions (soil, temperature, moisture and agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and pesticides). (30) Study measured the amount of quercetin in DCM fraction of ethanolic extract of B. balsamifera powdered leaves macerated with 95% ethanol and subjected to liquid-liquid partitioning. All fractions that tested positive for DPPH test were pooled. Final quercetin concentration in the pooled fractions of HPLC was 2.022 mg/ml and 2.25 mg/ml in TLC-bioactography method.
  • Sambong Tea as Therapeutic Drink / Calcium Oxalate Stones: Sambong tea is believed to aid in the treatment of kidney stones. Study evaluated the effect of Blumea balsamifera tea in the nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals. Results showed decrease in induction time associated with increase nucleation rate with the formation of large number of smaller stones that are easier to eliminate by urination.
  • ACE Inhibition Activity of Dried Sambong Tea: ACE inhibition has been proven to be an effective strategy in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Study evaluated the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity of sambong tea in a rabbit lung ACE-induced hydrolysis of FAPGG. Results showed sambong tea possess inhibitory activity on rabbit lung ACE. Activity was attributed to flavonoids and terpenoids.
  • Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of B. balsamifera leaf decoction on wound healing in an experimental deep-wound mice model. Results showed wound healing ability. Betadine was used as positive control. The effect of sambong leaf decoction and betadine in the number of days, redness and swelling in mice was statistically insignificant.
  • Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition / Leaves: Xanthine oxidase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to form uric acid. Study of a methanol extract of leaves showed total flavonoid content of 72.7 mg/g dw, promising inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity with IC50 of 27.6 µg/mL, with a significant decrease in serum urate and reduced xanthine oxidase in the liver.
  • Extraction of (-)-Borneol, Camphor, and Isoborneol / Leaves: Study reports on an ultrasonic and microwave assisted GC-FID extraction of three target compounds (-) -borneol, camphor and isoborneol in leaves samples from 14 different harvest periods. Results showed (-)-borneol content was higher from mid-October to January. Study suggests a potential tool for quality assessment of leaves.
  • Antifertility Effect: Study evaluated extracts of B. balsamifera, C. tiglium, M. sagu, and F. racemosa for antifertility effects on Swiss Webster mice at dose of 0.26 mg/kbw for 8 days and mated with male SW mice. Results showed inhibition in estrous cycle, especially estrus and metestrus phases. Decrease in corpus luteum and fetuses suggests inhibition of foliculogenesis. Of the four extracts tested, B. balsamifera showed more potential antifertility activity.
  • Blumeaenes / Inhibitory Effect Against LPS-Induced NO Production: Study of ethanol extract of aerial parts isolated ten new sesquiterpenoid esters, blumeaenes A-J. with 13 known flavonoids. All sesquiterpenoid esters were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed slight inhibitory effect on NO production with IC50 values of 40.06, 46.35, and 57.80 µg/mL, respectively.
  • Anti-Candidal: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 19 medicinal plants using 21 solvents extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol). Results showed the B. balsamifera, V. arborea and S. jamaicensis were the most active species to exhibit anticandidal activity with potential to be developed as natural anticandidal agents.
  • Effect of Total Flavonoids on Skin Wounds: Study evaluated the effects of total flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera on skin excisional wound on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats. Study postulates all the ingredients in the total flavonoid sample may exert a synergetic effect on wound curing and that the flavonoids were the main active constituents that contributed to the excisional wound healing. Mechanisms of wound healing were attributed to wound contraction, capillary regeneration, collagen depostion, and re-epithelialization.
  • Gastroprotective / Herbal Combination: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of Sembung leaf (B. balsamifera), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Results showed marked protective effects as evidenced by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers, along with a smaller number of eosinophils and mast cells.
  • Wet Wipe Containing Blumea balsamifera Oil: Study/Invention reports of a utility model relating to a wet wipe containing B. balsamifera oil, comprised of two moisturizing layers and two medicinal layers. The wet wipe has the effects of resisting bacteria, relieving inflammation, stopping itching, accelerating wound healing, among others. The model has a simple preparation process, conveniences of use, with no report of skin damage with long-term use.
  • Effect of Climate Change: Study reports on the potential impact of climatic change on medicinal plants used in northern Thailand. Blumea balsamifera was one of eight plant species with forecasted future climatic change. It is also one of seven species listed as high extinction risk (critically endangered) due to the over 80% predicted loss of their suitable areas under AAA1B and A2 scenarios by 2080.

Use of Sambong:

  • Leaves used a flavoring ingredient.
  • Leaves as poultice for abscesses.
  • Decoction of roots and leaves for fevers, kidney stones, and cystitis.
  • Decoction of leaves used to induced diuresis for purpose of treating kidney stones.
  • Sitz-bath of boiled leaves, 500 gms to a gallon of water, for rheumatic pains of waist and back.
  • Used in upper and lower respiratory tract affections like sinusitis, asthmatic bronchitis, influenza.
  • Applied while hot over the sinuses. Used for wounds and cuts.
  • Fresh juice of leaves to wounds and cuts.
  • Poultice of leaves applied to the forehead for relief of headaches.
  • In Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur, the Subanens use leaf infusion for the treatment of cough.
  • Tea is used for colds and as an expectorant; likewise, has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal benefits.
  • Postpartum baths.
  • Tea leaves use as emmenagogue, for treatment of menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea. As such, folklore advise against use during pregnancy or for women who want to get pregnant.
  • In Vietnam, decoction of fresh leaves used for cough and influenza or as inhalation of vapour from boiling of leaves. Poultices of pounded leaves applied to hemorrhoids; an alcoholic maceration used as liniment for rheumatism.
  • 3% ethanol solution used to soothe itching.
  • In Thailand, dried leaves are chopped, made into cigarettes and smoked for treating sinusitis.
  • For fever, leaves boiled and when lukewarm used as sponge bath.
  • Decoction of roots used for fever.
  • Decoction of leaves, 50 gms to a pint of boiling water, 4 glasses daily, for stomach pains.
  • In South-East Asia widely used for various women problems. Postpartum, leaves are used in hot fomentation over the uterus to induce rapid involution. Also used for menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding and leucorrhea.
  • Roots used for menorrhagia.
  • Decoction of roots and leaves used for rheumatism and arthritis; also used for treatment of postpartum joint pains.
  • Poultice of fresh leaves applied to affected joint.
  • In Chinese and Thai medicine, leaves used for treatment of septic wounds and other infections.
  • A sitz-bath of boiled leaves used in the treatment of lumbago and sciatica.
  • In Chinese medicine, used as carminative, stimulant, vermifuge, expectorant, and sudorific.
  • In Mizoram, India, decoction or infusion of leaves and bark taken orally as expectorant.
  • Dayak people in Central Kalimantan use the plant for antifertility effect.
  • In Malaysia, the Temuan tribe of Ayer Hitam use leaf decoction for cough, distended stomach, high blood pressure, and insomnia. Lotion applied to the whole body after childbirth; applied to the head for headache.
  • in northeast India, the Maring tribe of Manipur drink a paste of crushed leaves mixed in water for burning sensation of the stomach. Chewing leaves followed with water used for the same purpose.
  • Pesticide: Roots and leaves used as natural pesticides against storage pests and leaf hoppers in rice.
  • Repellent: Used by Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga as repellent against hemtophagous insects. Dry or fresh leaves and stems are burned or hung inside the house.
  • As a diuretic and for dissolution of renal stones.
  • As a diuretic in hypertension and fluid retention. Also used for dissolution of kidney stones. Some clinical studies, including double blind/placebo randomized studies, have shown encouraging results for Sambong to be both safe and effective in the treatment of kidney stones and hypertension. The National Kidney and Transplant Institute has promoted the use of this herbal medicine for many renal patients to avert or delay the need for dialysis or organ transplantation.
  • As a diuretic and for dissolution of renal stones. One of a few herbs recently registered with the Bureau of Foods and Drugs as medicines.
  • Possible benefits in use patients with elevated cholesterol and as an analgesic for postoperative dental pain.

Tsaang gubat is an erect, very branched shrub growing up to 1 to 4 meters high. Leaves are in clusters on short branches, obovate to oblong-obovate, 3 to 6 centimeters long, entire or somewhat toothed or lobed near the apex and pointed at the base, short stalked and rough on the upper surface. Flowers are white, small, axillary, solitary, 2 or 4 on a common stalk, borne in inflorescences shorter than the leaves. Calyx lobes are green, somewhat hairy, and linear, about 5 to 6 millimeters long. Corolla is white, 5 millimeters long, and divided into oblong lobes. Fruit is a drupe, rounded, yellow when ripe, 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter, fleshy, with a 4-seeded stone, fleshy on the outer part, and stony inside.

Constituents:

  • Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, and saponins.
  • Major constituents of leaves yielded an intractable mixture of triterpenes, namely α-amyrin (43.7%), ß-amyrin (24.9%), and baurenol (31.4%).
  • Qualitative phytochemical analysis of petroleum ether (PE), methanol (M), and chloroform (C) extract of leaves yielded alkaloids (M), flavonoids (PE, M), saponins (M,C), phenols (PE,M), tannins (M), cardiac glycosides (PE,M,C), terpenoids (PE,M,C) and cardenolides (M,C).
  • GC-MS analysis of crude extract of C. retusa yielded 14 phytochemical compounds. Main constituents were α-amyrin, (1H) naphthalenone, 3,5,67,8,8a-hexahydro-4-8a-dimethyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)- and 9,19-cycloergost-23(28)-en-3-ol,4,14-dimethyl-acetate, (3a,4a,5a).
  • Chloroform fraction of crude ethanol extract of fresh leaves isolated triterpenoids viz. a -amyin (12-ursen-3-ß oI)ß, -amyin (12-oteanen-3ß-ol), and baurenot (7-bauren-3-01).
  • Wild fruit has a high sugar content (11.8%) and protein content (4.1%). Copper content was 4.1 mg/100 g,

Properties:

  • Considered analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antispasmodic and anti-mutagenic.
  • Studies have shown anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiarrheal, antibacterial, antimutagenic, antitumor, antiproliferative, wound healing, antiangiogenic, antioxidant properties.
  • Antiallergic Activity: Tsaang gubat, together with Lagundi and Sambong, were studied for possible anti-allergic substances to counter the histamine release from mast cells that cause type-1 reactions. From tsaang-gubat, rosmarinic acid and microphyllone were isolated.
  • Triterpene Bioactivities / Antinociceptive / Anti-inflammatory: Study of Carmon retusa leaves yielded an intractable mixture of triterpenes, namely α-amyrin, ß-amyrin and baurenol. At a dose of 100 mg/kg mouse, the triterpene mixture exhibited 51% analgesic activity, but showed only 20% anti-inflammatory activity.
  • Antidiarrheal / Antibacterial: On charcoal tracing test, the triterpene mixture (α-amyrin, ß-amyrin and baurenol) showed a 29% anti-diarrheal activity, which increased to 55% at dosage of 250 mg/kg mouse. The triterpene mixture showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
  • Antimutagen / Leaves: An antimutagenic principle was extracted from the leaves of C retusa with ethyl alcohol.
  • Anti-Tumor: Carmona retusa leaf extracts were tested for anticancer property and results showed it can be used as an anticancer agent.
  • Antiallergic Dimeric Prenylbenzoquinones: Bioassay-guided separation of an ethyl acetate-soluble portion of a methanol extract of Ehretia microphylla yielded microphyllone, a unique dimeric prenyl-benzoquinone and its congeners. Study showed inhibitory activity on exocytosis in antigen-stimulated rat basophils.
  • Antibacterial / Constituents: Methanol, chloroform, and petroleum ether extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, cardenolides and phlobatannins. All the extracts exhibited moderate to appreciable antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, K. pneumonia, Shigella flexneri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Anti-Inflammatory: Study of an alcoholic extract of Carmona retusa by in vitro assays (human RBC membrane stabilization method, heat induced hemolysis, and proteinase inhibitory activity) showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to standard diclofenac.
  • Triterpene Mixture from Leaves / Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Diarrhea, Antimicrobial:The major constituent of Carmona retusa leaves is an intractable mixture of triterpenes viz. alpha-amyrin (43.7%), beta-amyrin (24.9%), and baurenol (31.4%). The mixture showed analgesic activity (51%) and anti-inflammatory activity (20%), antidiarrheal activity (29%) with the charcoal tracing test, and moderate activity against S. aureus, Candida albicans, and T. mentagrophytes.
  • Antibacterial: In a study of crude ethanol extracts of 12 Philippine medicinal plants for antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria, favorable antagonistic activities were exhibited by Ehretia microphylla, together with P. guajava and P. niruri. Best activity was shown by P betle. (17) Petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extracts showed moderate to appreciable antibacterial activities against B. subtilis, K. pneumonia, S. flexneri, and P. aeruginosa.
  • Antimicrobial / Roots: Study of chloroform and alcohol root extracts showed promising activity against Bacillus subtilis (26 mm), Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans ( 24 mm), Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm) and Escherichia coli (18 mm). The alcohol extract showed comparatively higher antimicrobial activity than the chloroform extract.
  • Effect on Folliculogenesis / Roots: Study evaluated the effect of E. microphylla on folliculogenesis, relative ovarian and uterine weight, and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. Results showed a significant stimulatory effect on female reproductive activity which can enhance fertility in female adult rats.
  • Wound Healing / Roots, Stems, Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of various extracts of roots, stems and leaves of Carmona retusa with petroleum jelly as base in concentrations of 5% and 10%. Nitrofurazone (0.2%) ointment was used as standard drug. Results showed remarkable stimulation of wound closure at both 5% and 10% concentration, as evidenced by acceleration of the wound healing process and increased epithelization in the treatment groups.
  • Anticancer / Quercetin / Human Hepatoma Cell Line (HepG2): Study isolated quercetin from an ethanol extract of Carmona retusa and was analyzed for anticancer activity on HepG2 cells lines by MTT assay. Results showed significant and concentration-dependent anticancer activity. Significant apoptosis was shown at 53 µg/ml concentration of extract yield of flavonoid quercetin. Results suggest promise for the flavonoid quercetin as an anticancer agent.
  • Antimitotic / Antiproliferative: Study evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity, antiproliferative, anti-mitotic and DNA fragmentation assays of fresh stems of Carmona retusa. The alcoholic extract showed significant antimitotic and antiproliferative activity. The antimitotic index was 12.5 and 12.7 mg/mL respectively, near the standard 12.2 for lapachol.
  • Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retusa (Vahl.) Masam. Results showed C. retusa possesses potent antioxidant activity, high flavonoid and phenol content. The antioxidant property may be due to polyphenols and flavonoids in the extract.
  • Carbon Nanoparticles As Anode in Lithium Batteries: Study reports on the synthesis of carbon nanoparticles from tea leaves of Ehretia microphylla for application in lithium battery. Efficiency of charging and discharging was found to be more than 96%.
  • Antiangiogenic: Persistent upregulated angiogenesis is one hall mark of cancer and feature in atherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The study focused on the search for natural based anti-angiogenic compounds. In this study, Carmona retusa showed the highest inhibition of blood vessel formation. Phytochemical screening identified alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenols, tannins, and sterols. Phenolic compounds are antioxidants known to elicit anti-angiogenic activity by preventing ROS from initiating the angiogenesis cascade.
  • Cardiotonic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the cardiotonic activity of aerial parts of whole plant of Carmona retusa using isolated frog heart perfusion technique. Major constituents revealed a mix of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavanoids and cardiac glycosides. Results showed a significant increase in height of force of contraction along with a decrease in heart rate.

Use of Tsaang Gubat:

  • Tea made from the leaves.
  • Fruit is edible.
  • Leaf decoction or infusion for abdominal colic, cough, diarrhea and dysentery.
  • Root decoction used as an antidote for vegetable poisoning.
  • For diarrhea: Boil 8 tbsp of chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes; strain and cool. Use ¼ of the decoction every 2 or 3 hours. Decoction has also been used as a dental mouthwash.
  • Decoction of leaves used as disinfectant wash after childbirth.
  • In Sri Lanka, used for diabetes: 50 gm of fresh leaves or roots are chopped; 100 cc of water is added, and 120 cc of juice is extracted by squeezing, and given once or twice daily.
  • In Vietnam, dry roots and stems used for treatment of back pain and numbness of hands and feet.
  • In Tamil, India, juice of leaves taken internally for three to four months to induce fertility.
  • In India and Sri Lanka, roots used for treatment snake bite wounds.
  • Grown as ornamental hedge.
  • As an antispasmodic for stomach/abdominal pains.
  • One of a few herbs recently registered with the Bureau of Foods and Drugs as medicines.

Yerba buena is a prostrate, smooth, much-branched, usually purplish, strongly aromatic herb, with stems growing up to 40 centimeters long, with ultimate ascending terminal branches. Leaves are elliptic to oblong-ovate, 1.5 to 4 centimeters long, short-stalked with toothed margins, and rounded or blunt tipped. Flowers are hairy and purplish to bluish, borne in axillary head-like whorls. Calyx teeth are triangular or lanceolate and hairy; the corolla is also hairy.

Constituents:

  • Plant yields a volatile oil (0.22%) containing pulegone, menthol, menthene, menthenone and limonene.
  • Study showed the shoot leaf gave the highest yield of oil, 0.62%; while the stems had negligible yield. Menthol was the major component of all the oils. Other oils identified were: B-caryophyllene oxide, a-phellandrene, terpinolene, limonene, menthone and pulegone.
  • Phytochemical screening of powdered plant samples (root, stem, and leaves) yielded alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and diterpenes.
  • Study of aerial parts for essential oil yielded major components of (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol (50.06%), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (7.50%), and 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-ben- zopyran-1-one (6.60%).
  • GC-MS study of essential oil composition of Japanese mint collected from six places yielded main constituents of menthol (60.22-77-46%) and menthone (9.22-5.25%) followed by iso-menthone, DL-limonene, iso-menthyl acetate, ß-pinene and trans-caryophyllene.
  • GC -MS analysis of essential oil extract from Japanese mind yielded menthol (48.85%), p-menthone (25.08%), L-(-)-menthol (4.67%), (+)-isomenthol (4.44%) followed by ß-cubenene (3.81%) neo-menthol (2.45%), methyl acetate (1.82%), O-mentha-1(7)-8-dien-3-ol (1.79%),  3-methyl cyclohexanone (1.40%), 3-octanal (1.36%), 1-α-terpineol (1.00%), pulegone (0.86%), limonene (0.68%), cis-Jasmone (0.66%), cis- 3-hexenyl phenyl acetate (0.38%). 6-methyl-2-pyrimidone (0.23%), β-bisabolene (0.19%) and α-elemene (0.13%).
  • Study evaluated different parts of M. arvensis for volatile constituents of essential oils. Shoot leaf yielded the highest oil (o.62%) while stems yielded negligible amounts (0.02%). Menthol was the highest component of all oils with the shoot stem yielding highest percentage (78.16%) and the stolon (runner) stem yielding lowest (43.7%). ß-caryophyllene oxide was present in the shoot oil of stem and leaf, while a-phellandrene and terpinolene were identified in stolon (stem and leaf) oils.

Properties:

  • Carminative, stimulant, stomachic, aromatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, sudorific, emmenagogue.
  • Oil is rubefacient and stimulant.
  • Tops and leaves are carminative.
  • Radioprotective / Leaves: Study of mint extract on mice showed benefit with pretreatment of mice with reduction in the severity of symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality.
  • Anti-candidal / Essential Oil of Leaves and Roots: A study of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of leaves/roots of 35 medicinal plants in Brazil screened for anti-Candida activity. Mentha arvensis was one of 13 essential oils that showed anti-candidal activity.
  • Anti-fertility / Male Contraceptive: A study of the ether extract of MA on male mice showed reduction of number of offspring, with decrease in testes weight, sperm count and motility, among others. Results suggest that the ether extract of MA possess reversible antifertility properties.
  • Reversible Male Contraceptive Effect: Study of aqueous extract solution in male mice caused inhibition of fertility while maintaining normal sexual behavior. All induced effects returned to normalcy within 30 days of withdrawal of 60-day treatment.
  • Post-coital Antifertility Effect: A study on the uterotonic fraction of MA caused significant interruption in pregnancy in rats, pronounced in the post-implantation period.
  • Antibiotic Resistance-Modifying: A report on the ethanol extract of MA showed a potentiating effect of the extract on gentamicin and presents a potential against bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
  • Potentiatiing Effect with Chlorpromazine Against Bacterial Resistance: Study showed extracts of M arvensis could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity, such as in the case of aminoglycosides - a new weapon against bacterial resistance to antibiotics, as with chlorpromazine.
  • Anti-Gastric Ulcer: Study of various extracts of Mentha arvensis showed a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation-induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models.
  • Herbal Liniment / Analgesic: M arvensis provides potent analgesic action and is used externally in rheumatism, neuralgia and headaches. In an herbal liniment where it was combined with four other medicinal plants, the liniment was found effective in ligament or muscle injury pain (sprains, strains, spasms, tennis elbow, etc), less so in osteoarthritis of the joint and periarthritis of the shoulder. No adverse reactions were reported. Efficacy was noted better in synergism with oral or parenteral analgesics.
  • Volatile Constituents / Menthol: Study showed the shoot leaf gave the highest yield of oil, 0.62%; while the stems had negligible yield. Menthol was the major component of all the oils. Other oils identified were: B-caryophyllene oxide, a-phellandrene, terpinolene, limonene, menthone and pulegone.
  • Linarin / Anti-Acetylcholinesterase: Flowers extract of M arvensis yielded linarin (acacetin-7-0-b-D-rutinoside), with selective dose-dependent inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase.
  • Anti-Allergic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study on anti-allergic activity using a histamine inhibitory assay showed the ethanol extracts of leaf and root markedly inhibited the release of histamine from mast cells. On anti-inflammatory testing using a histamine-induced paw edema model, all extracts showed anti-inflammatory effect suggesting the presence of compounds capable of inhibiting histamine release from the mast cells and/or block histamine receptors.
  • Effect on Haloperidol-Induced Catalepsy: Study in mice suggested Mentha arvensis significantly reduced oxidative stress and cataleptic score induced by haloperidol. Results suggest it can be used to prevent the drug-induced pyramidal side effects.
  • Antifungal Activity / Leaves / Study Against Oral Pathogens: Study evaluated hydroalcoholic extracts for antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens: Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus and Candida albicans. Results showed antifungal activity against C. albicans and a potential use for human antifungal use. Results showed no antibacterial effect.
  • Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Liver Damage: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Results showed a hepatoprotective effect with significant reductions of liver enzymes almost comparable to silymarin. Hepatoprotection was confirmed by histopathological examination. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds. Study of an ethanol extract of leaves showed hepatoprotective in CCl4-induced hepatic damage. Phytochemical analysis yielded the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds which are known for hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.
  • Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of an ethanol extract of leaves of M. arvensis through various assays:TBAR, DPPH, NO radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging and phosphomolybdonum method. Results showed significant dose-dependent antioxidant activity in all the assays. A methanol extract of roots exhibited good antioxidant potential using DPPH, reducing power, metal chelating, nitrous oxide scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays.
  • Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of leaves of M. arvensis against Ascardia galli which resembles the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Results showed a petroleum ether extract with maximum anthelmintic activity probably through both blocking of energy metabolism and worm paralysis.
  • Anticargiogenic: Study evaluated the efficacy of crude extract and solvents of M. arvensis against human cariogenic pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus casei isolated from patients with dental disease. Analysis for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, tannins flavonols, steroids, xanthones and glycosides. Results showed significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties which could be responsible for its antimicrobial property.
  • Antidepressant / Antioxidant: Study of aqueous extracts in Swiss albino mice showed significant in vitro antioxidant (DPPH, NO, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays) and antidepressant (Tail suspension and Forced swim tests) activity.
  • Anticancer / Growth Suppression and Apoptosis: Study evaluated Mentha arvensis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell line (Hep G2 cell line). Results showed MA significantly suppresses growth and induces apoptosis.
  • Comparative Antioxidant Study: Study evaluated powdered plants extracts of M. arvensis, Allium porrum and Elettaria cardamomum for antioxidant activity using free radical scavenging assays. Mentha arvensis exhibited the maximum content of phenols and flavonoid compounds, and greatest antioxidant profile.
  • Nanoparticles / Leaves / Antioxidant Study: Study showed Mentha arvensis mediated silver nanoparticle arvensis exhibited high antioxidant properties.
  • Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Analgesic: Study of ethanolic extract of M. arvensis in albino mice showed free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay, antimicrobial activity against S. typhi, S. paratyphi, S. boydii, S. pyogenes and S. aureus, cytotoxic lethality against brine shrimp nauplii, and analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing.
  • Nephroprotective in Cisplatin Induced Toxicity: Study of evaluated the effect of M. arvensis on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed nephroprotective action evidenced by blood parameters and histopathological studies, and attributed to the presence of flavonoids and related compounds.
  • Thrombolytic / Cytotoxic: Study of Mentha arvensis, M. spicata, and M viridis showed clot lysis activity and low cytotoxicity activity. Results suggest the plants can be incorporated as thrombolytic agents with in vivo effects to improve the atherothrombotic patients.
  • Essential Oil / Aerial Parts / Use for Reduction of Mental Stress: Study showed the fragrant chemicals of essential oil of M. arvensis reduce the level of mental stress and has a potential for use in the treatment of psychophysiological disorders.
  • Absorptive Removal of Chromium Ions / M. arvensis Biomass: Study investigated the binding capacity of M. arvensis biomass for chromium ions from aqueous synthetic effluents. Results showed MA biomass can be used for removal of toxic ions from industrial effluents.
  • Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated an ethyl acetate fraction of M. arvensis for antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. Screening for cytotoxic properties using brine shrimp lethality bioassay with Tamoxifen (LC50 of 12.5 µg/mL) as control showed greater cytotoxic potency with LC50 of 6.24 µg/mL. The EA fractions yielded 106 mg AAE/g of total flavonoid content, 153 mg AAE/g of total phenolic content and 14.9 mg AAE/g of total reducing power content.
  • Cardiovascular Benefits / Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation: Study evaluated a fraction from crude extract of M. arvensis for effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. MA inhibited arachidonic acid metabolite thromboxane B2, a stable analogue of thromboxane-A2. When the MA was investigated for antiplatelet activity, it inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid as well as ADP and platelet activating factor. Since arachidonic acid-induced aggregation is mediated through thromboxane-A2, results indicate inhibition of platelet aggregation may be responsible for the benefits of MA in patients with ischemic heart disease. Fractions of MA may also have potential for isolation of pure compounds with dual inhibition of COX and LOX pathways, which may be beneficial for prevention and treatment of inflammatory conditions.
  • Antibacterial Activity Against Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of M. arvensis against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The extract showed dose dependent growth inhibitory effects against A. baumannii with MIC and MBC of 23.5 and 72.3 µg/mL, respectively. The mechanism of antibacterial activity may be through induction of lethal cellular damage in the bacterium.
  • Potentiation of Antifungal Effect: Study evaluated ethanol extracts from M. arvensis and T. ulmifolia for antifungal activity against strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The extracts showed no clinically relevant antifungal activity. However, a potential effect was observed when extracts were applied with metronidazole. Results suggest a source of natural products with antifungal modifying activity.
  • Anti-Asthmatic Effect of Combined Yerba Buena (Mentha arvensis) and Oregano (C. amboinicus) / Leaves: Study evaluated the combined anti-asthmatic effect of aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of Mentha arvensis and Coleus amboinicus in asthma-induced mice using immunoglobulin E (IgE). The extracts showed a potential benefit in the treatment of asthma as evidenced by a significant (p<0.001) anti-inflammatory effect on IgE, with histopath evidenced of widening of the alveoli on treated mice.
  • Enhancement of Antibiotic Activity Against MR E. coli / M. arvensis and Chlorpromazine: Study evaluated M. arvensis and chlorpromazine for antimicrobial activity alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics against strains of Escherichia coli. Study showed a potentiating effect of the extract with gentamicin. Results suggest M. arvensis has potential as a source of plant-derived natural product with resistance-modifying activity and use against bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Similarly, chlorpromazine demonstrated a potentiating effect on kanamycin, amikacin, and tobramycin suggesting involvement of an efflux systems in resistance to the aminoglycosides.
  • Silver Nanoparticles / Anti-Breast Cancer / Leaves: Study reported on the cost-effective and eco-friendly synthesis of green silver nanoparticles (GSNPs) using a leaf extract as reducing agent. Results suggest GSNPs synthesized using M. arvensis has potential as anticancer agent in breast cancer therapy. They are less toxic and nonmutagenic and mediate caspase 9-dependent apoptosis in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.
  • Radioprotective / Toxicity Study: Radiation-induced damage to normal tissues restrict the therapeutic doses of radiation that can be delivered to tumors. This review reports on alternative agents that are less toxic that may possess radioprotective effects. Mentha piperita and M. arvensis protected mice against y-radiation-induced sickness and mortality. The radioprotective effects may be due to free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and enhancement of DNA repair processes. Drug was non-toxic up to a dose of 1,000 mg/kbw.
  • Effect of Zinc and Sulfur on Herb, Oil Yield and Quality of Mint: Field experiment showed total oil yield and total menthol yield was highest due to application of recommended NPK (150:60:40) + Zn + S. Plant height , LAI, L:S ration and herb yield was due to application of 130% of recommended NPK + Zn + S.
  • Fumigant Toxicity / Anti-Termites / Leaves: Study evaluated crude extract of leaves of Mentha arvensis for insecticidal activity against termite workers, soldiers, and gut flagellates of Coptotermes heimi and Heterotermes indicola. Results showed a significant increase in mortality of both termite species. Results suggest M. arvensis can be an effective natural anti-termite drug and its use would lessen the risk of environmental contamination associated with synthetic insecticides.

Use of Yerba Buena:

  • Cultivated as a spice for cooking.
  • Leaves used for tea.
  • Used in salads to provide flavor.
  • Used as a flavoring in confections, mint flavors, and beverages.
  • One of the oldest household remedies known.
  • In the Philippines, tops and leaves are considered carminative; when bruised used as antidote to stings of poisonous insects.
  • Mint is used in neuralgic affections, renal and vesical calculus.
  • Used for stomach weakness and diarrhea.
  • Decoction and infusion of leaves and stems used for fever, stomach aches, dysmenorrhea, and diuresis.
  • Pounded leaves for insect bites, fevers, toothaches, headaches.
  • Crushed fresh plants or leaves are sniffed for dizziness.
  • Powdered dried plant as dentrifice.
  • Crushed leaves are applied on the forehead and temples for headaches.
  • For toothaches: Wet a small piece of cotton with juice expressed from crushed leaves; apply this impregnated cotton bud to the tooth. / Boil 6 tbsp. of leaves in two glasses of water for 15 minutes; strain and cool. Divide the decoction into 2 parts and take every 3 to 4 hours.
  • For flatulence: Boil 4 tbsp of chopped leaves in 1 cup water for five minutes; strain. Drink the decoction while lukewarm. Facilitates expulsion of flatus.
  • Alcohol or ether extract used as local anesthetic for affections of the nose, pharynx, and larynx.
  • Used for obstinate vomiting of pregnancy.
  • An alcoholic solution of menthol has been used as inhalation for asthma. Menthol is also used as local anesthesia for headache and facial neuralgia.
  • Decoction or vapor from menthol used with lemon grass as febrifuge. Also used in hiccups.
  • Plant used as emmenagogue; also used in jaundice.
  • Dried plant used as dentrifice.
  • Leaves and stems used as carminative, antispasmodic, and sudorific.
  • Infusion of leaves used for indigestion, rheumatic pans, arthritis and inflamed joints.
  • For coughs, boil 6 tbsp of chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 mins; cool and strain. Divide the decoction into three parts; take 1 part 3 times a day.
  • Diluted essential oil used as wash for skin irritations, burns, pruritus, scabies, ringworm and as mosquito repellent.
  • For arthritis, warm fresh leaves over low flame; then pound. Apply pounded leaves while warm on the painful joints or muscles.
  • As mouthwash, soak 2 tbsp chopped leaves in 1 glass of hot water for 30 minutes; strain. Use the infusion as mouthwash.
  • In Japan, used as home remedy for coughs and colds. In Chinese medicine, aerial parts used for colds, influenza, headaches, and sore throat.
  • Mint oil is often used in pharmaceutical preparations to subdue unpleasant medicinal smells.
  • Menthol derived from the essential oil is used in pharmaceutical, perfumery and food industries.
  • The oil and by-product, menthol and dementholized oil (DMO), have highest share in the global mint markets.

Comments and Responses

×

Name is required!

Enter valid name

Valid email is required!

Enter valid email address

Comment is required!

* These fields are required.

Be the First to Comment