Health Benefits and Uses of Peppermint
Peppermint (Mentha piperita) || Health Benefits of Peppermint || Digestive Disorders: Indigestion (Dyspepsia) / Chronic Indigestion (Functional Dyspepsia) / Upset Stomach / Bloating / Intestinal Mucosa / Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) / Treating Gallstones / Reduces Nausea and Vomit || Pediatric Health Issues: Infant Colic || Respiratory Conditions: Cold and Flu / Nasal Congestion / Cough / Sinus / Sore Throat (Pharyngitis) / Asthma / Seasonal Allergies / Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) / Fever || Mental Health & Behavioural Conditions: Stress and Depression / Anxiety and Fear / Focus and Concentration / Aggressive Driving Behaviour || Neurological Health & Nerve Diseases: Sharpens Memory / Memory Loss / Improves Cognitive Tasks / Alzheimer’s Disease || Sleep Disorders: Improves Sleep / Isomnia || Physical Health: Daytime Fatigue / Increases Energy/ Promotes Endurance / Athletic Performance || Infections: Antibacterial / Antimicrobial / Antimicrobial (Prototheca zopfii, Cutaneous protothecosis) / Antimicrobial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimunium) / Antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans) / Antifungal (Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) / Antifungal (Pseudomona putida) / Antigungal (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis) / Pythiosis / Herpes and Influenza Type A / Silver Nanoparticles || Oral Diseases: Toothache / Mouth Germs / Gingivitis / Cavities / Bad Breath (Halitosis) / Dental Plaque Bacteria || Pain & Inflammation: Natural Pain Reliever / Tension Headache / Headache and Migrene / Relieves Spasms || Women's Health Issues: Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea) / Premenstrual Symptoms (PMS) / Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) / Aids in Breastfeeding / Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy (Morning Sickness) (NVP) || Skin & Hair Condition and Care: Skin Care / Brightens Skin / Oily Skin / Skin Irritation / Itching / Skin Allergy / Acne / Sunburn / Hair Care / Improves Hair Quality / Hair Loss / Dandruff / Head Lice / Nail Care || Kidney Disorders: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) / Renal Failure || Liver Disorders: Gamma Radiation / Liver Fibrosis || Hematologic Diseases: Blood Circulation || Endocrine Diseases: Reduces Hunger / Cut Back on Sodium / Weight Loss / Hypothyroidism || Immune Diseases: Boosts Immune System / Clears Stagnation / Lyme || Tumors & Cancers: Colon Cancer - Colorectal Cancer / Cervical Cancer / Blood Cancer (Leukemia) / Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) || Injuries: Nausea and Vomiting After Surgery / Wounds / Chronic Wounds || Bone & Muscle Related Disorders: Muscle Spams and Joint Pain || Antioxidants: || Insects & Pests: Repels Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes (Dengue) / Repels Tsetse Fly (African Trypanosomosis - Sleeping Sickness) / Repels Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitos / Repels Spiders / Stored Product Insect Pests / Secures Plants / American Tomato Moth || Benefits of Peppermint Herbal Tea || Benefits of Peppermint Essential Oil || Benefits of Peppermint Oil Capsules || Therapeutic Benefits of Peppermint Essential Oil || Uses of Peppermint: Medical Uses of Peppermint / Edible Uses of Peppermint || Ayurvedic Uses and Benefits of Peppermint
Peppermint scientifically known as Mentha piperita is a strongly aromatic perennial herb belonging to mint family Lamiaceae. It has strong and sweetish odor and warm pungent taste having cooling aftertaste. The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bear fibrous roots. The leaves can be 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) long and 1.5–4 cm (0.59–1.57 in) broad. Peppermint are dark green with reddish veins, and they have an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. The leaves and stems are usually slightly fuzzy. The flowers are purple, 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.20 in) diameter; they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem, forming thick, blunt spikes. The natural hybridization among wild species resulted two types of Peppermint: black and white. Peppermint oil is a volatile essential oil which is distilled with steam from the herb and used to flavor confectionery, dentifrices, chewing gum and medicines. The pure oil is nearly colorless which consists of menthol and menthone. The plant is found throughout Europe along stream banks and in waste lands.
Leaves are used as culinary herb and flowers are dried and used to add flavor to desserts, candy, salads, beverages and other foods. Its essential oil is also used for flavoring. Fresh or dried Peppermint leaves are often used alone or with other herbs in herbal tea. Peppermint is used for flavouring ice cream, candy, fruit preserves, alcoholic beverages, toothpaste, and some shampoos, soaps and skin care products. Peppermint oil is frequently used in the manufacture of soaps and perfumery but it most prized for use in flavoring confectionery, medicines. Peppermint is used in several dishes for flavouring, they are used in chutneys in India, and are used in salads. Peppermint leaf sprinkled in the back of cabinets will help deter ants and mice. Peppermint leaves powdered in sugar scrubs, invigorates the skin. Peppermint oil is also used in construction and plumbing to test for the tightness of pipes and disclose leaks by its odor. It has an extremely distinct and recognisable flavour and smell and is often used in candies, especially candy canes during Christmas season.
In Greek mythology, mint has been termed as the herb of hospitality and rightly so. In its early days of discovery, Peppermint was used as a room freshener only until later when the numerous other benefits it could provide came to light. Commonly known as "Pudina" in India, mint is widely used in Middle Eastern, Indian, British and American cuisines.
You’ll notice that Peppermint has a somewhat different botanical name: Mentha x piperita. The “x” lets us know that this plant is a hybrid. Peppermint is a cross between Spearmint (Mentha spicata) and Water Mint (Mentha aquatica). While many different mints have been in use throughout human history, it was only in the late 17th century that Peppermint was recognized as a separate species in England. It was added to the England pharmacopeia in 1721.
Bible verse related to Herbs For Healing:"Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone" - Matthew 23:23.
The aromatic compounds in Peppermint leaves relieve muscle spasms, increase blood circulation, reduce pain and promote sweating while the astringent compounds shrink inflamed tissues. They are excellent sources of potassium, calcium, iron, manganese, and magnesium. Potassium is a vital component of cells and body fluids that control heart rate and blood pressure, while manganese works with copper as a co-factor for an antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
Peppermint can be used in various ways, you can drink Peppermint tea to get relief from stress and refresh your mood. Get benefit of Peppermint oil using as a massage oil due to its medicinal properties. Both dried and fresh Peppermint or pudina leaves are used in cooking. It also acts as a traditional home remedies and is used in diarrhea, nausea, the depression-related, and the common cold. One of the best remedies in the case of digestive Upsets. To deal with the oral smell, you can use Peppermint and it has anti-bacterial properties which keep your mouth clean.
Peppermint possesses high menthol content. They also contain carboxyl ester, particularly menthyl acetate and menthane. Dried Peppermint typically has 0.3 – 0.4 % of volatile oil containing menthol (7-48%), menthyl acetate (3-10%), menthane (20-46%), methofurane (1-17%) and 1,8 cineol ( 3-6%). Along with this, they also contain small amount of many additional compounds including imonene, pulegone, caryphyllene and pinene. Peppermint contains terpenoids and flavonoids, such as eriocitrin, hesperidin, and kalompferol, 7-0-rutino side.
The Mentha species of family Lamiaceae are famous for their flavor and are commercially used in many food products worldwide. They are widely used to cure digestive problems as well as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobials.
In a 2023 study "Nutritionally rich biochemical profile in essential oil of various Mentha species and their antimicrobial activities" published in Protoplasma, by Hina Fazal, Muhammad Akram, Nisar Ahmad, Muhammad Qaisar, Farina Kanwal, Gohar Rehman, Irfan Ullah, the essential oils (EOs) of five Mentha species, namely Mentha citrata, Mentha x piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spicata, and Mentha suaveolens were extracted and their chemical diversity was investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The differential doses (5, 10, and 15 µl) of EOs were tested for antimicrobial potential against two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), five gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans). The GC-MS results revealed the major components in the EOs were Carvone, Linalool, Hotrienol, Menthol, Isopulegone, Furanone, Piperitone, and Thymol. Moreover, the higher dose (15 µl) of EOs of M. citrata inhibited the growth of S. typhi and C. albicans (35.8 ± 2.4 and 35.2 ± 2.5 mm), M. x piperita inhibited E. coli, B. subtilis, and C. albicans (28.5 ± 3.5, 26.1 ± 2.1, and 25.4 ± 1.1 mm), M. pulegium inhibited K. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, and C. albicans (26.8 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 2.2, and 25.3 ± 0.9 mm), M. spicata significantly inhibited S. typhi and B. subtilis (35.7 ± 2.7 and 36.3 ± 2.1 mm), and M. suaveolens inhibited K. pneumoniae, C. albicans, and S. typhi (30.8 ± 1.9, 26.9 ± 1.1, and 20.1 ± 0.8 mm) respectively. This study concluded that the EOs of M. citrata was effective against S. typhi and C. albicans. The M. x piperita exhibited strong activities against E. coli, B. subtilis, and C. albicans. Furthermore, the M. pulegium strongly inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae and C. albicans. The EO of M. spicata was more potent against S. typhi and B. subtilis, while the M. suaveolens was comparatively more effective against S. typhi, K. pneumoniae, and C. albicans. These EOs offer a natural source of antimicrobial agents with high commercial values and social acceptance and could be scale up by food and pharmaceutical industries to control pathogenic diseases.
Peppermint oil as well as Peppermint tea have been utilized for thousands of years to sort out a number of digestive as well as gastrointestinal problems. Archaeological proof in fact displays Peppermint being utilized as far back as 10,000 years back like a dietary supplement. Peppermint tea is regarded as a carminative, which means that it will help to move gas from the body since it accumulates, instead of causing bloating, cramping, and stomach discomfort. The tea also encourages bile flow to improve the rate as well as effectiveness of digestion as well as promote healthy bowel movements. It isn’t just a carminative, but additionally a analgesic, therefore it decreases the connected pain of cramps, bloating, and indigestion. It’s because its calming effects on the intestines and smooth muscles of the digestive tract. It is used for treating gas, diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, colic and constipation. All can be improved with this particular tea, since it brings the whole system to more optimum activity levels. It stimulates digestive secretion through its choleretic and bitter properties. The bitter principle promotes pancreatic secretions and choleretic effects which stimulates the flow of bile and promotes solubility of bile.
Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE), the Roman natural philosopher, scientist and naturalist rightly said "The smell of mint stirs up the mind and appetite to a greedy desire of food". The Biblical importance of Peppermint has added even more to its value. Jesus Christ says to the Pharisees, “But woe unto you, Pharisees! For ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment and the love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone”. It was also used as a culinary herb in the folklore cooking for seasoning meat and assisting in quicker digestion.
Peppermint calms the muscles of the stomach and improves the flow of bile, which the body uses to digest fats. As a result, food passes through the stomach more quickly. However, if your symptoms of indigestion are related to a condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD, you should not use Peppermint.
Peppermint oil is extremely beneficial just as one aid for digestion. People frequently put a few drops of Peppermint oil in the glass of water and consume it right after their meal because of its advantageous digestive qualities. It really is carminative and for that reason works well for eliminating excessive gas. Peppermint oil is yet another great tonic for people with a low appetite, also it assists dealing with motion sickness, nausea as well as upset stomachs. Research has demonstrated that Peppermint oil, when coupled with caraway oil may be used for dealing with heartburn.
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM). This makes it suitable for people who have indigestion, one of the health benefits of Peppermint is that it calms the stomach muscles and improves the flow of bile.
Peppermint oil has been established as a natural alternative to drugs like Buscopan to reduce spasms of the colon. It works by relaxing the muscles of your intestines, which can also reduce bloating and gas.
To improve digestion, mix 50 g of Peppermint leaves with 50 g of Beaver leaves, 100 g of Wormwood, 100 g of Scratching herb, 50 g of Calamus rhizome, 50 g of Bitter Orange fruit, 50 g of Oak bark and 50 g of Cinnamon bark. Pour 200 ml of boiling water over 1 teaspoon of the mixture, leave it to infuse for 15 minutes, then drain. Drink after cooling 2-3 times a day to improve metabolism, indigestion, diarrhea and hypofunction of the liver and intestines. A Peppermint tea or adding 1 drop of Peppermint oil to water before meals improves digestion too.
Chronic Indigestion (Functional Dyspepsia):
A mix of enteric-coated Peppermint oil as well as Caraway oil has been confirmed in a number of clinical trials to lessen the signs of non-ulcer dyspepsia, e.g. fullness, bloating, gastrointestinal spasm, however the specific preparation utilized in these trials just isn’t obtainable in the USA.
A meta-analysis of countless trials of the preparation that contains Peppermint and Caraway oils plus other herbal extracts (Iberogast) found it great at the management of functional dyspepsia.This benefit could be the outcome of the preparation’s relaxing effect on the lower esophageal sphincter, along with concomitant equalization of pressure in between stomach and esophagus and reduced experience of bloating as well as abdominal pressure.
However, this particular effect theoretically could cause reflux symptoms in patients predisposed to gastroesophageal reflux. Because multiple herbs were utilized in these trials, it is not easy to draw definitive conclusions in regards to the specific effects of Peppermint within this condition.
Peppermint has compounds that relax the tissues in animals’ GI tracts and that’s why it’s very often a component of “over-the-counter” medications.
A few studies have shown Peppermint and other herbal meds can ease stomach pain in kids, but we need more proof before doctors can recommend it.
Peppermint oil is proven as a natural option to drugs just like Buscopan to lessen spasms of the colon. It functions by relaxing the muscles of the intestines, which could also decrease bloating and gas.
Mix 50 g of Peppermint leaves with 50 g of Chamomile flowers, 70 g of Caraway fruit, 35 g of Calamus rhizomes and 25 g of Valerian rhizomes. Pour 200 ml of boiling water over 1 teaspoon of the mixture, leave it to infuse for 15 minutes, then drain. Drink after cooling 2-3 times a day as a remedy for bloating and chronic flatulence.
A 2002 comparative study "Mentha piperita (Linn) leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss albino mice" published in Indian J Exp Biol by R M Samarth, M R Saini, J Maharwal, A Dhaka, Ashok Kumar, intestinal protection in mice against radiation injury by Mentha piperita (1 g/kg body weight/day) was studied from day 1 to day 20 after whole body gamma irradiation (8 Gy). Villus height, goblet cells/villus section, total cells, mitotic cells and dead cells/crypt section in the jejunum are good parameters for the assessment of radiation damage. There was significant decrease in the villus height, number of total cells and mitotic cells/crypt section, whereas goblet cells and dead cells showed significant increase after irradiation. Mentha pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in villus height, total cells and mitotic cells, whereas goblet cells and dead cells showed a significant decrease from respective irradiated controls at each autopsy day. The results suggest that Mentha pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss albino mice.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS):
IBS is a complex disease with multiple factors contributing to its symptoms, so the best treatment will vary from patient to patient. Several studies have shown that enteric-coated Peppermint capsules can help treat symptoms of IBS, including pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea. (Enteric-coated capsules keep peppermint oil from being released in the stomach, which can cause heartburn and indigestion). However, a few studies have shown no effect.
Animal studies indicate that Peppermint relaxes your digestive system and may ease pain. It also prevents smooth muscles from contracting, which could relieve spasms in your gut. Studies suggest that coated Peppermint oil capsules can ease side effects of IBS like gas, stomach pain, constipation, and diarrhea.
One study examined 57 people with IBS who received either enteric-coated Peppermint capsules or placebo twice a day for 4 weeks. Of the people who took peppermint, 75% had a significant reduction of IBS symptoms.
Another study comparing enteric-coated Peppermint oil capsules to placebo in children with IBS found that after 2 weeks, 75% of those treated had reduced symptoms. Finally, a more recent study conducted in Taiwan found that patients who took an enteric-coated peppermint oil formulation 3 to 4 times daily for 1 month had less abdominal distention, stool frequency, and flatulence than those who took a placebo. Nearly 80% of the patients who took Peppermint also had alleviation of abdominal pain.
A different review from the same year assessed 12 randomized controlled trials and found that Peppermint oil was a safe and effective intervention for pain symptoms in adults with IBS.
But in addition to diet and lifestyle changes, doctors often recommend Peppermint oil capsules before moving on to prescription medicines, according to Robert Shulman, a board-certified pediatric gastroenterologist and professor of pediatric nutrition at the Baylor College of Medicine. The use of Peppermint oil to treat IBS symptoms, especially abdominal pain, has been supported in multiple human clinical trials.
A 2019 meta-analysis found that people with IBS who took Peppermint oil were 2.4 times more likely to experience overall symptom relief compared to those given placebo, and 1.8 times more likely to experience abdominal pain relief in particular.
A 2019 review found that placebo-controlled studies support the use of Peppermint oil as a remedy for a range of gastrointestinal conditions, including indigestion, IBS, stomach pain in children, and feelings of sickness after surgery. The authors of the review found that mint works against harmful microbes, regulates muscle relaxation, and helps control inflammation.
However, a 2019 randomized, double-blind trial of 190 people with IBS found that Peppermint oil did not significantly reduce symptoms. More research is necessary to confirm the benefits of mint products in managing IBS.
There are virtually no prescription medications approved to treat IBS in children, Shulman says, so he often recommends Peppermint oil to his pediatric patients. Peppermint oil may help IBS in a number of ways, Shulman says. Although researchers are still investigating the exact mechanisms, Peppermint oil has long been thought to have anti-spasm properties, he says, which may relax the smooth muscle tissue of the lower gastrointestinal tract in people with IBS. Shulman doesn't recommend any one brand of Peppermint oil capsule over another, but be sure to get one with an enteric coating, otherwise you might experience heartburn. This special coating allows the Peppermint oil to mostly bypass the stomach and later be released in the intestines, where doctors believe it has the best effect. Shulman says if you haven't noticed any improvements in your IBS symptoms after about a week of taking Peppermint oil capsules, it might just not work for you. And those who already deal with severe heartburn may need to avoid Peppermint oil.
People with IBS should take Peppermint oil capsules twice a day, every day, to get the full effects. "The problem I see is that people don't take it every day. They take it only when they feel ill. And by that point, it's too late", says Gerard Mullin, a board-certified gastroenterologist at Johns Hopkins Medicine.
One research discovered a 50% decrease in IBS symptoms with 75% of patients who used it. Numerous research has also proven it to be a great reducer of IBS, that affects huge numbers of people each year and is also seen as an abdominal pain or discomfort with no other diagnosed illness. Further research still must be done on the exact mechanism through which this occurs, yet clinical studies have confirmed these effects.
A review of nine studies in 926 people with irritable bowel syndrome treated with Peppermint oil for at least two weeks concluded that Peppermint provided significantly better symptom relief than a placebo. In one study in 72 people with IBS, Peppermint oil capsules reduced IBS symptoms by 40% after four weeks, compared to only 24.3% with a placebo.
Additionally, in a review of 14 clinical trials in nearly 2,000 children, Peppermint reduced the frequency, length and severity of abdominal pain. Furthermore, capsules containing Peppermint oil reduced incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting in a study in 200 people undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.
Peppermint oil has been used for centuries as a treatment for gastrointestinal ailments. It has been shown to have several effects on gastroesophageal physiology relevant to clinical care and management. These symptoms include pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas.
In a 2018 review "The physiologic effects and safety of Peppermint Oil and its efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome and other functional disorders" published in Journal List, by Bruno P. Chumpitazi, Gregory Kearns, Robert J. Shulman, To review the literature on Peppermint oil regarding its metabolism, effects on gastrointestinal physiology, clinical use and efficacy, and safety. We performed a PubMed literature search using the following terms individually or in combination: Peppermint, Peppermint oil, pharmacokinetics, menthol, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, gallbladder, colon, transit, dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Full manuscripts evaluating Peppermint oil that were published through July 15, 2017 were reviewed. When evaluating therapeutic indications, only randomized clinical trials were included. References from selected manuscripts were used if relevant. It appears that Peppermint oil may have several mechanisms of action including: smooth muscle relaxation (via calcium channel blockade or direct enteric nervous system effects); visceral sensitivity modulation (via transient receptor potential cation channels); anti-microbial effects; anti-inflammatory activity; modulation of psychosocial distress. Peppermint oil has been found to affect esophageal, gastric, small bowel, gallbladder, and colonic physiology. It has been used to facilitate completion of colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Placebo controlled studies support its use in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, childhood functional abdominal pain, and postoperative nausea. Few adverse effects have been reported in Peppermint oil trials. Peppermint oil is a natural product which affects physiology throughout the gastrointestinal tract, has been used successfully for several clinical disorders, and appears to have a good safety profile.
Researchers have attributed Peppermint’s relief of IBS symptoms, such as constipation and bloating, mainly to its antispasmodic properties. The menthol contained in Peppermint has a relaxing effect on the intestinal smooth muscle. Similarly, in a recent study on Peppermint in the form of an enteric-coated supplement for the treatment of IBS-associated pain, researchers found that Peppermint had a pain-relieving effect for most IBS participants in the study, again attributed to its antispasmodic effect.
Researchers from The University of Adelaide in Australia in 2013 found that Peppermint was useful in treating abdominal pain in patients with diarrhoea due to IBS. A breakthrough in understanding exactly how Peppermint works in the gut to reduce IBS pain. When people with IBS are experiencing symptoms, the nerve fibres in their colons are hypersensitive, manifesting as abdominal pain. Researchers found that the high concentrations of the cooling menthol in Peppermint has an antispasmodic effect and it excites the anti-pain channel called TRPM8, which temporarily causes pain-sensing fibres in the gut to become less sensitive. The study authors believe this new insight could lead to the development of Peppermint oil as a mainstream treatment for IBS and other GI conditions involving abdominal pain originating in the colon.
A 2008 review and meta-analysis "Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and Peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome" published inBritish Medical Journal (BMJ) by Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley, Brennan M R Spiegel, Amy E Foxx-Orenstein, Lawrence Schiller, Eamonn M M Quigley, Paul Moayyedi compared fibre with placebo or no treatment in 591 patients (relative risk of persistent symptoms 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.00). This effect was limited to ispaghula (0.78, 0.63 to 0.96). 22 trials compared antispasmodics with placebo in 1778 patients (0.68, 0.57 to 0.81). Various antispasmodics were studied, but otilonium (four trials, 435 patients, relative risk of persistent symptoms 0.55, 0.31 to 0.97) and hyoscine (three trials, 426 patients, 0.63, 0.51 to 0.78) showed consistent evidence of efficacy. Four trials compared Peppermint oil with placebo in 392 patients (0.43, 0.32 to 0.59). Fibre, antispasmodics, and Peppermint oil were all more effective than placebo in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.
While no studies have examined Peppermint tea and digestion, it’s possible that the tea could have similar effects as Peppermint oil.
Reduces Nausea and Vomit:
When it comes to being sick, few things are as uncomfortable as being nauseous or even vomiting. Peppermint is a great home cure for nausea. Peppermint tea is antispasmodic, therefore it decreases the likelihood of vomiting and nausea, even just in cases of motion sickness on the boat or perhaps a plane. In addition, it decreases the stomachaches as well as queasiness related to motion sickness, and its anti-inflammatory qualities can return your stomach to normal.
In a 2020 study, hospitalized patients could choose to treat their nausea with either Peppermint oil alone or Peppermint oil and a prescription anti-nausea medicine. Both groups experienced nausea relief, but those who chose Peppermint oil alone had significantly more improvement.
However, the quality of the study is somewhat lacking. "I extrapolate this data to support using inhaled Peppermint oil as an option to treat my primary care patients that may have nausea due to migraines, stomach viruses, food poisoning, or other conditions".
According to another study, the same muscle-relaxing qualities that Peppermint oil offers for headaches are likely responsible for its nausea-relieving abilities. It is also possible that the act of slow, deep breathing while inhaling Peppermint oil is actually responsible for some of the perceived effects.
Just adding a small amount of Peppermint oil to water, or even rubbing 1-2 drops behind your ears, or perhaps diffusing it can benefit to lessen nausea.
There are some researches that suggests Peppermint oil can be useful as a natural colic remedy. For the studies, infants were given one drop of Mentha piperita per kilogram of body weight once a day for a seven-day period. Before using Peppermint oil on your infant, it is recommend that you discuss this treatment plan with your child’s pediatrician.
According to a crossover study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, using Peppermint oil is equally effective as the drug Simethione for treating infantile colic episodes, without the side effects associated with prescribed medications. Researchers found that the mean crying time among infants with colic went from 192 minutes per day to 111 minutes per day. All mothers reported an equal decrease of frequency and duration of colic episodes among those using Peppermint oil and Simethione, a medication that’s used to relieve infantile colic, gassiness, bloating and stomach discomfort.
Peppermint has antiseptic and diaphoretic qualities which are helpful for treating colds and flu, coughs, bronchitis and sinusitis. Warm Peppermint teas promote perspiration and recovery. As an antispasmodic, it may also reduce you of that irritating sensation which makes you would like to cough, therefore exacerbating your respiratory condition. By relaxing the muscles of the throat and chest, you are able to remove that aspect of cold and flu symptoms.
Menthol, that is generously contained in Peppermint oil, helps you to clear the respiratory tract. Additionally it is a highly effective expectorant and for that reason offers instantaneous, although temporary, relief for various respiratory problems which includes nasal congestion, sinusitis, cold and cough. Because of this, it is utilized in several cold rubs as well as balms. Peppermint oil has the capacity to open your airways and behave as a decongestant. Combine it with coconut oil and eucalyptus oil to help make my homemade vapor rub in lowering the signs and symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. Whenever these cold rubs are used on the chest, they are able to rapidly eliminate nasal and respiratory congestion.
In a single research, using Peppermint oil turned out to be antispasmodic, expectorant, as well as anti-inflammatory naturally, and considerably soothed the trachea inflammation and coughing in rats.
Certainly, more human-based research are necessary, however it has become a frequent part of alternative treatment for generations, and is also extremely respected because of its use within reducing respiratory issues.
Cold and Flu:
If you need a proper remedy to kill bacteria and viruses that cause our common cold, Peppermint leaves could be your savior. The menthol in these leaves thins mucus and eliminates phlegm, thus providing relief from a cough and congestion. Menthol is often used as a common ingredient in rubs used on the chest to relieve chest aches experienced during cold and flu. Mint has a calming and numbing effect. Peppermint can also be used as an herbal steam to break up congestion in the lungs. Peppermint essential oil can also be inhaled with similar effects.
"Peppermint possesses aromatic, sudorific, and antispasmodic properties. It is an efficient agent in spasms of wind, sickness, colic, diarrhoea, and other acute attacks of similar nature. It is generally exhibited in the warm infusion, which is to be prepared, and kept, while warm, in a covered vessel, so as to prevent the escape of steam. …it frequently gives relief after failure with all other means previously employed". - John G. Hatfield, Botanic Pharmacopeia, 1886.
"An infusion of equal quantities of Peppermint herb and Elder flowers (to which either Yarrow or Boneset may be added) will banish a cold or mild attack of influenza within thirty-six hours, and there is no danger of an overdose or any harmful action on the heart". - Maude Grieve, a Modern Herbalist.
Inhaling steam and vapors can be helpful for easing nasal congestion from colds and other upper respiratory infections. Some people find that the vapors from Peppermint tea, which contains menthol, also help.
A 2016 study suggested that vapors from essential oils, such as Peppermint oil, have antibacterial properties that may help alleviate some types of upper respiratory infection.
Peppermint and its main active agent, menthol, are effective decongestants. Because menthol thins mucus, it is also a good expectorant, meaning it helps loosen phlegm and breaks up coughs. It is soothing and calming for sore throats (pharyngitis) and dry coughs. Menthol, the main chemical component of Peppermint, is an effective decongestant. Decongestants shrink the swollen membranes in the nose, making it easier to breathe. Menthol is also an expectorant. Expectorants loosen and bring up mucus from the lungs. This helps people with coughs.
For the best results, a person can add 3-4 drops of Peppermint essential oil to hot water and then inhale the steam.
Peppermint has an antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory property which combats clogged sinuses due to infections. The Peppermint tea has not been studies for effects on nasal congestion. The intake of any warm liquid, from tea to hot water along with honey, can help with congestion, yet Peppermint tea features a specific benefit, and once again, we now have menthol to thank. Menthol is really a natural decongestant, offering rest from sinus pressure, and also the hot liquid may also soothe a sore throat which accompanies seasonal cold symptoms too. When you’re struggling with a stuffy nose as well as scratchy throat, mix Peppermint tea, lemon as well as honey for the calming drink. Additionally, research demonstrates that menthol, one of the active compounds in Peppermint, improves the perception of airflow in your nasal cavity. Therefore, steam from Peppermint tea may help you feel as though your breathing is easier.
Peppermint’s antimicrobial powers may help you fight off the common cold or the infected mucus that sets up shop in your sinuses as a result. The menthol can also make you feel that you can breathe more easily. Breathing in diffused Peppermint oil can quite often instantly unclog your sinuses and provide relief to scratchy throats. Peppermint serves as an expectorant and may even offer relief for colds, cough, sinusitis, asthma and bronchitis.
Though Peppermint tea has not been studied for its effects on nasal congestion, evidence suggests that it may be helpful. While there is limited evidence that drinking Peppermint tea may help unclog your sinuses, a warm beverage containing menthol, such as Peppermint tea, may help you breathe a little easier.
The expectorant and decongestant properties of this oil help in open the blocked sinus passages and aid in clearing mucus deposits from the respiratory tract by adding 2 drops of this oil in steam inhalation.
Sore Throat (Pharyngitis):
Peppermint and its main active agent, menthol, are effective decongestants. Because menthol thins mucus, it is also a good expectorant, meaning it helps loosen phlegm and breaks up coughs. It is soothing and calming for sore throats (pharyngitis) and dry coughs. Peppermint is among the most popular essential oils for treating a sore throat.
A 2013 study found Peppermint oil to have antimicrobial properties against pathogens that enter the body through the mouth. A more recent study suggested that Peppermint oil also acts as an antibacterial agent, meaning it may help fight off bacteria. Peppermint also contains menthol, which is the base ingredient of many sore throat medications, such as lozenges.
Some people struggling with asthma have discovered that consuming Peppermint tea might help them. They might experience less severe attacks, or they might be less attentive to environmental factors that will normally trigger an unpleasant asthma attack. Whilst Peppermint tea won’t have the ability to help people who are already within the grip of the asthma attack, it might have got a place with regards to prevention.
A lab study published in the European Journal of Medical Research found that menthol displayed potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma.
Peppermint can help you enjoy the outdoors more when it’s allergy season. It has a compound called rosmarinic acid that can lower your body’s histamine reaction. This may mean fewer symptoms like an irritated, stuffy nose, sneezing, and red, itchy eyes.
In a study in rats, Peppermint extract reduced allergic symptoms, such as sneezing and itchy nose.
In another randomized 21-day study in 29 people with seasonal allergies, those given an oral supplement containing rosmarinic acid had fewer symptoms of itchy nose, itchy eyes and other symptoms than those given a placebo.
While it’s unknown whether the amount of rosmarinic acid found in Peppermint is enough to affect allergy symptoms, there is some evidence that Peppermint may relieve allergies.
Peppermint oil is extremely efficient at relaxing muscles within your nasal passages and may help clear out the muck and pollen throughout allergy season. Diffusing Peppermint together with Clove oil as well as Eucalyptus oil may also decrease allergic reactions. Drinking Peppermint tea or adding it to a bath may help in bringing down fever gently without medicine and any adverse effect on the body’s ability to fight illness. Peppermint leaves are primarily known to help in inducing histamines in the body, thus bringing down the seasonal fever and allergies.
Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever):
Instant coughing can be a sign of problematic lungs. So the moment you sense discomfort in your lungs, add Peppermint to your diet. Peppermint leaves contain rosemarinic acid which is beneficial in asthma due to its antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals and block the production of pro-inflammatory chemicals such as leukotrienes. Moreover, it facilitates the making of substances called prostacyclins that keep the airways open for easy breathing. Peppermint leaf extract inhibits histamine release, thus alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever).
This might be a bit surprising, but Peppermint tea is also beneficial for fever. Menthol (the decongestant), the main component in the tea, cools the system and hence, lowers the temperature of our body, both internally and externally. Whenever we consider the sharp, cool effect of menthol, we don’t essentially think of a hot cup of tea, yet Peppermint tea has got menthol like a main element, therefore consuming the tea may cause exterior sweating, whilst the menthol cools down the body inside. This particular basically “breaks” a fever, and may decrease the connected inflammation as well as discomfort.
Due to Peppermint oil’s cooling effects, it is really an outstanding natural treatment to bring down a fever particularly in children. Just mix Peppermint oil along with Coconut oil and rub it on the child’s neck and on the bottom of their feet to assist stabilize a fever rather than aspirin or any other drugs.
Stress and Depression:
When life gets stressful, and you’re feeling mentally fatigued, Peppermint can provide you with the lift you need to keep stress as well as exhaustion away. With cooling as well as energizing properties, you’ll be feeling better very quickly.
Consuming a warm cup of Peppermint tea might help relax even the most tightly-wound individuals, yet Peppermint tea might be especially great at reducing stress. Peppermint tea consists of menthol, which will help loosen tight muscles. People can feel less stressed, and they’ll be less probable to cause themselves additional stress throughout their days. People who take the time out of their days to savor a nice cup of Peppermint tea will probably be doing themselves a favor in additional ways than a single.
Like most other essential oils, Peppermint has the capacity to offer rest from stress, depression as well as mental exhaustion because of its refreshing nature. It’s also efficient towards stress as well as restlessness. Furthermore, it encourages mental activity, clears the mind, and boosts focus on cognitive tasks.
One group of researchers analyzed the strength of Peppermint against stress as well as mental fatigue in 14 participants. Each participant was handed a personal inhaler with a mix of either rose water or even essential oils (Peppermint, Helichrysum and Basil). Then they were inspired to utilize the inhaler 3 times a day, 5 days a week for three weeks.
Anxiety and Fear:
The aroma of the Peppermint oil is known to eliminate stress, improve memory retention, and promote relaxation. It induces alertness and brings clarity to a person’s thought process as well. It is also stated that this oil is known to improve the athletic ability of an individual, improve cognitive functioning, and increases the pain thresholds considerably. It even works to eliminate stress caused by anxiety or fear.
Focus and Concentration:
Peppermint oil is among the most popular oils known to enhance concentration, give a definite focus, and considerably boost mental clarity. While studies on the effects of Peppermint tea on concentration are unavailable, some small studies have researched this beneficial effect of Peppermint oil, taken by ingestion or inhalation.
Studies conducted in 2012 state that inhaling the aroma of this oil is known to boost the mental accuracy by 28%. Hence, it is widely known to vitalize memory and alertness.
A study within the International Journal of Neuroscience discovered that Peppermint can improve focus and concentration.
Another study in the University of Cincinnati discovered that the scent of Peppermint was even more essential compared to actual consumption of the tea. Peppermint diffused in the room filled with test-takers boosted their alertness as well as concentration, as the odor of menthol energizes the hippocampus, that is brain’s memory center.
To benefit from this benefit, brew Peppermint tea as well as sip it gradually, or create a homemade Peppermint humidifier by bringing a pot of water into a boil, adding the Peppermint and covering the pot. Bring the pot in the room you need to humidify and open the pot, the scent of Peppermint will fill the room.
Aggressive Driving Behaviour:
Aggressive driving is of increasing concern in modern society.
A 2023 randomized controlled trial "Aroma of the essential oil of Peppermint reduces aggressive driving behaviour in healthy adults" published in Hum Psychopharmacol. by Mark Moss, Jasmine Ho, Sophie Swinburne, Anna Turner, investigated the potential for the presence of an ambient aroma to reduce aggressive responses in a simulated driving situation. Previous literature has demonstrated the beneficial effect of Peppermint (Mentha piperita) aroma on driver alertness and we aimed to identify any impact on aggressive driver behaviour. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (Peppermint essential oil aroma and no aroma). Aggressive driving behaviours were measured in a virtual reality driving simulator. The analysis indicated that the peppermint aroma significantly reduced aggressive driving behaviours. The presence of the aroma also produced medium sized effects on some aspects of mood from pre-test levels. These results provide support for the use of ambient aromas for the modification of driving behaviours. It is proposed that applying Peppermint into daily driving may be a beneficial for reducing driver aggression.
In a small study, capsules of Peppermint oil helped people process problems longer without getting mentally tired. The herb’s sharp smell may also boost your memory and keep you extra alert. In a study, smelling Peppermint oil was found to improve memory and alertness, compared to Ylang-Ylang, another popular essential oil.
People who are regular consumers of Peppermint are known to be highly cognitive and mentally alert. Peppermint is widely known to be an effective stimulate that promotes long term memory retention and a pronounced alertness.
Improves Cognitive Tasks:
A 2018 randomized controlled trial published in Nutrients by David Kennedy, Edward Okello, Paul Chazot, Melanie-Jayne Howes, Samuel Ohiomokhare, Philippa Jackson, Crystal Haskell-Ramsay, Julie Khan, Joanne Forster, Emma Wightman assessed the human cognitive/mood effects of the Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita essential oil with the most promising, brain-relevant in vitro properties according to pre-trial in vitro screening. The highest (100 µL) dose of essential oil improved performance on the cognitively demanding Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) at 1 h and 3 h post-dose and both doses attenuated fatigue and improved performance of the Serial 3 s subtraction task at 3 h post-dose. Peppermint essential oil with high levels of menthol/menthone and characteristic in vitro cholinergic inhibitory, calcium regulatory and GABAA/nicotinic receptor binding properties, beneficially modulated performance on demanding cognitive tasks and attenuated the increase in mental fatigue associated with extended cognitive task performance in healthy adults. Future investigations should consider investigating higher doses.
Alzheimer's disease is regarded as a common neurodegenerative disease that may lead to dementia and the loss of memory. We report here the nootropic and anti-amnesic effects of both peppermint and rosemary oils using a rat model of scopolamine-induced amnesia-like Alzheimer's disease.
In a 2023 study "Rosmarinus officinalis and Mentha piperita Oils Supplementation Enhances Memory in a Rat Model of Scopolamine-Induced Alzheimer's Disease-like Condition" published in Nutrients, by Nafe M Al-Tawarah, Rawand H Al-Dmour, Maha N Abu Hajleh, Khaled M Khleifat, Moath Alqaraleh, Yousef M Al-Saraireh, Ahmad Q Jaradat, Emad A S Al-Dujaili, rats were administered orally with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg) of each single oil and combined oils. The positive group used donepezil (1 mg/kg). In the therapeutic phase, rats were administered scopolamine (1 mg/kg) through the oral administration of oils. During the nootropic phase, both oils showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in radial arm maze latency times, working memory, and reference memory errors compared with the normal group, along with significant (p < 0.05) enhancements of long-term memory during the passive avoidance test. Therapeutic phase results revealed significant enhancements of memory processing compared with the positive groups. In the hippocampus, oils exhibited an elevation of BDNF levels in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry findings showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis suppressed by scopolamine in the sub-granular zone, and the anti-amnesic activity of single oil was enhanced when the two oils combined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) of the two oils revealed sufficient compounds (1,8-Cineole, α-Pinene, menthol and menthone) with potential efficacy in the memory process and cognitive defects. Our work suggests that both oils could enhance the performance of working and spatial memory, and when combined, more anti-amnesic activity was produced. A potential enhancement of hippocampal growth and neural plasticity was apparent with possible therapeutic activity to boost memory in Alzheimer's disease patients.
The anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities with chemical composition and molecular docking of essential oil and nonpolar extracts of Mentha piperita were evaluated using enzymatic and chemical methods.
In another 2023 study "Evaluation of In Vitro and In Silico Anti-Alzheimer Potential of Nonpolar Extracts and Essential Oil from Mentha piperita" published in Foods, by Manel Srief, Moustafa Bani, El Hassen Mokrani, Imad Mennai, Mehdi Hamdi, Abdenour Boumechhour, Mohamed Abou Mustapha, Mouna Derdour, Messouad Kerkatou, Mohamed El-Shazly, Chawki Bensouici, Gema Nieto, Salah Akkal, molecular docking tools were used to explain the interaction of the major chemical constituents with the enzymes. GC/MS analyses revealed that the main compounds in M. piperita essential oil were l-menthone (43.601%) followed by pulegone (21.610%), linolenic acid (25.628%), and l-menthone (10.957%), representing the major compounds of the petroleum ether extract. Imidazoquinoline (7.767%) and 17-N-acetyl-oroidine (5.363%) were the major constituents of the chloroform extract. Linolenic acid (19.397%) and l-menthone (6.336%) were the most abundant compounds in the hexane extract. The Mentha piperita essential oil and nonpolar extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The essential oil showed the most promising anticholinesterase activity with IC50 = 10.66 ± 0.12 µg/mL and IC50 = 16.33 ± 0.03 µg/mL against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively, close to galantamine in AChE and more active in BChE, followed by the interesting activity in the petroleum ether extract with IC50 = 23.42 ± 3.06 µg/mL in AChE and IC50 = 62.00 ± 3.22 µg/mL in BChE. The docking experiments showed that among the seven major identified compounds, N-acetyl-17-oroidine showed the highest binding score (63.01 in AChE and 63.68 in BChE). This compound was found to bind the catalytic and peripheral sites, resulting in more potent inhibitory activity than galantamine, which only binds to the catalytic site. These findings suggested the possible use of Mentha piperita essential oil and nonpolar extracts as a potential source of alternative natural anti-Alzheimer compounds.
Peppermint tea acts as muscle relaxant that helps to relax before bedtime, as it’s naturally caffeine-free. Peppermint helps to enhance sleep. Lots of people turn to medicines whenever they’re having a hard time going to sleep, however it is possible that something as simple as Peppermint tea might do the trick for them. The action of consuming hot tea is comforting, however the menthol in Peppermint tea may possibly specifically be able to assist individuals who feel too tense and anxious to sleep. They are able to address a number of the underlying psychological problems that are making it hard for them to sleep. A prolonged lack of sleep could be a psychological condition in its own right, so Peppermint tea might help individuals on multiple levels. There is not much scientific evidence that Peppermint enhances sleep.
In one study, Peppermint oil lengthened the sleeping time of mice given a sedative. However, another study found that menthol did not have a sedative effect.
If you find you’re having a difficult time sleeping, Peppermint oil assists stimulate cold-sensitive receptors within the skin and mucosal tissues. When utilized this way, it may help with insomnia.
Peppermint tea promotes energy levels and lowers daytime fatigue. The natural compounds provide beneficial effects on energy. If you want to feel more awake during the day, Peppermint oil might do the trick. Experts aren’t quite sure what happens in your body when you smell Peppermint oil, but it may help ease sleepiness during waking hours.
A 2018 study of 24 participants with an average age of 25 years showed that those who were given a Peppermint oil capsule experienced less fatigue during a cognitive test. In another study, participants who were in a room where Peppermint oil was diffused showed significantly less daytime sleepiness than those who were in an odorless room.
For a non-toxic alternative to dangerous energy drinks, take a few whiffs of Peppermint. It will help to boost your energy levels on long road trips, in school or any other time you need to “burn the midnight oil”. Peppermint oil may also help to improve memory and alertness when inhaled. And it can be used to enhance your physical performance, whether you need a little push during your weekly workouts or you are training for an athletic event.
A study published in the Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine investigated the effects of Peppermint ingestion on exercise performance. 30 healthy male college students were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. They were given a single oral dose of Peppermint essential oil and measurements were taken on their physiological parameters and performance.
Researchers observed significant improvements in all of the tested variables ofter ingestion of Peppermint oil. Those in the experimental group showed an incremental and significant increase in their grip force, standing vertical jump and standing long jump. The Peppermint oil group also showed a significant increase in the amount of air that is exhaled from the lungs, peak breathing flow rate and peak exhaling flow rate, which suggests that Peppermint may have a positive effect on the bronchial smooth muscles.
Peppermint oil may be used aromatically to improve alertness as well as endurance. Even, this particular oil might help restore those who get fainted with its aroma. Hold the Peppermint oil bottle under nose and you may start to see the result.
A small 2014 study in 30 students suggests that Peppermint oil may improve several measurements of athletic performance, such as jumping ability or grip strength.
Some people clean the house along with Lemon juice, others go for Peppermint oil. Due to its anti-fungal as well as anti-bacterial agents, combine it with some water as well as vinegar and then use it to clean your home, through the windowsills to the kitchen counter.It eliminates several types of bacteria resulting illness to humans.
Bacterial communities associated with medicinal plants are an essential part of ecosystems. The rhizosphere effect is rather important in the cultivation process.
The purpose of the study "Bacterial Communities of Lamiacea L. Medicinal Plants: Structural Features and Rhizosphere Effect" published in Microorganisms 2023, by Ekaterina K Zharkova, Anna A Vankova, Olga V Selitskaya, Elena L Malankina, Natalya V Drenova, Alena D Zhelezova, Vitaliy K Khlyustov, Sergey L Belopukhov, Aleksey V Zhevnerov, Ludmila A Sviridova, Tatiana N Fomina, Andrey V Kozlov, was to analyze the rhizosphere effect of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), Creeping Thyme (Thymus serpillum L.) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L.). To estimate the quantity of 16S bacteria ribosomal genes, qPCR assays were used. To compare bacterial communities' structure of medicinal plants rhizosphere with bulk soil high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting variable regions V3-V4 of bacteria was carried out. The highest bacterial abundance was associated with T. vulgaris L., M. piperita L. and S. officinalis L., and the lowest was associated with the O. vulgare L. rhizosphere. Phylum Actinobacteriota was predominant in all rhizosphere samples. The maximum bacterial α-diversity was found in S. officinalis L. rhizosphere. According to bacterial β-diversity calculated by the Bray-Curtis metric, T. vulgaris L. root zone significantly differed from bulk soil. The rhizosphere effect was positive to the Myxococcota, Bacteroidota, Verrucomicrobiota, Proteobacteria and Gemmatimonadota.
The full range of resistance to bacteria just isn’t quite known yet, but research continue constantly. While this result is promising, the antimicrobial activity of Peppermint oil may depend on the species of bacteria. While there are no studies on the antibacterial effects of Peppermint tea, Peppermint oil has been shown to effectively kill bacteria. Peppermint tea has antibacterial effects that effectively kill bacteria.
Studies confirm that Peppermint effectively fights several types of bacteria, including those that cause food-borne illnesses and contagious illnesses. It is made up of camphor, menthol, as well as carvacrol, that are resistant against particular hazardous bacterial strains just like E. coli, listeria, salmonella, staph infections, and Mango juice.
A 2021 study "The evaluation of phenolic content, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita extracts obtained by natural deep eutectic solvents" published in Food Chem. by Tatjana Jurić, Nikola Mićić, Aleksandar Potkonjak, Dubravka Milanov, Jelena Dodić, Zorana Trivunović, Boris M Popović evaluate whether six choline chloride-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) could serve as solvents for the extraction of bioactives from the leaves of Mentha piperita. NADES extracted significantly higher amounts of phenols from Peppermint than 70% ethanol and may be useful in the extraction of targeted major compounds from Peppermint, like rosmarinic acid, at a similar level as 70% ethanol. The microdilution method for in vitro antibacterial activity showed that all NADES exhibit bacterial growth inhibition at a lower concentration than 70% ethanol, especially NADESs containing organic acids.
A 2020 study "Successive exposure to Mentha piperita L. essential oil affects the culturability and induces membrane repair in a persister epidemic Salmonella typhimurium PT4" published in Microb Pathog. by Adma Nadja Ferreira de Melo, Geany Targino de Souza Pedrosa, Erika Tayse da Cruz Almeida, Guojie Cao, Dumitru Macarisin, Donald W Schaffner, Evandro L de Souza, Marciane Magnani had as aims to evaluate the effects of successive exposures to Mentha piperita L. essential oil (MPEO) on culturability and physiological functions of Salmonella Typhimurium PT4. Genomic analyses showed that the strain carries 17 genes associated with stress responses and the persistence of the tested strain among sources associated with poultry spanning more than 16 years and its virulence for humans. Therefore, successive exposure to a sublethal concentration of MPEO induced S. Typhimurium PT4 cells capable of maintaining the membrane integrity and its functions despite their non-culturable state.
A study from 2017 looked at the activity of several essential oils against different strains of Candida yeast. While Peppermint oil did have some antifungal activity, it had the lowest activity out of all the oils that were tested. The Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran proved that the menthol component in Peppermint oil is defiant to fungus including candida. The State University of Brazil also established that Peppermint essential oil varieties have anti-candida effects.
For all these reasons Peppermint oil acts as a natural remedy for treating fungal infections like athlete’s foot, ringworm, jock itch and other yeast infections. Additionally, studies indicate that Peppermint reduces several types of bacteria commonly found in your mouth that can lead to oral problems such as dental caries and periodontal disease.
A study found that Peppermint oil showed no antimicrobial activity against a species of Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria that causes skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and more.
A 2022 study "Risk assessment of in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mentha piperita L. essential oil" published in Toxicol Environ Health by W M F Silva, N P Bona, N S Pedra, K F Da Cunha, A M Fiorentini, F M Stefanello, E R Zavareze, A R G Dias determine the chemical composition as well as antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties of the essential oil of Mentha piperita L.. Fifteen chemical constituents were identified in the essential oil, for a total of 99.99% of the compounds. The essential oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil of Mentha piperita.
A 2018 study "Elucidation of the synergistic action of Mentha Piperita essential oil with common antimicrobials" published in PLoS One by Antonio Rosato, Alessia Carocci, Alessia Catalano, Maria Lisa Clodoveo, Carlo Franchini, Filomena Corbo, Giuseppe Gerardo Carbonara, Antonio Carrieri, Giuseppe Fracchiolla demonstrated its significant antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. The aim of this work is the study of the synergistic effects of Mentha piperita essential oil with antibacterials and antifungals that are widely available and currently prescribed in therapies against infections. The observed strong synergy may constitute a potential new approach to counter the increasing phenomenon of multidrug resistant bacteria and fungi. In vitro efficacy of the association Mentha piperita essential oil/drugs was evaluated against a large panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast strains. The antimicrobial effects were studied by checkerboard microdilution method. The synergistic effect of Mentha piperita essential oil with gentamicin resulted in a strong growth inhibition for all the bacterial species under study. The synergistic effect observed for Mentha piperita essential oil and antifungals was less pronounced.
A 2010 study on "Protective effects of bioactive phytochemicals from Mentha piperita with multiple health potentials" proved that Peppermint oil has effective antimicrobial and antioxidant effect that fights against harmful microbes and supplemented for nutritional benefits and food preservation. Bacterial infections are responsible for wounds becoming septic and other skin problems like acne.
Antimicrobial (Prototheca zopfii, Cutaneous protothecosis):
A 2014 study "Antimicrobial activity of Mentha piperita and Saturenja hortensis in a murine model of cutaneous protothecosis" published in J Mycol Med. by C Bouari, P Bolfa, G Borza, G Nadăş, C Cătoi, N Fiţ aimed to comparatively investigate the effect of two essential oils (Mentha piperita and Saturenja hortensis) against Cutaneous protothecosis experimentally induced by Prototheca zopfii in mice. Immunosuppressed BALB/c female mice, were divided into six experimental groups, infected with P. zopfii, and then treated for 21 days against the infection. The effectiveness of the different treatments was assessed clinically and histologically by quantifying the degree of inflammation (immunohistochemical quantification of macrophages, T lymphocytes and neutrophils) and fibrosis. Skin lesions in experimental protothecosis from non-treated mice were more severe as compared to the four groups of treated animals. Both M. piperita and S. hortensis have proved to be efficient in vivo in the treatment of cutaneous protothecosis by reducing the clinical signs and significantly reducing the degree of inflammation (P<0.05 for the number of macrophages, T lymphocytes and neutrophils) and fibrosis as compared to untreated animals.
Antimicrobial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimunium):
In a 2023 study "The impacts of chitosan-essential oil nanoemulsions on the microbial diversity and chemical composition of refrigerated minced meat" published in Int J Biol Macromol. by Tesby M R Lotfy, Samar M S Shawir, Mohamed E I Badawy, Essential oils of Mentha piperita, Punica granatum, Thymus vulgaris and Citrus limon in olive oil as a carrier were mixed with biopolymer chitosan to prepare nanoemulsions. The formulations were prepared using the following ratios: 0.5:0.5:4, 1:1:4, and 2:3:4 of chitosan: essential oil: olive oil, respectively, representing 12 formulations based on four essential oils. Based on the characterization of nanoemulsions, M. piperita, T. vulgaris, and C. limon oils produced the smallest droplets. However, P. granatum oil produced high droplets size. The products were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity against two pathogenic food bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimunium. The in vivo antibacterial activity was further investigated on minced beef meat during storage at 4 °C for ten days. Based on the MIC values, E. coli was more susceptible than S. typhimunium. Chitosan was more effective as an antibacterial than essential oils (MIC = 500 and 650 mg/L against E. coli and S. typhimunium). Among the tested products, C. limon had a more antibacterial effect. In vivo studies proved that C. limon and its nanoemulsion were the most active products against E.coli. These results suggest that chitosan-essential oil nanoemulsions may help extend the shelf life of meat by acting as antimicrobial agents.
Antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans):
A 2023 study "Enhancing the Antimicrobial Effect of Ozone with Mentha piperita Essential Oil" published in Molecules by Alin-Daniel Floare, Ramona Dumitrescu, Vlad Tiberiu Alexa, Octavia Balean, Camelia Szuhanek, Diana Obistioiu, Ileana Cocan, Alina-Georgeta Neacsu, Iuliana Popescu, Aurora Doris Fratila, Atena Galuscan, aimed to obtain and analyse Mentha piperita essential oil (MpEO) for the prospect of being used as an enhancement agent for the antimicrobial potential of ozone against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The research was done for different exposure times, and it gained time-dose relationships and time-effect correlations. Mentha piperita (Mp) essential oil (MpEO) was obtained via hydrodistillation and further analysed by using GC-MS. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the strain inhibition/strain mass growth by using spectrophotometric optical density reading (OD). The bacterial/mycelium growth rates (BGR/MGR) and the bacterial/mycelium inhibition rates (BIR/MIR) after ozone treatment in the presence and absence of MpEO on the ATTC strains were calculated; the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and statistical interpretations of the time-dose relationship and specific t-test correlations were determined. The effect of ozone on the following tested strains at maximum efficiency was observed after 55 s of single ozone exposure, in order of effect strength: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, C. albicans, S. mutans. For ozone with the addition of 2% MpEO (MIC), maximum efficacy was recorded at 5 s for these strains, in order of effect strength: C. albicans, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. mutans. The results suggest a new development and affinity regarding the cell membrane of the different microorganisms tested. In conclusion, the use of ozone, combined with MpEO, is sustained as an alternative therapy in plaque biofilm and suggested as helpful in controlling oral disease-causing microorganisms in medicine.
Antifungal (Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes):
A 2019 study "Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Mentha x piperita (Lamiaceae) of Pancalieri (Turin, Italy) Essential Oil and Its Synergistic Interaction with Azoles" published in Molecules by Vivian Tullio, Janira Roana, Daniela Scalas, Narcisa Mandras has led researchers to use them in combination with antimicrobial drugs in order to reduce drug toxicity, side effects, and resistance to single agents. Mentha x piperita, known worldwide as "Mentha of Pancalieri", is produced locally at Pancalieri (Turin, Italy). The essential oil from this Mentha species is considered as one of the best mint essential oils in the world. In our research, we assessed the antifungal activity of "Mentha of Pancalieri" essential oil, either alone or in combination with azole drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole) against a wide panel of yeast and dermatophyte clinical isolates. Interaction studies with azoles indicated mainly synergistic profiles between itraconazole and essential oil vs. Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Thus, the "Mentha of Pancalieri" essential oil may act as a potential antifungal agent and could serve as a natural adjuvant for fungal infection treatment.
Antifungal (Pseudomona putida):
A 2023 study "Antifungal Activity and Alleviation of Salt Stress by Volatile Organic Compounds of Native Pseudomonas Obtained from Mentha piperita" published in Plants (Basel) by Samanta Soledad Gil, Lorena Del Rosario Cappellari, Walter Giordano, Erika Banchio, investigated the effects of mVOCs emitted by Pseudomona putida SJ46 and SJ04 on Mentha piperita grown under different levels of NaCl stress by evaluating their growth-promoting potential and capacity to increase salt tolerance effects. Furthermore, we evaluated under control and salt stress conditions the biocontrol ability of VOCs emitted by both these strains to inhibit the growth of Alternaria alternata and Sclerotium rolfsii. The VOCs emitted by both strains under control conditions did not lead to an significant improvement in peppermint growth. However, under salt stress conditions (75 or 100 mM NaCl), an amelioration of its physiological status was observed, with this effect being greater at 100 mM NaCl. This led to an enhancement of the number of leaves and nodes and, increased the shoot fresh and root dry weight by approximately twice in relation to control stressed plants. Moreover, the VOCs released by the two bacteria grown in control or saline media showed a significant reduction in the mycelial growth of A. alternata. In contrast, S. rolfsii growth was reduced 40% by the mVOCs released only under control conditions, with no effects being observed under salt stress. We also explored the composition of the bacterial volatile profiles by means of a solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) analysis. From the headspace of SJ46, three VOCs were identified: n-octanol, decane and tetradecane. The emission of SJ04 had the same chromatographic profile, with the addition of two more compounds: 1-(N-phenyl carbamyl)-2-morpholino cyclohexene and tridecane. Only compounds that were not present in the headspace of the control groups were recorded. The salt stress conditions where the bacteria were grown did not qualitatively modify the mVOC emissions. Taken together, our results suggest that plant-associated rhizobacterial VOCs play a potentially important role in modulating plant salt tolerance and reducing fungal growth. Thus, biological resources represent novel tools for counteracting the deleterious effects of salt stress and have the potential to be exploited in sustainable agriculture. Nevertheless, future studies are necessary to investigate technological improvements for bacterial VOC application under greenhouse and open field conditions.
Antigungal (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis):
Candidiasis is a common oral and vaginal infection. Some papers have presented that the essential oils of Lamiaceae plants can have antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the activity of 7 essential oils of the Lamiaceae family with known phytochemical compositions against Candida fungi. Forty-four strains belonging to six species were tested: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. During this investigation, the following methods were used: determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), biofilm inhibition studies, and in silicotoxicity tests.
In a 2023 study "Anti-Candida and Antibiofilm Activity of Selected Lamiaceae Essential Oils" published in Front Biosci (Landmark Ed.), by Tomasz M Karpiński, Marcin Ożarowski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Hubert Wolski, Essential oils of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) and Oregano (Origanum vulgare) showed the best anti-Candida activity, with MIC values below 3.125 mg/mL. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas), Peppermint (Mentha × piperita), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oils were also very active (0.39 to 6.25 or 12.5 mg/mL). Sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil presented the lowest activity, with MIC values ranging from 3.125 to 100 mg/mL. In an antibiofilm study using MIC values, oregano and thyme essential oils showed the greatest effect, followed by lavender, mint, and rosemary oils. The weakest antibiofilm activity was observed with the lemon balm and sage oils. In silico toxicity research suggests that most of main compounds of Lamiaceae essential oils probably do not exhibit carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or cytotoxicity. The obtained results showed that Lamiaceae essential oils have anti-Candida and antibiofilm activity. Further research is required to confirm the safety and efficacy of essential oils in the topical treatment of candidiasis.
Pythiosis is a serious disease caused by the aquatic oomycete Pythium insidiosum that mainly affects mammals. Unlike fungal and bacterial resistance induced by the indiscriminate use of drugs, P. insidiosum has low susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In this sense, essential oils and their major components emerge as a promising treatment line for this disease.
A 2023 study "Anti-Pythium insidiosum activity of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants" published in Lett Appl Microbiol. by Júlia de Souza Silveira, Caroline Quintana Braga, Carolina Dos Santos Bermann, Lara Baccarin Ianiski, Fábio Raphael Pascoti Bruhn, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, sought to verify P. insidiosum (n = 34) susceptibility to the bioactive compounds eugenol, α-terpineol, menthol, and carvacrol and correlate them with the respective essential oils of Eugenia caryophyllata, Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita, and Origanum vulgare. The essential oils and bioactive compounds were purchased commercially and tested according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol M38-A2. Our findings showed that eugenol, α-terpineol, and carvacrol had superior anti-P. insidiosum action than their respective essential oils, suggesting that they may be responsible for inhibitory activity against P. insidiosum. Notably, the major compound with the best anti-P. insidiosum activity was α-terpineol; nonetheless, menthol showed less activity than its essential oil. The results imply that essential oils and their major compounds may be important allies in treating pythiosis, expanding the perspectives of developing new drugs with anti-P. insidiosum activity.
Herpes and Influenza Type A:
Peppermint oil was discovered to have a beneficial effect on drug-resistant herpes simplex virus whenever utilized topically. Due to its lipophilic nature, Peppermint oil has the capacity to pass through the skin, which makes it a perfect treatment against recurrent herpes infection. Utilizing Peppermint oil on shingles rash also enhances pain induced through the disease.
A 2020 review noted that Peppermint has antiviral activity against viruses such as the herpes simplex viruses and influenza type A.
A 2020 study "Antibacterial activity of eco-friendly zinc nanoparticles prepared from leaf extract of Mentha piperita L" published in Pak J Pharm Sci. by Zuhair Hasnain, Sara Zafar, Usman Shafqat, Shagufta Perveen, Naeem Iqbal, Saeed Ahmad Qaisrani, M Bilal Chattha, Saqib Mumtaz aims to prepare reliable, ecofriendly and cost efficient zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) by Mentha piperita L. leaf extract and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, for four pathogenic bacteria. Synthesized NPs were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Zeta Potential. Disc diffusion method was used to check their antibacterial activity. For synthesizing Zn NPs leaf extract was used as a biological reducing agent. During reaction, appearance of cloudy white solution due to reduction in the number of zinc ions, indicated the Zn NPs formation.
Peppermint oil has antiseptic and antibacterial properties. Hence, it even works against plaque formation, cleans the teeth efficiently, maintains healthy gums, fight off dangerous germs and even solves bad breath. It can even provide relief for inflammation and toothache caused by gingivitis. Not surprisingly, these types of attributes imply that Peppermint oil is included with several toothpaste, and it’s also already been proved to be beneficial in the management of toothaches. From time to time, the inhalation of Peppermint oil vapor could be anti-inflammatory as well as pain relieving, therefore it can also be included with postoperative oxygen, especially right after oral surgeries, such as an intense root canal.
One could create their toothpaste with the help of this essential oil. To do so add 3 parts of baking soda to 1 part of Coconut oil (about one teaspoon). Next, add about 2-3 drops of the Peppermint essential oil. Whip this mixture to form a paste based consistency and apply it on the toothbrush and use it as regular toothpaste. This DIY toothpaste would aid in brightening the teeth and eliminate bacteria all with limited ingredients and away from harmful chemicals.
It is important to note that this benefit is mainly to maintain good dental hygiene and even though it can temporarily alleviate certain symptoms, it’s usage should not be replaced by the need of seeking professional help when required.
Peppermint tea could be gargled to ease tooth pains. It includes eugenol that reduces toothache as well as analgesic qualities.
Peppermint oil is a superb natural remedy to cure the pain related to teething in infants. Just mix Peppermint oil along with Coconut oil at a 1:1 ratio and rub around the gum area.
Not only does the flavor of Peppermint freshen your breath, but its antibacterial properties may also help get rid of the source of the smell: germs. It’s believed to keep bacteria from forming a film on your teeth, which helps keep your pearly whites healthy. Peppermint tea, which contains Peppermint oil has been shown to kill germs that lead to bad breath.
People struggling with the gum disease gingivitis might be searching for a variety of topical treatments so as to alleviate a few of the symptoms. It’s possible that Peppermint tea might be able to assist them to. Peppermint tea has got components that might help decrease inflammation, like the inflammation related to dental issues.
In accordance with research, Peppermint oil performed better than the mouthwash chemicals chlorhexidine at decreasing cavities.
You may make homemade toothpaste, mouth wash, or even add a drop beneath your tongue followed along with glass of water, this can reduce cavities.
Bad Breath (Halitosis):
For well over 1000 years Peppermint has been utilized to naturally freshen breath. Peppermint flavor is extensively used in mouthwashes, mouth sprays and toothpastes and chewing gum to eliminate mouth odor and provide a freshness to the breath. The strong minty flavor of the menthol is known in eradicating the formation of bacteria and germs which causes dental plaque and improves breath. This oil can also combat bad breath caused by digestive issues.
The tea will also help to eliminate bad breath brought on by smoking, alcohol consumption or perhaps eating onion as well as garlic. The anti-bacterial qualities of Peppermint tea allow it to be well suited for improving foul breath. You may either consume the tea or even swish it around within your mouth for the best results.You can use it as mouth rinse to disinfect the bacterial leftovers after meals. This really is an all natural method to replace the tooth wash whenever this can‘t be simple for various circumstances as numerous of you might have currently experienced throughout trips or busy times.
In one study, people who had undergone spine surgery and had received a rinse made with Peppermint, Tea Tree and Lemon oils experienced improvement in bad breath symptoms, compared to those who did not receive the oils.
In another study conducted on 84 school girls having halitosis and using Peppermint mouth rinse experienced an improvement in breath after one week, compared to the control group.
A small study from 2017 found that gargling a blend of Peppermint, lemon, and Tea Tree oils helped improved bad breath in participants following spine surgery.
One 2015 review suggests that Peppermint oil has antibacterial properties that may help reduce the bacteria that cause plaque and gum disease.
While there is no evidence from scientific studies that drinking Peppermint tea has the same effect, the compounds in Peppermint have been shown to improve breath.
Dental Plaque Bacteria:
Dental caries and periodontal diseases remain a challenge for oral health, especially given the lack of effective and safe treatment options that are currently available. Against the backdrop of an ongoing antimicrobial resistance crisis, a renewed interest in traditional medicinal plants as a potential source of new bioactive compounds has surfaced.
In a 2022 study "Origanum vulgare ethanolic extracts as a promising source of compounds with antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-virulence activity against dental plaque bacteria" published in Front Microbiol., by Fouzia Idir, Sybren Van Ginneken, Guglielmo A Coppola, Daniel Grenier, Hans P Steenackers, Farida Bendali, we systematically screened the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of nine Algerian medicinal plants (Artemisia herba alba, Centaurium erythraea, Juglans regia, Laurus nobilis, Matricaria recutita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha piperita, Origanum vulgare and Taraxacum officinale). To evaluate the activity spectrum of the extracts, the screening was carried out against an extensive collection of Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Lacticaseibacillus isolates recovered from dental plaques of Algerian patients. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties were observed, especially among ethanolic extracts, which marks them as a promising source for bioactive compounds to control oral biofilms. The ethanolic extract of O. vulgare, which showed the most promising effects in the initial screening, was further characterized. We first verified the biocompatibility of this extract using human oral keratinocytes and selected a range of non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.195-0.781 mg/ml) to further validate its anti-biofilm and anti-virulence potential. At these concentrations, the extract not only prevented biofilm formation (10.04 ± 0.75-87.91 ± 9.08% of reduction) of most dental plaque isolates on a polystyrene surface, but also significantly reduced their adherence to hydroxyapatite (34.58 ± 9.09-62.77 ± 0.95%). Moreover, the extract showed curative potential against mature biofilms grown under conditions mimicking the oral niche. In addition to its anti-biofilm properties, we observed an inhibition of glucosyltransferase activity, a reduction in acidogenesis and a downregulation in the expression of multiple virulence-associated genes for extract-treated samples. Since anti-virulence properties are more robust to the development of resistance, they provide an attractive complementation to the antimicrobial activities of the extract. Thymol was identified as an important active compound of the extract using GC-MS analysis, but synergy with other compounds was also detected, suggesting a potential advantage of using the whole extract over purified thymol. Further research into the bioactive compounds of the O. vulgare ethanolic extract could yield novel products to fight dental caries.
Peppermint oil may be used externally in order to offer rest from pain. It really is considered that the existence of calcium antagonism in Peppermint oil assists eliminate pain from affected areas. It’s also cooling naturally and is also subsequently utilized to help in reducing fever. It really is often known as a “refrigerant”, which means that it may offer an extremely cold sensation to any affected region. In case there is injury, wound, or even healing process, topically use Peppermint oil to the area to decrease swelling, reduce pain, as well as get rid of the likelihood of unpleasant inflammation.
Peppermint oil is extremely efficient for gastroscopy, colonoscopy and throughout double-contrast barium enema, where it really is utilized intraluminally. Further advantages of Peppermint oil that may stem from its antispasmodic properties are now being analyzed.
Natural Pain Reliever:
Peppermint essential oil is commonly used to reduce pain the body. Its presence of calcium antagonism can help it remove pain from different parts of the body, making it an effect pain killer that poses no side effects. Peppermint oil has cooling properties which also sometimes helps in decreasing pain. It can also decrease pain caused due to inflammation as it has anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, Peppermint essential oil can also help in the case of injuries and wounds by helping them heal and taking away the pain.
A study demonstrates that Peppermint oil utilized topically has pain relief Primary Advantages of Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome. The study discovered that Peppermint oil, Eucalyptus, menthol, capsaicin along with other herbal preparations might be beneficial.
To use Peppermint oil for pain relief, simply apply 2–3 drops topically to the area of concern three times daily, add 5 drops to a warm water bath with Epsom salt.
One small study suggested that Peppermint applied to the forehead and temples helped reduce headache symptoms.
Headache and Migrene:
Despite technology advance in medicine, there’s no real cure for a headache and common cold. Even a slight pain in the head can hamper your work. If all other home remedies including ginger tea haven’t proved helpful, now is the time to try something new. Applying a mint based balm on your forehead and watch yourself dozing off to sleep. The calming and soothing effect of Peppermint makes it a suitable product for a quick relief against a headache. Also, the balm alleviates inflammation, preventing attacks from other conditions like migraines and flu. Peppermint oil promotes blood flow and offers cooling sensation, possibly easing pain. Peppermint acts as a pain reliever, has the capacity to enhance circulation, heal the gut as well as relax tense muscles which diminishes certain types of headaches. All of these conditions may cause tension headaches or even migraines making Peppermint oil a great natural treatment.
Research has found that applying Peppermint oil to the forehead and temples can be useful for treating headaches and migraines. A review showed that while the evidence for using herbal remedies for migraine is inconsistent, the effect of menthol (the key ingredient in peppermint) may be positive.
In a 2020 review of 19 studies "Herbal treatments for migraine" published in Phytother Res., by Adrian L Lopresti, Stephen J Smith, Peter D Drummond, Herbal treatments are often used as a treatment for migraine. Therefore, an evaluation of their safety and efficacy is important. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, and Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias, a systematic literature review of randomised, controlled human trials assessing the effects of herbal treatments delivered as a single ingredient for the acute or prophylactic treatment of migraine were conducted. Studies were identified through electronic database searches on Medline (Pubmed), Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CINAHL. Nineteen studies were identified examining the effects on migraine of feverfew, butterbur, curcumin, menthol/peppermint oil, coriander, citron, Damask rose, chamomile, and lavender. Overall, findings on the efficacy of feverfew were mixed and there was positive, albeit limited evidence for butterbur. There were positive, preliminary findings on curcumin, citron, and coriander as a prophylactic treatment for migraine, and the use of menthol and chamomile as an acute treatment. However, the risk of bias was high for many studies. The results of this systematic review suggest that several herbal medicines, via their multifactorial physiological influences, present as potential options to enhance the treatment of migraine. However, further high-quality research is essential to examine their efficacy and safety as a treatment for migraine.
A 2016 review "Peppermint oil in the acute treatment of tension-type headache" published in Schmerz by H Göbel, A Heinze, K Heinze-Kuhn, A Göbel, C Göbel, noted that Peppermint oil is recommended for the treatment of tension-type headaches in adults and children over the age of 6 years old. The review authors suggested that it may even be as effective as acetaminophen (Paracetamol or Tylenol), a common over-the-counter medication to relieve pain.
In a small 2010 study, topical menthol was shown to be more effective than placebo at reducing pain for migraines without aura.
Scientists aren't exactly sure how Peppermint oil eases headaches and migraines, but it's thought to help by relaxing muscles around the skull. "For my patients with headaches, I typically recommend initially treating pain with topical treatments like Peppermint oil, or with a pain-relieving ointment like Tiger Balm, which contains menthol, a cooling substance derived from Peppermint", says Lisa Ravindra, an assistant professor of medicine and a board-certified internal medicine physician at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. "The associated cooling sensation also appears to distract nerves from the pain response", she says. "Additionally, topical Peppermint has been shown to increase blood flow to the area it is applied to, which can speed up healing".
Research from researchers in the Neurological Clinic at the University of Kiel, Germany, discovered that a mix of oils, which includes Peppermint oil had “significant analgesic effect with a decrease in sensitivity to headaches”. The oils were used on the forehead and temples for pain relief.
The review of 14 clinical trials conducted on 2000 children showed that Peppermint lowered frequency, length and severity of abdominal pain. In one randomized clinical study in 35 people with migraines, Peppermint oil applied to the forehead and temples significantly reduced pain after two hours, compared to a placebo oil. In another study in 41 people, Peppermint oil applied to the forehead was found to be as effective for headaches as 1,000 mg of acetaminophen.
While the aroma of Peppermint tea may help relax muscles and improve headache pain, there is no supporting scientific evidence to confirm this effect. However, applying Peppermint oil to your temples may help. If you aren't experiencing relief after 15 to 30 minutes of Peppermint oil, then use more traditional oral pain-relievers like Advil, Aleve, Tylenol, Excedrin, or any prescription headache medications you might have. Peppermint essential oil is also an effectual natural remedy for treating tension headache.
A clinical trial on "Effectiveness of Oleum menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of headache of the tension type" witnessed "Peppermint oil thus proves to be a well-tolerated and cost-effective alternative to usual therapies for alleviating tension-type headache". This study also proved that there was not much significant difference in efficacy between acetaminophen and Peppermint oil and there are no reported adverse effects as well.
The authors quote two trials demonstrating that a topical application of Peppermint oil can help relieve the symptoms of a tension headache. One of them found Peppermint oil to be as effective as Tylenol or Paracetamol for pain relief.
Applying diluted Peppermint oil onto the forehead has been found to be effective in the treatment of a tension headache. An article in the American Family Physician describes it as having relaxing effects on smooth muscle and providing some relief for people experiencing colonic spasm during a barium enema.
Peppermint essential oil is an antispasmodic. This means that it can be used to relieve spasms all over the body, including spasms in the respiratory system, digestive system, muscular system, and even the nervous system.
Peppermint essential oil mainly has strong sedative effects as well as anti-inflammatory effects. Both of these work together to calm your body down and cure it of any spasms it may have. In the medical profession, Peppermint essential oil is used during colonoscopies, double enemas, and gastroscopies in order to prevent the muscles from contracting involuntarily.
Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea):
Peppermint has muscle relaxant properties providing relief from menstrual cramps. Peppermint tea helps to improve the symptoms. The Peppermint extract capsules are effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in lowering the intensity and duration of pain. While Peppermint tea has not been studied to that effect, compounds in Peppermint have been shown to improve symptoms.
In one 2016 study in 127 women with painful periods, Peppermint extract capsules were found to be as effective as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in reducing the intensity and duration of pain.
Premenstrual Symptoms (PMS):
Lack of motivation, extreme fatigue, tiredness, and confusion are very often seen by those with PMS. Since the aroma of this oil is specifically known for its invigorating and energizing ability, a sniff of it can vastly turn around your mood, enliven as well as boost your energy levels. It is also known to relieve nausea and bloating when diluted and applied over the stomach, thereby relaxing and eliminating any digestive related issues encountered during PMS.
Drinking one cup of Peppermint tea 2 to 3 times each day throughout days prior to menstruation and throughout menstruation assists calm menstrual cramps for most ladies who experience PMS as well as dysmenorrhea.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS):
Peppermint oil might have hormone balancing effects and also be therapeutic for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
Aids in Breastfeeding:
Peppermint ensures riddance from cracked nipples. Applying Peppermint oil on the breast of breastfeeding mothers aids in a steady flow without causing any harm to the sensitive skin and eliminating nipple pain.
Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy (Morning Sickness) (NVP):
Some degree of nausea with or without vomiting occurs in 50 to 90% of all pregnancies and this disorder seems to be more common in western countries and urban areas as compared to African and Asian countries. Its most severe form is hyperemesis gravidarum with 1.1% prevalence among people. Although the pathogenesis process of NVP is not specified, the main hypotheses on the possible causes of these symptoms include psychological factors, hormonal changes, changes in gastrointestinal motility, and Helicobacter pylori. Though NVP is associated with positive implications, these symptoms can significantly affect a person's personal and professional life. Studies have shown that nausea and vomiting of pregnancy have a significant impact on family life, the ability to perform usual daily activities, social functioning and stress level. In addition, these symptoms can also affect the quality of life in terms of physiological and mental aspects.
Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is mainly symptomatic and ranges from dietary changes and oral pharmacological treatment to hospitalization with intravenous fluid replacement and nutrition therapy. About half of the drugs used to treat the symptoms of nausea and vomiting are in FDA category C. Pregnant women do not want to use drugs during pregnancy, due to the fear of teratogenic effects. The use of complementary and alternative medicine is common among women, especially in fertility ages. Nowadays around the world, midwives often use complementary therapies in their profession. Aromatherapy is one of the common types of alternative medicines recommended by midwives. This method is a branch of herbal medicine which uses the medicinal aspects of essential oils.
Mentha piperita L. with the common name of Peppermint is an aromatic perennial plant with the height of about 1 m that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Herbal therapists use it as antispasmodic, carminative, antiemetic, lactation enhancer, sedative, and for treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections, morning sickness, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, and diabetes. In the present era, Peppermint is considered as a treatment for morning sickness in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The plant is classified in B2 Category in terms of its use in pregnancy. Peppermint essential oil is obtained from the distillation of aerial parts of the plant. The main components of the essential oil are menthol, menthone, and menthyl acetate. Inhalation of this essential oil can be used to reduce fever, relieve nausea and vomiting, and improve digestion. Peppermint essential oil has antagonistic effects against 5-HT3 receptor channel which can positively affect nausea and vomiting. Peppermint essential oil is on the FDA’s generally recognized as safe (GRAS) list. The widespread use of complementary medicine methods, especially herbal therapies and insufficient evidence of effectiveness and safety of medicinal herbs during pregnancy are matters which require special attention and more researches seem to be necessary to determine the prevalence, safety, efficacy, and economic benefits of using these methods. Given the lack of sufficient studies in this field, the present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inhalation aromatherapy with Peppermint oil on the severity of NVP.
Many people who experience nausea during pregnancy say they notice benefits from using Peppermint in its various forms, including oil. However, studies have either been inconclusive or contradictory. Peppermint oil should be avoided during pregnancy, as it has been known to trigger menstruation. Many pregnant women who experience nausea during pregnancy say they have experienced benefits from using Peppermint in its various forms. However, studies have been either inconclusive or contradictory.
Kligler and Chaudhary, reviewing the effectiveness of Peppermint oil for various purposes, warn, “Peppermint oil has been used to trigger menstruation and should be avoided during pregnancy".
Researchers from The Fatemeh Zahra Fertility and Infertility Health Research Center in Iran concluded that mint did not make any difference to nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. A woman who is pregnant should speak to a doctor before taking Peppermint for any reason.
Nausea and vomiting are common complaints in the first half of pregnancy. These symptoms can significantly affect a person's personal and professional life. Aromatherapy is one of the types of complementary medicine that is used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting.
In a 2018 single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial "Effect of Aromatherapy with Peppermint Oil on the Severity of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy" published in Journal Reprod Infertil., by Narges Joulaeerad, Giti Ozgoli, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Erfan Ghasemi, Fatemeh Salehimoghaddam, was a single-blind clinical trial that was conducted on 56 pregnant women age of 18 to 35 years with mild to moderate severity of NVP and 6 to 20 weeks of gestational age. After the determination of gestational age and base severity of NVP in each woman, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: Peppermint oil (n=28) or placebo (n=28). Inhalation aromatherapy was done for four days and at the end of each day, they responded to the Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis/Nausea questionnaire (PUQE). The data obtained were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA with repeated measures using SPSS software version 22. Also, the level of significance was p<0.05. Although the severity of NVP in each intervention group significantly decreased (p<0.001), the comparison of the severity of NVP during the study period and at the end of it was not statistically significant between the placebo and intervention groups. According to the possibility of neurological mechanisms causing NVP, the effect of aromatherapy with Peppermint oil and placebo were the same in this study. This similarity can be due to psychological impacts of intervention on pregnant women.
According to a 2016 study on the safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy, 15.9% of study participants used Peppermint for nausea relief.
Peppermint leaves can help you get that smooth and shiny skin and maintain it as well. The nutrients in Peppermint leaves help tone the skin, minimize pores, reduce swelling and restore skin elasticity. Vitamins A and C are powerful antioxidants that fight inflammation appearing in the form of red marks on the skin. B vitamins, riboflavin, and folate, brighten the complexion. These leaves can be powdered in sugar scrubs to have an invigorating effect on the skin.
Peppermint has unique astringent properties that help the skin appear youthful by tightening and firming the skin. It has a cool and a warm effect that works in reducing any pain on the skin by initiating numbness, it hence works as an effective anesthetic agent. It even helps in closing the pores, reducing inflammation as well as skin redness. It provides relief from any type of sunburn and also supports the healthy growth of skin by the regeneration and renewal process.
Peppermint leaves are used as an ingredient in topical creams meant for treating a variety of skin issues like hives, rashes, poison oak or poison ivy. Application of these ointments has a soothing and healing effect on the skin.
Peppermint oil can even be diluted and applied on the lips. Its healing properties can alleviate and diminish sun-burnt lips or wind-chapped lips. The menthol content in this oil considerably soothes the skin and promotes healing. Hence, it is also known to be a vital ingredient in the manufacturing of lip-gloss and chap-sticks. Peppermint oil consists of menthol, that is great for the skin since it makes a cooling sensation. Furthermore, it nourishes dull skin and increases the texture of oily or greasy skin.
Adding a few drops of the oil in your daily beauty regimen will enhance healthy skin. It includes menthol which has a cooling effect and at the same time, actively works to brighten the dull skin.
Since ages, Peppermint or even menthol has been utilized for the treatment of oily as well as greasy skin. Our skin functions as a magnet for dirt and dust particles. Menthol, the basic element in Peppermint leaves, reduces the secretion of oil through the sebaceous glands. This, in return, can help you to get an oil-free and flawless skin.
The Peppermint oil is known to cleanse the skin and scalp. It promotes a balance in the oil content by combating excess oil secretion. Irritated skin caused by acne or any kind of allergies could also be healed gradually with its consistent use. Peppermint oil does not dry out the hair completely, when it reduces the excess oiliness it is known to effectively retain the required hydration.
Peppermint, when applied topically, has a soothing and cooling effect on skin irritation caused by hives, poison ivy, or poison oak. Peppermint oil is widely used for calming skin irritation and itchiness, as well as reducing redness. However, a person should always dilute it before using it on the skin. In case your skin is sensitive as well as experiences regular irritation, consider sipping a cupful of hot Peppermint tea. Over time, it’ll calm the skin allergy as well as irritation. The cooling property of Peppermint decreases insect bites, rashes, skin inflammation and burns.
According to the National Association of Holistic Aromatherapy, a good recipe is 1 ounce (oz) of carrier oil, such as mineral or Olive oil, mixed with 3–6 drops of the essential oil. Before use, test a small amount of the diluted oil on the forearm to rule out an allergic reaction. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence to support or challenge this use.
This oil is known to provide relief from itching caused by bug-bites, ivy, hives. Some people suffering from diabetes, liver, or kidney-related diseases also experience an itching sensation on the skin. Topical application of this oil (after dilution with a suitable carrier oil) assists in reducing this sensation. Chronic pruritus (itching lasting for more than 6 weeks) can also be treated naturally with the help of this oil.
A small study looked at the topical application of Peppermint oil and the effect that it had on chronic itching. Researchers found that a one percent solution of Peppermint oil led to improvements in how long itchiness lasted and the severity of the itch.
A second small study examined the effect of applying Peppermint oil on the skin to reduce itching during pregnancy. Researchers found that applying a 0.5% solution of Peppermint oil twice a day for two weeks significantly reduced itch severity compared to the control.
The essential oils present in the composition of mint are widely known to resist the release of certain chemicals in the body that lead to seasonal allergies and hay fever, also called rhinitis. Mint is best to be consumed fresh in its raw form or in the form of mint tea to keep away from skin allergies too.
The menthol contained in the Peppermint leaves can help you in getting rid of pimples or acne. The cooling effect of menthol features a magical effect on oily and pimple-prone skin. In accordance with medical research among the best Peppermint oil uses is facial treatment thanks to anti-microbial qualities so is a fantastic ingredient to assist cure acne naturally.
Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin condition that is caused by an imbalance in skin microbiomes mainly by the overgrowth of strains such as Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis which affect both teenagers and adults. Drug resistance, dosing, mood alteration, and other issues hinder traditional therapy.
A 2023 study "Antimicrobial Activity of Gelatin Nanofibers Enriched by Essential Oils against Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis" published in Nanomaterials (Basel), by Renata Uhlířová, Denisa Langová, Agáta Bendová, Michal Gross, Petra Skoumalová, Ivana Márová, aimed to create a novel dissolvable nanofiber patch containing essential oils (EOs) from Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha piperita for acne vulgaris treatment. The EOs were characterized based on antioxidant activity and chemical composition using HPLC and GC/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity against C. acnes and S. epidermidis was observed by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The MICs were in the range of 5.7-9.4 μL/mL, and MBCs 9.4-25.0 μL/mL. The EOs were integrated into gelatin nanofibers by electrospinning and SEM images of the fibers were taken. Only the addition of 20% of pure essential oil led to minor diameter and morphology alteration. The agar diffusion tests were performed. Pure and diluted Eos in almond oil exhibited a strong antibacterial effect on C. acnes and S. epidermidis. After incorporation into nanofibers, we were able to focus the antimicrobial effect only on the spot of application with no effect on the surrounding microorganisms. Lastly, for cytotoxicity evaluation, and MTT assay was performed with promising results that samples in the tested range had a low impact on HaCaT cell line viability. In conclusion, our gelatin nanofibers containing EOs are suitable for further investigation as prospective antimicrobial patches for acne vulgaris local treatment.
Peppermint oil can moisten burnt skin and relieve the pain from sunburns. You are able to mix Peppermint oil along with some coconut oil and use it straight to the affected area, or even make my natural homemade sunburn spray to relief pain and support healthy skin renewal.
Due to a healthy combination of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, Peppermint leaves promote hair health. Here are the benefits it offers. Peppermint oil is extremely helpful for hair care since it provides a cooling effect on the head, whilst eliminating dandruff and lice. Peppermint oil has germ killing, regenerative, and stimulating effects, meaning that it may reduce the scalp of irritation and dry skin, encourage hair growth for all those struggling with baldness, and provide comparatively healthy hair a shiny, fresh look. Peppermint oil are available in many hair products as well as alternative solutions for baldness, dandruff, along with other hair-related conditions. Increasing blood circulation on the scalp may also encourage healthy hair growth.
Whether you have oily scalp or dry scalp, Peppermint oil will be good enough. Since Peppermint oil has astringent qualities, it will help to stabilize the sebum secretion as well as cools the scalp. Your scalp and hair doesn’t feel greasy anymore along with frequent use of this oil. On the other hand, the PH balance formula in Peppermint oil is effective for the opposite kind of hair and scalp problems too! Its moisturizing properties assist in dealing with dry scalp as well as dandruff, so you get beautiful hair as well as problem-free scalp. It heals the scalp as well as helps prevent itching too.
Improves Hair Quality:
The Peppermint tea benefits for hair are not talked about frequently, however, many people consume more Peppermint tea for cosmetic reasons. People who have difficulties with dry or even brittle hair can experience enhancements in hair quality after incorporating Peppermint tea in their normal regimens. A few difficulties with hair quality could be traced to hormonal imbalances, that Peppermint tea might help restore.
Did you know that the pattern of baldness seen in male and females is usually a result of reduced blood flow to the hair follicles? Peppermint oil has vasodilation based properties due to the high menthol content. This increases the blood flow and allows blood circulation to the scalp, thereby promoting hair growth. The oil also has antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties that reduce dandruff related symptoms such as itchiness and scalp/hair dryness.
Essential oils have been used for thousands of years in some parts in the world to promote hair growth. However, the use of Peppermint for reinvigorating hair growth is generally recent. It doesn’t have longstanding traditional evidence to back it up, nor has it been studied in depth. Only over the past few decades have Peppermint essential oils been widely available to the public.
A study in mice compared Peppermint oil to minoxidil (Rogaine) and control compounds. The researchers found that a three percent solution of Peppermint oil led to growth of thick, long hair in mice after four weeks of treatment, similar to results obtained using minoxidil.
Another 2014 study in mice showed that Peppermint essential oils could hold a lot of promise for hair growth. Researchers noticed the hair grew faster and thicker, and blood flow to undernourished hair follicles increased. The study opens a door to exploring Peppermint essential oil’s benefits for human hair growth.
However, other studies, one in 2011 and one in 2013, showed that menthol from Peppermint essential oil promotes vasoconstriction rather than vasodilation. But this vasoconstriction only appears to happen when the skin or muscle area where oil is applied is inflamed, such as after exercise. More research is needed to better understand the effects of Peppermint oil on hair growth.
Add a few drops of the Peppermint essential oil to one tablespoon of Coconut oil. Massage this oil-based mixture onto the scalp and through the lengths of the hair. Leave this oil for about 15 minutes after massaging. Next, rinse it with your regular shampoo. In case you find the menthol sensation too intense, add other carrier oil you would like or rinse away immediately. This mixture would effectively boost circulation and promote hair growth.
A strong tea made from Peppermint and nettle leaves can be used as a hair rinse to get rid of dandruff.
Due to the antibacterial properties of this herb, Peppermint extract is effective in treating head lice infestation.
The anti-fungal qualities of Peppermint oil are very well analyzed, and there is considerable research which exhibits Peppermint oil, whenever externally applied, can help to eliminate the likelihood of fungal nail infection, that affects lots of people all over the world.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI):
Peppermint oil may be used to deal with urinary tract infections. Even though it is typically utilized, formal scientific research is still going ahead to know the details of the specific attribute. Peppermint oil features a wealth of anti-bacterial qualities, which can be the underlying reasons why it may decrease the effects and frequency of urinary tract infections in alternative applications.
Most people that have experienced gallstones experienced remarkable health improvements because of drinking Peppermint tea regularly. Their gallstones became smaller, and many of the symptoms linked to the gallstones faded. Since Peppermint tea might be able to help address a number of other digestive symptoms, individuals experiencing difficulties with gallstones might be able to feel completely relieved.
A 2018 study "Protective effects of Mentha piperita L. leaf essential oil against CCl4 induced hepatic oxidative damage and renal failure in rats" published in Lipids Health Dis by Khaled Bellassoued, Anis Ben Hsouna, Khaled Athmouni, Jos van Pelt, Fatma Makni Ayadi, Tarek Rebai, Abdelfattah Elfeki aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita leaf essential oil (MpEO). The in vitro antioxidant activity of MpEO was lower than that of silymarin. Pretreatment of animals with MpEO at a dose of 5 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, γGT, urea or creatinine levels in CCl4-induced stress. Whereas pretreatment with MpEO at doses of 15 and 40 mg/kg prior to CCl4, significantly reduced stress parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, γGT, urea and creatinine) compared to the CCl4-only group. Moreover, a significant reduction in hepatic and kidney lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and an increase in antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx was also observed after treatment with MpEO (40 mg/kg) compared to CCl4-treated rats. Furthermore, pretreatment with MpEO at 40 mg/kg can also markedly ameliorate the histopathological hepatic and kidney lesions induced by administration of CCl4.
Opt for the evergreen and tasty Peppermint leaves in any form, chewing Peppermint leaves raw is also an option for healthy and proper functioning of the liver. Peppermint leaves improve the liver function by improving the flow of bile from the liver to the gall bladder. Fresh or dried Peppermint leaves increase bile flow and aid digestion by breaking down fats and reducing bad cholesterol. Decreased cholesterol improves sluggish liver by lessening the strain on the liver. Fresh Peppermint have shown to calm and soothe the liver problems.
A research created by The Journal of Radiation in 2004 shown that Peppermint oil might help reverse the decrease of critical enzymes as well as antioxidants within the liver and lower the oxidation in tissues whenever utilized topically or internally.
A 2018 study "Antifibrogenic Influence of Mentha piperita L. Essential Oil against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats"published in Oxid Med Cell Longev by Hanan A Ogaly, Nadia A Eltablawy, Reham M Abd-Elsalam provide an effective nonmedicinal option to control liver fibrosis. Mentha piperita L. essential oil have been reported to possess protective effects against hepatotoxicity. However, its effect against liver fibrosis remains unknown. The present study investigated the antifibrogenic potential of Mentha piperita L. essential oil and its underlying mechanisms. Forty male rats divided into 4 groups were used: group 1 served as normal control, group 2 (liver fibrosis) received CCl4 (2.5 mL/kg, IP, twice weekly) for 8 weeks, group 3 concurrently received CCl4 plus Mentha piperita L. essential oil (50 mg/kg, IP, daily, from the 3rd week), and group 4 received Mentha piperita L. essential oil only. Mentha piperita L. essential oil significantly improved the liver injury markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity, CYP2E1 gene expressionand liver histology. Furthermore, MPOE ameliorated liver fibrosis as evidenced by the reduced expression of desmin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and SMAD3 proteins. In addition, Mentha piperita L. essential oil counteracted the p53 upregulation induced by CCl4 at both mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, Mentha piperita L. essential oil could effectively attenuate hepatic fibrosis mainly through improving the redox status, suppressing p53 and subsequently modulating TGF-β1 and SMAD3 protein expression. These data promote the use of Mentha piperita L. essential oil as a promising approach in antifibrotic therapy.
The stimulating effects of Peppermint oil have shown to boost blood circulation. Research has shown that once the essential oil vapor touches the end of the olfactory nerve endings, there is an almost instant boost in pulse rate as well as blood circulation. The stimulating effect of increased blood circulation helps you to oxygenate the body’s organs while increasing metabolism, in addition to oxygenate the brain.
This can lead to greater cognitive function as well as protection towards neurally degenerative diseases just like Alzheimer’s and dementia. Furthermore, increased circulation of blood can avoid diabetic patients from complications they’re currently in danger of because of their glucose level imbalances.
Breathing in Peppermint essential oil can push away the munchies and may assist you to feel full faster. In case you can’t have a diffuser with you at dinnertime, try applying a couple drops in your temples or even chest, or take a couple of deep sniffs through the bottle.
Cut Back on Sodium:
Cutting back on salt without using flavor requires complementary herbs and spices to help boost flavor profile and mint is no exception. Using mint on anything from veggie or fruit salads, fish, meat, and poultry can help limit the amount of salt you add to food without sacrificing taste, raising cost, or increasing recipe time.
People that are attempting to lose weight might enhance their chances by consuming Peppermint tea regularly. It’s possible that Peppermint tea might have a few positive results on the person’s metabolic rate, making it simpler to burn calories to begin with. Many people discover that consuming Peppermint tea depresses your appetite, which makes it that much simpler to stick to a controlled meal plan in the first place. Naturally, Peppermint tea doesn’t include calories, as well as consuming more fluids which don’t contain calories might help people feel full more quickly. Peppermint tea is calorie free and pleasantly sweet flavor making it a smart choice to lose weight. The Peppermint oil capsule lowers appetite in comparison to taking Peppermint. However, there is not much research on the effects of Peppermint tea on weight.
In a small study in 13 healthy people, taking a Peppermint oil capsule resulted in reduced appetite compared to not taking Peppermint, this is a health benefit of Peppermint pursued very well.
Background Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease in the world that causes morbidity and mortality due to its association with metabolic diseases, especially in old age, and long-term treatment with levothyroxine causes many side effects for patients. Treatment with herbal medicine can regulate thyroid hormones and prevent side effects.
In a 2023 systematic review of randomized controlled trials "Achievements in Hypothyroidism Treatment with Herbal Medicine" published in Curr Drug Discov Technol., by Najmeh Javidi, Zahra Mazloum Khorasani, Roshanak Salari, Shabnam Niroumand, Mahdi Yousefi, objective is the evaluation of the effect of herbal medicine on the signs and symptoms of primary hypothyroidism. Method PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until 4 May, 2021. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that have assessed the effect of herbal medicine on hypothyroidism. Result out of 771 articles, 4 trials with 186 participants were included. In one study, Nigella sativa L. caused a significant decrease in weight (P=0.004) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.002). TSH levels were reported to be decreased and T3 increased in the treatment group (P =0.03) (P=0.008), respectively. In another study on Nigella sativa L., results did not show a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.02). A significant decrease in total cholesterol (CHL) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was reported in participants with negative anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies. In patients with positive anti-TPO antibodies, a significant increase in total cholesterol and FBS was observed in the intervention group (p=0.02). In the third RCT, T3 in the ashwagandha group at 4 and 8 weeks significantly increased by 18.6% (p=0.012) and 41.5% (p < 0.001), respectively. A noticeable increase was found in the T4 level from baseline by 9.3% (p= 0.002) and 19.6% (p < 0.001) at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. TSH levels fell remarkably in the intervention group compared to placebo at 4 weeks (p <0.001) and 8 weeks (p <0.001), respectively. In the last article selected, Mentha x Piperita L. showed no significant difference in fatigue scores between intervention and control groups at the midpoint (day 7), while fatigue scores improved in the intervention group in all subscales compared to the control group on day 14. Conclusion Some herbal remedies, including Nigella sativa L., Ashwagandha, and Mentha x piperita L., can improve the signs and symptoms of primary hypothyroidism, but using a more extensive and advanced methodology will provide us with more complete results.
Boosts Immune System:
Peppermint tea has got known anti-bacterial qualities, that are the reason for numerous illnesses, which includes fevers, coughs, as well as colds. Not only can consuming this delicious tea assist you to deal with the signs and symptoms of being ill, it may also stop your body from getting sick from the beginning. There’s also trace elements of vitamin B, potassium, antioxidants and calcium, that can assist the body uptake nutrients to combat off illness and perform necessary function to help keep your body working in a healthy way.
Peppermint oil can boost a person’s immunity to numerous diseases and is also generally used by those individuals with weak immune systems or even who seem to regularly have problems with illness. Peppermint oil is known to have effective antiviral, anti-bacterial, as well as anti-fungal effects, and that’s why it is utilized in a lot of alternative remedies.
The use of essential oils is increasingly being investigated among new therapeutic approaches based on medicinal plants and their extracts. With the wide use of synthetic and semi-synthetic antimicrobial drugs, the spread of drug-resistant clinical isolates has increased, and research is directed towards natural products, such as essential oils, as useful antimicrobial resources.
In a 2023 review "Immune Defences: A View from the Side of the Essential Oils" published in Molecules, by Vivian Tullio, Janira Roana, Lorenza Cavallo, Narcisa Mandras, we compared the impact of essential oils and common antimicrobial agents on the microbicidal activity of human phagocytes. Here, we present the results of our decades-long investigation into the effectiveness of thyme red oil (26.52% thymol chemotype), tea tree oil (TTO), and Mentha of Pancalieri [(Mentha x piperita (Huds) var. officinalis (Sole), form Rubescens (Camus) (Lamiaceae)] essential oils on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) capacity to kill clinical strains of Candida albicans and C. krusei when compared to three antifungal drugs used to treat candidiasis (fluconazole, anidulafungin, and caspofungin) These essential oils demonstrate antifungal drug-like and/or superior efficacy in enhancing intracellular killing by PMNs, even at subinhibitory concentrations. Our results are compared with data in the literature on essential oils and immune system interactions. This comparison would aid in identifying therapeutic solutions to the increasingly prevalent antibiotic resistance as well as filling in any remaining knowledge gaps on the bioactivity of essential oils.
Peppermint essential oil is a proven stimulant and tonic especially to the brain, pancreas and heart. It is known for clearing away all kinds of stagnations including physical and mental. Peppermint oil clears stagnation in the blood, lymph, stomach and gallbladder. It also breaks emotional blockages.
"A Comprehensive Review of Herbal Supplements Used for Persistent Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease" published in Integr Med (Encinitas) 2023, by Allison Thompson, Lauren M Hynicka, Kalpana D Shere-Wolfe in University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD, examines the evidence for the antimicrobial activity, safety, and drug-drug interactions of 18 herbal supplements that patients commonly use for treatment of persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. The research team performed a narrative review by searching the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Natural Medicines databases, and NCCIH website. The search used the keywords for 18 herbal compounds: Andrographis (Andrographis paniculate), Astragalus (Astragalus propinquus), Berberine, Cat's Claw bark (Uncaria tomentosa), Cordyceps (Cordyceps sinensis), Cryptolepis (Cryptolepis sanguinolenta), Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis), Garlic (Allium sativum), Japanese Knotwood (Polygonum cuspidatum), Reishi Mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum), Sarsaparilla (Smilax medica), Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus), Sweet Wormwood (Artemisia annua), Teasle root (Dipsacus fullonum), Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), oil of Oregano (Origanum vulgare), Peppermint (Mentha x piperita), and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris). The team also searched for terms related to protocols, including Dr. Rawls' protocol and the Buhner protocol. Seven of the 18 herbs reviewed had evidence for in-vitro activity against Borrelia burgdorferi. These compounds included: Cat's Claw, Cryptolepis, Chinese Skullcap, Japanese Knotweed, Sweet Wormwood, Thyme, and oil of Oregano. With the exception of oil of Oregano these compounds also have anti-inflammatory activity. In vivo data and clinical trials are lacking. Clinicians should be cautious as many of the identified compounds have drug interactions and additive effects that could lead to increased risks for bleeding, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. Many of the herbs that alternative and integrative practitioners use to treat Lyme disease have anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to patients' perceptions of symptomatic improvement. Some herbs have limited demonstrated anti-borrelial activity in vitro, but in-vivo data and clinical trial data is lacking. Further research is required to determine the efficacy, safety and appropriate use of these herbs for this patient population.
Although more research is needed in this area, some lab studies indicate that Peppermint may be useful as an anticancer agent. Clinical studies have shown that Peppermint provides the compound menthol, that prevents prostate cancer growth. Also, research discovered Peppermint safeguards against radiation-induced DNA damage, cell death and regulating cellular processes. Peppermint oil can replace drugs which address chemotherapy-induced nausea. It may also assist treat hot flashes in females undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
According to research, Peppermint leaves contain a phytonutrient which has shown to stop the growth of cancerous tumors in the pancreas, liver, and mammary glands, thus protecting against lungs, colon and skin cancers. They also contain a compound called menthol that may inhibit prostate cancer growth. Peppermint is also known to kill away those cancer cells.
Colon Cancer - Colorectal Cancer:
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed forms of cancer, and the therapeutic solutions are frequently aggressive requiring improvements. Essential oils are secondary metabolites of aromatic plants with important pharmacological properties that proved to be beneficial in multiple pathologies including cancer. Mentha piperita L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils are well-known for their biological effects (antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic in different cancer cells), but their potential as complementary treatment in colorectal cancer is underexplored.
A 2022 study "Chemical and Antimicrobial Characterization of Mentha piperita L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils and In Vitro Potential Cytotoxic Effect in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells" published in Molecules by Alina Dolghi, Dorina Coricovac, Stefania Dinu, Iulia Pinzaru, Cristina Adriana Dehelean, Cristina Grosu, Doina Chioran, Petru Eugen Merghes, Cristian Andrei Sarau, investigate the Mentha piperita L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects in a colorectal cancer cell line-HCT 116. The gas-chromatographic analysis revealed menthone and menthol, and eucalyptol, α-pinene and L-camphor as major compounds in Mentha piperita L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils respectively. Mentha piperita L. essential oil exhibited potent antimicrobial activity, moderate antioxidant activity and a low cytotoxic effect in HCT 116 cells. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil presented a significant cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells and a low antimicrobial effect. The cytotoxic effect on non-cancerous cell line HaCaT was not significant for both essential oils. These results may provide an experimental basis for further research concerning the potential use of Mentha piperita L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils for anticancer treatment.
Plant-derived homeopathic medicines (HMs) are cheap and commercially available but are mechanistically less explored entities than conventional medicines.
A 2023 study "Evaluation of Therapeutic Potential of Selected Plant-Derived Homeopathic Medicines for their Action against Cervical Cancer" published in Homeopathy, by Tejveer Singh, Nikita Aggarwal, Kulbhushan Thakur, Arun Chhokar, Joni Yadav, Tanya Tripathi, Mohit Jadli, Anjali Bhat, Arun Kumar, Ritika Hasija Narula, Pankaj Gupta, Anil Khurana, Alok Chandra Bharti, evaluate the impact of selected plant-derived HMs derived from Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Cinchona officinalis, Thuja occidentalis and Hydrastis canadensis on cervical cancer (CaCx) cells in vitro. We screened the mother tincture (MT) and 30C potencies of the above-mentioned HMs for anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity on human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative (C33a) and HPV-positive CaCx cells (SiHa and HeLa) by MTT assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and the free-radical scavenging activity of each HM was also determined using standard assays. Phytochemicals reportedly available in these HMs were examined for their potential inhibitory action on HPV16 E6 by in silico molecular docking. All tested MTs induced a differential dose-dependent cytotoxic response that varied with cell line. For C33a cells, the order of response was Thuja occidentalis, Curcuma longa, Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Hydrastis canadensis, Mentha piperita, Cinchona officinalis, whereas for SiHa and HeLa cells the order was Hydrastis canadensis, Mentha piperita, Thuja occidentalis, Cinchona officinalis, Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Curcuma longa and Curcuma longa, Berberis aquifolium, Cinchona officinalis, respectively. 30C potencies of all HMs showed an inconsistent response. Further, anti-CaCx responses displayed by MTs did not follow the order of an HM's phenolic content or free radical scavenging activity. Analysis revealed anti-oxidant content of BA, BV and HC had the lowest contribution to their anti-CaCx activity. Using in silico modeling of molecular docking between the HPV16 E6 protein crystallographic structures (6SJA and 4XR8) and main phytochemical components of BV, BA, HC, CL and TO, their potential to inhibit the HPV16 E6 protein carcinogenic interactions was identified. The study has shown a comparative evaluation of the potential of several plant-derived MTs and HMs to affect CaCx cell line survival in vitro (through cytotoxicity and free radical scavenging) and their theoretical molecular targets in silico for the first time. Data demonstrated that MTs of BA and BV are likely to be the most potent HMs that strongly inhibited CaCx growth and have a strong anti-HPV phytochemical constitution.
Blood Cancer (Leukemia):
Menthol, a natural compound in Peppermint leaves, has several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer properties. This study revealed the anti-leukemic effects and its underlying mechanisms of the menthol related apoptosis signaling pathway and autophagy in both NB4 and Molt-4 leukemic cell lines.
In a 2023 study "Anti-leukemic effect of menthol, a Peppermint compound, on induction of apoptosis and autophagy" published in PeerJ, by Mashima Naksawat, Chosita Norkaew, Kantorn Charoensedtasin, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Dalina Tanyong, both leukemic cells were treated with menthol in various concentration. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay, whereas apoptosis and autophagy were analyzed by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC/PI and anti-LC3/FITC antibodies staining, respectively. Apoptotic and autophagic related gene and protein expression were detected using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Moreover, STITCH database was used to predicts the interaction between menthol and proposed proteins. Menthol significantly decreased cell viability in NB4 and Molt-4 cell lines in dose dependent manner. In combination of menthol and daunorubicin, synergistic cytotoxic effects were observed in leukemic cells. However, there was a minimal effect found on normal, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, menthol significantly induced apoptosis induction via upregulation of caspase-3, BAX, p53 and downregulation of MDM2 mRNA expression. Autophagy was also induced by menthol through upregulating ATG3 and downregulating mTOR mRNA expression. For protein expression, menthol significantly increased caspase-3 whereas decreased mTOR in both leukemic cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that menthol exhibits cytotoxic activities by inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and autophagy through activating the caspase cascade, altering BAX and p53/MDM2, and regulating autophagy via the ATG3/mTOR signaling pathway.
Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV):
Nausea, vomiting and retching are among the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy and are defined by some patients as their biggest problem worse than the pain. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are reported to lead to fluid-electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, weight loss, physiological effects caused by poor drug absorption and/or decreased elimination from kidneys. They also have negative effects on the patients’ social life, work life, daily activities and psychological well-being. Besides, nausea and vomiting cause some patients to refuse chemotherapy or to discontinue the treatment.
The chemotherapy agents have different emetogenic potential as minimal, low, moderate and high. Therefore, the patients experience different levels of CINV according to their chemotherapy regimens. Although CINV is experienced in different frequencies, in recent studies, it has been reported that nausea and vomiting are experienced over 70% and 50%, respectively. In the medical management of CINV, antiemetics are recommended according to the emetogenic potentials of the chemotherapy agents. Although nausea and vomiting, in particular, have been successfully managed, with 5- hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, and neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists, they have not yet been completely controlled yet. In addition, these drugs are reported to have such adverse effects as heartburn, insomnia, headache, dizziness, constipation/diarrhea, akathisia, ataxia, pharyngeal itching, and dry mouth. Inadequate control of CINV leads patients to integrative health practices. The complementary and integrative health practices that are frequently used by patients include acupuncture, acupressure, imagery/dreams, psycho-educational support, exercise, hypnosis, massage, and aromatherapy.
Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils produced from pleasant-smelling parts of plants, to treat or relieve physical and emotional symptoms. There are a limited number of studies in the relevant literature about the use of essential oils to cope with CINV. Therefore, aromatherapy is among the integrative applications for coping with CINV whose efficacy has not yet been established. One of the essential oils used in studies investigating the effect of aromatherapy on CINV is Peppermint essential oil. The Peppermint essential oil is known to be effective in nausea. However, there are a few study on its effects in CINV. The study which conducted by Zorba and Özdemir demonstrated that massage and inhalation of aromatic mixture including Peppermint oil significantly reduced CINV. Similarly, in other studies which are performed by using Peppermint essential oil, a decrease in severity of nausea and frequency of vomiting was determined. This study is aimed to help the patients who suffering from CINV and contribute to the planning of evidence-based interventions on the effects of aromatherapy in the management of CINV.
A study published in a popular science journal found a significant reduction in the intensity and number of emetic events in the first 24 hours among patients who inhaled Peppermint essential oil, compared with a placebo. The authors conclude that Peppermint oil is safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost-effective.
A 2021 open label quasi-randomized controlled pilot study "The Effects of Peppermint Oil on Nausea, Vomiting and Retching in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy" published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine, by Nuriye Efe Ertürk a, Sultan Taşcı, evaluated the effects of Peppermint oil on the frequency of nausea, vomiting, retching, and the severity of nausea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Patients were recruited from the ambulatory chemotherapy unit of a public hospital located (Batman, Turkey) between September 2017 and September 2018. The participants in the intervention group applied one drop the aromatic mixture on the spot between their upper lip and their nose, three times a day for the five days following chemotherapy administration, in addition to the routine antiemetic treatment. Participants in the control group underwent only the routine antiemetic treatment. Main outcome measures VAS-the severity of nausea and the Index of nausea, vomiting, and retching. The VAS nausea score was significantly lower after Peppermint oil applying in the patients receiving Folfirinox (treatment effect (mean dif.): 4.00±2.28; P<0.001), Paclitaxel-Trastuzumab (treatment effect (mean dif.): 1.70±0.90; P=0.014), Carboplatin-Paclitaxel (treatment effect (mean dif.): 3.71±1.41; P<0.001), and Cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin (treatment effect (mean dif.): 1.41±0.73; P=0.005) excluding cisplatin scedule (treatment effect (mean dif.): 0.56±2,18; P=0.642). We detected a statistical significant difference in the change in frequency of nausea, vomiting, retching in the other all schedules excluding cisplatin schedule (P<0.05). The Peppermint oil was significantly reduced the frequency of nausea, vomiting, retching and the severity of nausea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, usage of Peppermint oil together with antiemetics after chemotherapy with moderate and low emetic risk may be recommended to cope with CINV.
Nausea and Vomiting After Surgery:
A 2020 randomized clinical trial "The effect of aromatherapy with Peppermint essential oil on nausea and vomiting after cardiac surgery" published in Complement Ther Clin Pract by Mahla Maghami, Mohammad Reza Afazel, Ismail Azizi-Fini, Mahboobeh Maghami aimed to examine the effect of Peppermint essential oil inhalation on the postoperative nausea and vomiting after cardiac surgery. Methods In this clinical trial study, 60 cardiac surgery patients were divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention group underwent nebulizer aromatherapy with Peppermint essential oil before the endotracheal tube was removed after surgery. Patients' nausea and vomiting were then assessed through a checklist. The independent-samples t-test, chi-square, and Generalized estimating equation were used for data analysis.
A 2023 study "Acceleration in healing of infected full-thickness wound with novel antibacterial γ-AlOOH-based nanocomposites" published in Prog Biomater by Hilda Parastar, Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Rasoul Shokri, Saeed Jafarirad, Mohsen Kalantari, was conducted to synthesize γ-AlOOH (bohemite)-based nanocomposites (NCs) of Au/γ-AlOOH-NC and its functionalized derivative using chitosan (Au/γ-AlOOH/Ctn-NC) and with the help of one-step Mentha piperita. The physicochemical characteristics of the NCs were investigated. In addition, biomedical properties, such as antibacterial activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and cell viability were assessed. Wound healing activity on infected wounds and histological parameters were assessed. The gene expressions of TNF-α, Capase 3, Bcl-2, Cyclin-D1 and FGF-2 were investigated. The TEM and FESEM images showed the sheet-like structure for bohemite in Au/γ-AlOOH-NC with Au nanoparticles in a range of 14-15 nm. The elemental analysis revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, aluminum, and Au elements in the as-synthesized Au/γ-AlOOH. The results for toxicity showed that the produced nanocomposites did not show any cytotoxicity. Biomedical studies confirmed that Au/γ-AlOOH-NC and Au/γ-AlOOH/Ctn-NC have anti-bacterial properties and could expedite the wound healing process in infected wounds by an increase in collagen biosynthesis. The administration of ointment containing Au/γ-AlOOH-NC and Au/γ-AlOOH/Ctn-NC decreased the expressions of TNF-α, and increased the expressions of Capase 3, Bcl-2, Cyclin-D1 and FGF-2. The novelty of this study was that bohemite and Au nanoparticles can be used as a dressing to accelerate the wound healing process. In green synthesis of Au/γ-AlOOH-NC, phytochemical compounds of the plant extract are appropriate reagents for stabilization and the production of Au/γ-AlOOH-NC. Therefore, the new bohemite-based NCs can be considered as candidate for treatment of infected wounds after future clinical studies.
A 2019 study "Topical application of Mentha piperita essential oil accelerates wound healing in infected mice model" published in Inflammopharmacology by Mohammad Modarresi, Mohammad-Reza Farahpour, Behzad Baradaran was conducted to evaluate the effects of the prepared ointments from Mentha piperita essential oil on wound healing in the infected mice models. Each circular full-thickness wound was inoculated with 25 × 107 units of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria strains. This study indicated that Mentha piperita can be used for treatment of the infected wound.
Research published in The Journal ACS Nano suggests that scientists have found a way to package antimicrobial compounds from Peppermint and Cinnamon in tiny capsules that can both kill biofilms and actively promote healing. The researchers packaged Peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde, the compound in Cinnamon responsible for its flavour and aroma, into silica nanoparticles. The microcapsule treatment was effective against four different types of bacteria, including one antibiotic-resistant strain. It also promoted the growth of fibroblasts, a cell type that is important in wound healing.
Muscle Spams and Joint Pain:
In general, Peppermint tea is great for reducing constricting muscles. This could turn it into a good go-to herb for everybody from athletes to people struggling with anxiety. However, it seems to be especially great at dealing with a particular kind of constricted muscles, the muscles within the walls of the uterus. Peppermint naturally calms muscles spasms. Simply by consuming this tea, you are able to naturally decrease your muscle pain and let the body to relax. Try soaking your aching muscles in the warm bath along with Peppermint tea or even Peppermint oil sprinkled in to get instant relief. Essential oils like Peppermint might help decrease pain too.
Peppermint oil is an extremely efficient natural painkiller as well as muscle relaxant. It really is particularly useful in calming an aching back, sore muscles, as well as melting away joint pain.
Saline stress is responsible for significant reductions in the growth of plants, and it globally leads to limitations in the performance of crops, especially in drought-affected areas. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the resistance of plants to environmental stress can lead to a better plant breeding and selection of cultivars. Mint is one of the most important medicinal plants, and it has important properties for industry, and for the medicinal and pharmacy fields. The effects of salinity on the biochemical and enzymatic properties of 18 ecotypes of mint from six different species, that is, Mentha piperita, Mentha mozafariani, Mentha rotundifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium and Mentha longifolia, have been examined in this study.
A 2023 study "Functional Quality, Antioxidant Capacity and Essential Oil Percentage in Different Mint Species Affected by Salinity Stress" published in Chem Biodivers, by Seyyed Jaber Hosseini, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Hamed Keshavarz, Shahryar Kazemi, Masoumeh Khalvandi, Hematollah Pirdashti, Seyyed Hamidreza Hashemi-Petroudi, Silvana Nicola, showed that salinity increased with increasing in stress integrity influenced the enzymatic properties, proline content, electrolyte leakage, and the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and essential oil contents. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were conducted, and they grouped the studied species on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. According to the obtained biplot results, M. piperita and M. rotundifolia showed better stress tolerance than the other varieties, and M. longifolia was identified as being salt sensitive. Generally, the results showed that H2O2 and malondialdehyde had a positive connection with each other and showed a reverse relationship with all the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Finally, it was found that the M. spicata, M. rotundifolia and M. piperita ecotypes could be used for future breeding projects to improve the salinity tolerance of other ecotypes.
Herbal infusions are highly popular beverages consumed daily due to their health benefits and antioxidant properties. However, the presence of plant toxins, such as tropane alkaloids, constitutes a recent health concern for herbal infusions.
A 2023 study "The Bright and Dark Sides of Herbal Infusions: Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity and Determination of Tropane Alkaloids" published in Toxins (Basel), by Ana Rita Soares Mateus, Carmen Crisafulli, Matilde Vilhena, Sílvia Cruz Barros, Angelina Pena, Ana Sanches Silva, presents an optimized and validated methodology based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction procedure followed by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS) for the determination of tropane alkaloids (atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, and homatropine) in herbal infusions, in accordance with criteria established by Commission Recommendation EU No. 2015/976 (see attached file). One of the seventeen samples was contaminated with atropine, exceeding the current European regulation regarding tropane alkaloids. In addition, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of common herbal infusions available on Portuguese markets, indicating the high antioxidant capacity of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), and Peppermint (Mentha x piperita).
A 2023 study "Essential Oils from Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Cupressaceae and Lamiaceae Families Grown in Serbia: Comparative Chemical Profiling with In Vitro Antioxidant Activity" published in Plants (Basel), by Nevena Gladikostić, Bojana Ikonić, Nemanja Teslić, Zoran Zeković, Danica Božović, Predrag Putnik, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Branimir Pavlić, investigate the chemical profile and antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from the most commonly grown plant species in Serbia. Aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae (Mentha x Piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana and Thymus vulgaris), Asteraceae (Ehinacea purpurea and Matricaria chamomilla), Apiaceae (Anethum graveolens, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselinum crispum and Pimpinella anisum) and Cupressaceae (Juniperus comunis) were selected as raw material for essential oils (EOs)' isolation. Hydrodistillation (HD) was used for the isolation of EOs while they were evaluated in terms of yield and terpenoid profiles by GC-MS. In vitro radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS+ radical activities were carried out for all EOs. Finally, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the experimental results of the composition and antioxidant activity of the EOs, which showed a clear distinction between the selected plant species for the aforementioned responses. This work represents a screening tool for the selection of other EO candidates for further processing by emerging extraction techniques and the use of EOs as natural additives for meat products.
A 2021 study "Antioxidant Activity of Rosmarinic Acid Extracted and Purified from Mentha piperita" published in Arch Razi Inst. by F E H Aldoghachi, U M Noor Al-Mousawi, F H Shari, aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities and rosmarinic acid levels of the methanol extracts of M. piperita. The analysis of the sample by high-performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC) indicated that rosmarinic acid was present in high concentration 1.9 mg/mL in the extract. Purification was carried out by column chromatography to give 0.020 g from 1 g of crude extract, and then the antioxidant activity of purified rosmarinic acid was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, and REDOX methods. It was revealed that the anti-oxidant potential of the rosmarinic acid extract was greater than 95% (at 100 µg/mL) for DPPH assay and 87.83% (at 100 µg/ml) for H2O2 scavenging assay. This study was performed by using a reflux methanolic extraction of Mentha piperita. This possible instructional technique proved to be a quick and successful method for retaining the antioxidant properties of rosmarinic acid. The rosmarinic acid content was determined using HPLC.
Spice plants have a great influence on world history. For centuries, different civilizations have used them to condiment the foods of kings and nobles and applied them as embalming preservatives, perfumes, cosmetics, and medicines in different regions of the world. In general, these plants have formed the basis of traditional medicine and some of their derived substances have been utilized to treat different human diseases. Essential oils obtained from these plants have been also used as therapeutic agents and have shown supportive uses in remedial practices. The discovery and development of bioactive compounds from these natural products, based on their traditional uses, play an important role in developing the scientific evidence of their potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food applications.
A 2020 review "Bioactive Natural Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Spice Plants: New Findings and Potential Applications" published in Biomolecules by Lidiane Diniz do Nascimento, Angelo Antônio Barbosa de Moraes, Kauê Santana da Costa, João Marcos Pereira Galúcio, Paulo Sérgio Taube, Cristiane Maria Leal Costa, Jorddy Neves Cruz, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar Andrade, Lênio José Guerreiro de Faria, using recent studies, we exhibit a general overview of the main aspects related to the importance of spice plants widely used in traditional medicine: Cinnamomum zeylanicum (True Cinnamon), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Ocimum basilicum (Basil), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Piper nigrum (Black Pepper), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary), and Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) and we discuss new findings of the bioactive compounds obtained from their essential oils, their potential applications, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action, focusing on their antioxidant activity. We also exhibit the main in vitro methods applied to determine the antioxidant activities of these natural products.
A 2019 study "Salicylic Acid and Melatonin Alleviate the Effects of Heat Stress on Essential Oil Composition and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Mentha × piperita and Mentha arvensis L"published in Antioxidants (Basel) by Milad Haydari, Viviana Maresca, Daniela Rigano, Alireza Taleei, Ali Akbar Shahnejat-Bushehri, Javad Hadian, Sergio Sorbo, Marco Guida, Caterina Manna, Marina Piscopo, Rosaria Notariale, Francesca De Ruberto, Lina Fusaro, Adriana Basile was to evaluate changes in the chemical profile of essential oils and antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase CAT, superoxide dismutase SOD, Glutathione S-transferases GST, and Peroxidase POX) in Mentha × piperita L. (Mitcham variety) and Mentha arvensis L. (var. piperascens), in response to heat stress. In addition, we used salicylic acid and melatonin, two brassinosteroids that play an important role in regulating physiological processes, to assess their potential to mitigate heat stress. In both species, the heat stress caused a variation in the composition of the essential oils and in the antioxidant enzymatic activity. Furthermore both Salicylic acid and melatonin alleviated the effect of heat stress.
A 2016 study "Assessment of vacuum-dried Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) as a source of natural antioxidants" published in Food Chem by Elsa Uribe, Daniela Marín 1, Antonio Vega-Gálvez, Issis Quispe-Fuentes, Angela Rodríguez was to investigate the effect of temperature in the vacuum drying process of Mentha piperita (50 to 90°C). Generally, drying processes affect the quality of product, however, vacuum drying works under sub-atmospheric pressures. In order to investigate how temperature affects this herb, as to color, chlorophyll, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, antioxidant activity by DPPH and ORAC methods. Mineral, Vitamin C and sugar contents were also evaluated. A slight change in color and chlorophyll content was observed in the samples. The highest values for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity methods were obtained at 50 and 70°C however, a decrease in the Vitamin C content was observed. Minerals such as potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium were found. Sucrose showed the highest sugar content. This work suggests that Mentha piperita can be used as a natural antioxidant, whether fresh or dried.
"Peppermint antioxidants revisited"published in Food Chem in 2015 by Liza G Riachi, Carlos A B De Maria discusses the relationship between the chemical composition and antioxidant property of Peppermint tisane and essential oil. Phenolic acids (e.g. rosmarinic and caffeic acids), flavones (e.g. luteolin derivatives) and flavanones (e.g. eriocitrin derivatives) are possibly the major infusion antioxidants. Vitamin antioxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid and carotenoids) are minor contributors to the overall antioxidant potential. Unsaturated terpenes having a cyclohexadiene structure (e.g. terpinene) and minor cyclic oxygenated terpenes (e.g. thymol), may contribute to antioxidant potential whilst acyclic unsaturated oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. linalool) may act as pro-oxidants in essential oil. Findings on the antioxidant potential of major cyclic oxygenated terpenes (menthol and menthone) are conflicting. Antioxidant behaviour of aqueous/organic solvent extracts and essential oil as well as the effect of environmental stresses on essential oil and phenolic composition are briefly discussed.
Unlike us humans, a number of little critters hate the smell of Peppermint oil, including ants, spiders, cockroaches, mosquitos, mice and possibly even lice. This makes Peppermint oil for spiders, Peppermint oil for ants, Peppermint oil for mice and other pests an effective and natural rebelling agent. Peppermint oil for ticks may also be effective.
With the current rise in the usage of chemicals and harmful toxins in the majority of the insect repellants, this oil works as a safer option to effectively get rid of cockroaches, bed bugs, and ants. The terpene and menthol content of this oil works as a natural fumigant. Some studies state the usefulness of using this oil in repelling mosquitoes as well. Also, spiders could be eliminated with the use of this oil as its strong scent drives them away.
A review of plant-based insect repellents published in Malaria Journal found that the most effective plant essential oils used in bug repellents include Peppermint, lemongrass, geraniol, pine, cedar, thyme and patchouli and clove. These oils have shown to repel malaria, filarial and yellow fever vectors for 60–180 minutes.
A further study showed that Peppermint oil resulted in 150 minutes of complete protection time against mosquitos, with just 0.1 mL of oil applied on the arms. The researchers noted that after 150 minutes, the efficacy of Peppermint oil decreased and needed to be reapplied.
Repels Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes (Dengue):
A 2011 study "Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L"published in Asian Pac J Trop Biomed by Sarita Kumar, Naim Wahab, Radhika Warikoo assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal potential of Peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti using World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of Peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. The Peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.
Repels Tsetse Fly (African Trypanosomosis - Sleeping Sickness):
Trypanosomosis is a worldwide disease that affects human and livestock populations with limited availability and high cost of trypanocides.
A 2021 study "Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Elettaria cardamomum against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in an animal model with new insights for the treatment of trypanosomosis" published in Ann Parasitol. by Haiam Mohamed Mahmoud Farrag, Doaa A Yones, Ebtisam Shawky Ahmed Hassanin, Zedan Z Ibraheim, Enas Abd El Hameed Mahmoud Huseein, aims to evaluate the possible in vitro and in vivo anti-trypanosomal activity of Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Elettaria cardamomum aqueous extracts against Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected rats using Intropar as a reference drug. The crude extracts of the selected plants were used in three concentrations (2500, 2000, and 1000 μg/ml). The in vitro trypanocidal activities were assessed regarding parasite motility, count, and infectivity. The in vivo susceptibility of T. evansi was evaluated by assessing the level of parasitemia in the experimental rats. The packed cell volume was also monitored. Both the in vitro and in vivo experiments showed trypanocidal activity, of all the tested extracts, higher than that of Intropar. The in vitro trypanocidal effects were dose-dependent and represented by a significant reduction of the parasite count together with immobilizing effect within 3 hours incubation period, compared to the negative and positive controls (p< 0.05). The in vivo trypanocidal effects of the different concentrations of all the tested extracts were represented by the significantly lowered levels of parasitemia, compared to the negative control group with varying degrees; in a dose-dependent manner concerning the time. They exhibited also a significantly higher level in packed cell volume recovery compared to the negative control group (p < 0.05). This study initially confirmed the potent in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal effect of the three extracts, with a potentially promising future for the treatment of trypanosomosis.
Repels Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitos:
Mosquitoes are found in tropical and subtropical areas and are the carriers of a variety of diseases that are harmful to people's health. e.g., malaria, filariasis, chikungunya, dengue fever, etc. Although several insecticides are available, however, due to insect resistance and environmental hazards, more eco-friendly chemicals are needed for insect control.
A 2022 study"Biocidal action, characterization, and molecular docking of Mentha piperita (Lamiaceae) leaves extract against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae" published in PLoS One by Attiya Iqbal, Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi, Saleh S Alhewairini, Nargis Shaheen, Aneeqa Hamid, Muhammad Zahid Qureshi, the current research was planned to explore the prospective of Mentha piperita to be used for the formulation of larvicides against mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The ethanolic and water extracts of M. piperita leaves were prepared using the soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were dried and subjected to prepare five concentrations multiple of 80 ppm. Each concentration was applied for its larvicidal efficacy setting an experiment (in triplicate) in plastic containers of 1000 ml with extracts, 30 larvae of all four instars separately, and fed with dog biscuits along with controls. Observations were taken after each 12 hrs. till 72 hrs. The antioxidant perspective of Mentha piperita was determined by DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing power assays. Using brine shrimp lethality bioactivity, the cytotoxic study was perceived. Standard techniques were used to classify the Mentha piperita extract using preliminary qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, and GC-MS analysis. Mentha piperita ethanolic leaves extract after 24 hrs. of exposure in 400 ppm showed 93% (LC50 = 208.976 ppm) mortality in ethanolic extract and 80% (LC90 = 246.900 ppm) in the water extract. In treated larvae, biochemical examination revealed a substantial (P<0.05) decrease in proteins, carbohydrates, and fat contents. The ethanol extract of Mentha piperita was the most efficient, killing brine shrimp nauplii in 50% to 90% of cases. TAC (125.4 3.5gAAE/mg DW) and FRP (378.1 1.0gAAE/mg DW) were highest in the ethanolic extract of M. piperita. The presence of medicinally active components such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and others in Mentha piperita leaves extract in ethanol was discovered. The UV-Vis spectrum showed two peaks at 209.509 and 282.814 nm with the absorption of 2.338 and 0.796 respectively. The FT-IR consequences exhibited the occurrence of alcohols, alkanes, aldehyde, aromatic rings, ether linkage, ester, and halo- compounds. The GC-MS analysis according to peak (%) area and retention time showed ten phytochemicals consisting of six major and four minor compounds. Among all the compounds, 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, and 3-ethyl-5, 5-dimethyl -6-phenyl bound well to the NS3 protease domain with PDB ID: 2FOM. Hence, for the prevention of health hazards and mosquito control, Mentha Piperita is a potential source of chemicals for insecticide formulation.
To repel spiders, put Peppermint oil on the cotton pad or even cotton ball. Then, put it on the areas in which you find spiders. Include about 5 drops of Peppermint oil to water within the spray bottle. Make sure that it has powerful Peppermint scent, and spray within the areas you would like to repel spiders.
Stored Product Insect Pests:
A 2020 study "Toxicity and repellent activity of essential oil from Mentha piperita Linn. leaves and its major monoterpenoids against three stored product insects" published in Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. by Xue Pang, Yi-Xi Feng, Xiao-Jie Qi, Yang Wang, Borjigidai Almaz, Chao Xi, Shu-Shan Du about the bioactivity of the obtained essential oil and its two major components against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne, and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were evaluated by fumigation, contact, and repellent activity bioassay. The essential oil showed significant fumigation and contact toxicity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 18.1 mg/L air and LD50 = 2.9 μg/adult, respectively), L. serricorne (LC50 = 68.4 mg/L air and LD50 = 12.6 μg/adult, respectively), and L. bostrychophila (LC50 = 0.6 mg/L air and LD50 = 49.8 μg/adult, respectively) adults. The results indicated that the essential oil of Mentha piperita leaves and two tested components have potential to be developed as natural insecticides and repellents for the control of stored product insect pests.
Fed up with aphids eating up your plants? You’ve checked out sprays to eliminate them, but don’t just like the pesticides. Rather, use Peppermint oil. Include some drops into a spray bottle of water and spray away.
American Tomato Moth:
Phthorimaea absoluta (Meyrick) is one of the most destructive pests of tomato, causing 100% yield loss in the absence of control measures. The important method of managing the pest is by using synthetic insecticides. However, intermittent and indiscriminate uses of certain insecticides have negative effect on the environment. Use of herbal insecticides such as secondary metabolites and essential oils is a key for sustainable long term crop protection.
In a 2023 study "Insecticidal properties of Ocimum basilicum and Mentha piperita essential oils against South American Tomato moth, Phthorimaea absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae)" published in Pestic Biochem Physiol. by N R Prasannakumar, N Jyothi, S Saroja, A N Lokesha, investigation on the insecticidal properties of Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) and their constituents was carried out against P. absoluta. The M. piperita EO showed highest mortality (100%) of P. absoluta with LC50 1.78 μl/ml due to alloaromadendrene (27.99%), levomenthol (18.31%) and santolina triene (9.78%). The O. basilicum EO also had significant mortality (90%) effect with LC50 3.58 μl/ml due to humulene (32.31%), alpha farnesense (27.22%), estragole (19.24%) and 4-cerene (10.61%). Among binary compounds, levomenthol showed highest mortality (100%) having LC50 13.18 μl/ml followed by alpha-pinene (100%) with LC50 16.10 μl/ml, 4-cerene (95%) with LC50 38.20 μl/ml and alpha-phellandrene (90%) having LC50 46.83 μl/ml. The observed toxicity in all compounds was due to significant changes in the activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholine esterases over the time. The present study suggests that O. basilium and M. piperita EOs would provide an additional approach for the management of P. absoluta over synthetic insecticides.
Peppermint tea is a scrumptious as well as refreshing method to enhance your all around health in several methods, because of its capability to enhance digestion of food, decrease pain, remove inflammation, relax the body as well as mind, cure foul breath, helps with weight reduction as well as boosts the immune system. Its impact on the digestive system is significant, as well as its base element of menthol is probably the most beneficial part of its organic structure.Basically, Peppermint tea is an infusion made out of Peppermint leaves which is drunk like a tea. Whenever you mix spearmint leaves on the tisane (infusion), then you get what’s known as doublemint tea. This substance is caffeine-free, so many individuals who are suffering from sensitive sleep patterns prefer to drink this relaxing tea before going to sleep.
The scientific name of Peppermint is Mentha piperita, and is also really a cross between water mint as well as spearmint. It is indigenous to Europe, however its popularity as well as number of uses has made Peppermint a worldwide commodity.
Peppermint tea is similarly appreciated all over the world. Peppermint oil is a well-liked form of medicinal treatment, particularly for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.We have seen similar effects from ingesting Peppermint tea. The mentholated flavor is extremely attractive to lots of people, making this one of the most well-known tea varieties on earth. Tea is considered to be calming, sure, but what else does this widely accessible tea have for the bodies with regards to benefits.
Even though Peppermint tea has been utilized for hundreds of years to cure a number of health conditions, scientific evaluation of the health advantages of Peppermint tea, as of 2010, is within the early stages, in accordance with the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. Peppermint tea, with low negative effects, can be a viable alternative for pharmaceuticals in some situations. Speak to your physician just before dealing with any health problem along with Peppermint tea.
In "A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of Peppermint tea" published in Phytother Res. 2006 by Diane L McKay, Jeffrey B Blumberg discusses that Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of Peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, Peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of Peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of Peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of Peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of Peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to Peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for Peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.
Peppermint is undoubtedly an herb which is a crossbreed of watermint as well as spearmint which has been utilized for hundreds of years for therapeutic reasons. Made mainly of menthol, Peppermint is really a source for most vitamins which includes vitamins A, C, and B2. Additionally, Peppermint consists of minerals which includes magnesium, calcium, and iron. As a possible oil, Peppermint features a distinct menthol smell and is also pale yellow in look. Peppermint oil has numerous health advantages, which includes enhancing digestion, reducing pain, helping along with respiratory ailments, and also destroying cancer cells.
A main use of the oil is always to aid with digestion. Ingesting a glass of water with some drops of Peppermint oil can offer rest from dyspepsia and colon spasms. Peppermint oil may also bring relief for heartburn as well as motion sickness. The menthol present in Peppermint helps you to relax stomach muscles, that reduces the possibility for indigestion. Peppermint additionally boosts the flow of bile, that helps the body to absorb food faster, reducing the possibility for indigestion.
If an individual has respiratory troubles which includes sinusitis, congestion, as well as bronchitis, Peppermint might be great at bringing relief. Since the menthol within the oil is beneficial in cleaning the respiratory system, the Peppermint substance is a very common ingredient in cold and vapor rubs. Rather than utilizing a cough as well as vapor rub, an individual can rub the oil directly on his chest to obtain comparable reprieve from respiratory ailments. Peppermint also encourages the development of substances in your body known as prostacylins, that let the air passages to stay open.
Peppermint oil may also be an anti-cancer agent. Peppermint includes a chemical substance known as perrilyl alcohol which is naturally found in certain plants. In some animal research, perrilyl alcohol have been efficient at deterring the development of certain cancers and in addition destroys cancer cells without affecting healthy cells. However, the results haven’t been duplicated in humans.
The health benefits of Peppermint oil consist of its capability to deal with indigestion, respiratory difficulties, headache, nausea, fever, stomach and bowel spasms, along with pain relief. Because of the existence of menthol, menthone as well as menthyl esters, Peppermint and Peppermint oil find wide applications within the manufacturing of soap, shampoo, cigarettes, toothpaste, chewing gum, tea as well as ice cream.
Peppermint oil is filled to the brim with nutrients and is extremely good for your health. In 100 grams of this essential oil, you will find a total of 70 calories. It has 0.9 grams of fat with a total of 0.2 grams of saturated fat, 0.5 grams of polyunsaturated fat, and no monounsaturated fat. Peppermint oil has no cholesterol. It has 31 mg of sodium in it and 569 mg of potassium in it. The total carbohydrate content in a 100 grams of Peppermint essential oil is 15 grams with 8 grams of dietary fiber in it. It has 3.8 grams of protein and is filled with a ton of important minerals. Of the daily recommended dosage for each of the following, Peppermint essential oil contains 84% of vitamin A, 24% of calcium, 52% of vitamin C, 28% of iron, 5% of vitamin B-6, and 20% of magnesium. It does not contain any vitamin B-12 or vitamin D in it. Peppermint essential oil also contains omega 3 fatty acids, which are extremely good for your body on the whole.
A 2021 study "Rapid Screening of Mentha spicata Essential Oil and L-Menthol in Mentha piperita Essential Oil by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Coupled with Multivariate Analyses"published in Foods by Osman Taylan, Nur Cebi, Osman Sagdic, evaluated that Mentha piperita essential oil has high economic importance because of its wide usage area and health-beneficial properties. Besides health-beneficial properties, Mentha piperita essential oil has great importance in the flavor and food industries because of its unique sensory and quality properties. High-valued essential oils are prone to being adulterated with economic motivations. This kind of adulteration deteriorates the quality of authentic essential oil, injures the consumers, and causes negative effects on the whole supply chain from producer to the consumer. The current research used fast, economic, robust, reliable, and effective ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled chemometrics of hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR) for monitoring of Mentha spicata essential oil and L-menthol adulteration in Mentha piperita essential oils. Adulterant contents (Mentha spicata and L-menthol) were successfully calculated using PLSR and PCR models. Standard error of the cross-validation SECV values changed between 0.06 and 2.14. Additionally, bias and press values showed alteration between 0.06 and1.43 and 0.03 and 41.15, respectively. Authentic Mentha piperita was successfully distinguished from adulterated samples, Mentha spicata and L-menthol, by HCA and PCA analysis. The results showed that attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics could be effectively used for monitoring various adulterants in essential oils.
A person can find Peppermint essential oil as an ingredient in tinctures, chest rubs, and creams. A person should always do a patch test before trying a new essential oil. Like other essential oils, a person should not take Peppermint essential oil orally. It is important to make sure to dilute it with a carrier oil before applying it to the skin. Anyone who already receives medication should talk with their doctor before using Peppermint essential oil. Peppermint should not be used by young children. When applied to a child’s face, Peppermint can cause life threatening breathing problems.
Peppermint oil is not usually recommended in pregnancy. This is because there is not enough information to say whether it’s safe or not. Your doctor will only recommend peppermint oil during pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. Peppermint essential oil is allowed to use in breastfeeding. If you notice that your baby is not feeding as well as usual, or if you have any other concerns about your baby, talk to your midwife, health visitor or doctor as soon as possible. Herbal medicines and supplements are not tested in the same way as other medicines. It’s not clear if it’s safe to take them with Peppermint essential oil. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you're taking any other medicines, including herbal medicines, vitamins or supplements.
Peppermint essential oil is not recommended for people who:
- have a hiatus hernia
- have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), severe constipation or ulcerative colitis
- have an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
- have hemolytic anemia
- have ever had an allergic reaction to peppermint oil or any other medicine
- have liver disease or gall stones
- weigh less than 40kg (around 6st 5lbs) or are losing weight
- are allergic to peanuts (some brands contain arachis oil, so it would be best to avoid those brands)
- have noticed blood when you poo
- have suffered abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
- difficulty or pain when peeing
- feel sick (nausea) or are being sick (vomiting)
- are pregnant, or think you may be pregnant
- look paler than your usual skin tone, and feel tired
- recently had a high temperature
In a 2016 comparative study "Comparative Chemical Analysis of Mentha piperita and M. spicata and a Fast Assessment of Commercial Peppermint Teas" published by Nat Prod Commun., by Mihaela Buleandra, Eliza Oprea, Dana Elena Popa, Iulia Gabriela David, Zenovia Moldovan, Iuliana Mihai, Irinel Adriana Badea, the hydrodistilled essential oils and volatile compounds (by static headspaces technique) of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha spicata L. were characterized by GC-MS. Headspace analysis of Mentha piperita revealed the existence of menthone (25.4%), 1,8-cineole (17.7%) and menthol (12.1%) as the main components, while the essential oil contained high amounts of menthol (46.8%) and menthone (25.6%). By contrast, headspace analysis of Mentha spicata showed a high content of limonene (37.0%) together with carvone (13.0%), β-pinene (10.4%) and α-pinene (9.8%), while the essential oil was reach in carvone (51.7%), dihydrocarveol (11.5%) and cis-dihydrocarvone (9.1%). Eleven samples of peppermint tea available on the Romanian market were analysed by headspace GC-MS. The volatile profile of the tea samples was compared with that of Mentha piperita L. and certain differences were emphasized and discussed.
Peppermint oil capsules are a type of medicine called an antispasmodic. Peppermint oil capsules seemed to be proven to reduce the signs of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which includes diarrhea, bloating and farting (flatulence), stomach cramps, and gas. Another advantage of the oil capsule is within offering pain relief, specifically for headaches. It works by helping the muscle of the bowel wall to relax. Research indicates that massaging the oil on one’s forehead as well as temples decreases headache pain. Studies have also established that the oil is just like acetaminophen with regards to headache relief. Peppermint oil capsule comes as capsules. It’s available on prescription or to buy from a pharmacy or a shop. Although research suggests that essential oil capsules may have some health benefits, it is important to remember that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not monitor or regulate the purity or quality of these. A person should talk with a healthcare professional before using essential oils, and they should be sure to research the quality of a brand’s products.
Some medicines may affect how Peppermint oil capsule works. The capsules have a coating that stops them dissolving when they pass through your stomach. Once the capsule reaches your bowel, it gradually releases the medicine. Peppermint oil capsules will start to work within a few hours but it could take up to 1 - 2 weeks to take full effect. Keep taking Peppermint oil capsule until your symptoms improve. If your symptoms do not improve, or get worse at any time, speak to your doctor. The usual dose of Peppermint oil capsule for adults and children aged 12 and over is 1 or 2 capsules, taken 3 times a day. It’s best to take it around 1 hour before meals. You can increase this to 2 capsules, taken 3 times a day, if 1 capsule has not helped your symptoms. Wait at least 2 hours between taking a dose of Peppermint oil capsule and taking an indigestion medicine. This allows the Peppermint oil capsules to work properly. It’s best to take Peppermint oil capsule around 1 hour before meals. If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember, unless it's nearly time for the next dose. If that happens, just skip the missed dose and take the next one at the usual time. Never take 2 doses at the same time. Never take an extra dose to make up for a forgotten one. If you take 1 extra dose of Peppermint oil capsule, it's unlikely to harm you. Swallow the capsules whole, with water. Do not break or chew them. If you've bought Peppermint oil capsule from a pharmacy or shop, do not take it for longer than 2 weeks unless prescribed by a doctor. Follow the doctor’s instructions.
Do not take indigestion medicines up to 2 hours before or after you take Peppermint oil capsules. These include:
These can stop the Peppermint oil capsule working as it should.
Like all medicines, Peppermint oil capsule can cause side effects in some people, but most people have no side effects or only minor ones. Drinking alcohol while taking Peppermint oil capsule can increase the chance of side effects. If this happens, it’s best not to drink alcohol.
Common side effects (happen in more than 1 in 100 people) include:
- Heartburn and indigestion - eat smaller, more frequent meals. Prop your head and shoulders up in bed, so stomach acid does not travel up towards your throat. If this lasts for more than a few days, speak to your doctor or a pharmacist and tell them that you are taking Peppermint oil capsule.
- Itching or irritation around your anus (bottom) - this is usually mild and only lasts a few days. Ask a pharmacist to recommend a cream if it bothers you. Tell your doctor if this does not go away after 1 week.
Serious side effects include:
- Itchy and widespread skin rash
- Slow heartbeat (bradycardia)
- Muscle shakes
- Feel dizzy, which may also happen if you’ve had alcohol
- Serious allergic reaction
- In rare cases, it's possible to have a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to Peppermint oil capture.
It happens rarely, but some people may have a serious side effect when taking Peppermint oil capsules. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if these side effects bother you or do not go away.
- Massage several drops in your abdomen, place a drop on wrists, or even inhale to soothe motion sickness or even general nausea.
- Inhaling Peppermint oil is additionally believed to help curb the appetite by triggering a feeling of fullness.
- If you’re head is feeling stuffed or perhaps you can’t stop coughing, consider using a Peppermint essential oil steam. Pour boiling water in a metal or glass bowl, and include a few drops of essential oil (eucalypus and rosemary are great combinations along with Peppermint). Drape a towel above your head and position the face 10-12 inches over the bowl and inhale the steam.
- With a modest amount of almond or any other carrier oil along with a drop of Peppermint oil, rub in your temples, forehead, within the sinuses (avoid contact with eyes), and on the back of the neck to assist calm headache as well as pressure. Whenever utilized externally, Peppermint oil leaves a calming, cooling sensation that has a tendency to work wonders.
- For stress relief, the mixture of Peppermint, Lavender as well as geranium essential oils included with a warm bath aid reduce stiffness while absorbed with the skin.
- Rub a drop of oil underneath the nose to assist enhance concentration as well as alertness.
- Diffuse Peppermint oil within the room to enhance concentration as well as accuracy.
- Apply to the back of the shoulders and neck frequently to help keep levels of energy up throughout the day.
- Inhale before and throughout a workout to assist enhance your mood and lower fatigue.
- When utilizing Olba’s oil as massage oil (a mix of essential oils which includes Peppermint), it has the remarkable ability to encourage circulation in the surface of the skin simply by opening up the skin pores as well as bringing a calming warm feeling to tired joints and muscles. This oil may also be used like a spot remedy for a fast effect.
- Add some Peppermint oil to shampoo to deal with dandruff.
- If you’ve got a trouble with ants within your house, leave a Peppermint drenched cotton ball within their pathway. They are not big fans of mint and you will have the excellent aroma lingering in your house!
- For tired aching feet, include a few drops into a foot bath for some relief of sore, swollen as well as overworked feet!
- Give your rubbish bin area a break and include a few drops on the bottom for the enjoyable minty aroma.
- For motion sickness, massage a few drops in the abdomen, within the wrists, and inhale
- Raise low blood pressure with a massage utilizing Peppermint oil.
- Diffuse or inhale Peppermint oil mid-morning to prevent snacking
- Rub a few drops for the back of the neck as well as temples to ease head aches
- Place one or two drops on the tongue and the other underneath the nose to enhance concentration and focus.
- Correct cardiac arrhythmia utilizing Peppermint oil within the bath or even a massage, since it is additionally a cardiotonic
- Inhale if nauseous or even after vomiting for the antispasmodic action will calm the smooth muscles of the stomach and gut.
- Combat the chilly as well as depressed feelings of cold and flu with the addition of two drops of the warming and stimulating Peppermint oil to bathwater.
- Sip water having a drop of Peppermint oil, or make use of the tea, to reduce fever as well as hot flashes. It functions by inducing sweating naturally. There are Peppermint waters available on the market.
- Steam along with lavender to cleanse skin, and improve acne.
- Mist or even spray on door jambs to repel bugs and pests.
- Inhale Peppermint, or suck on the candy along with real Peppermint oil, just before a test to boost performance/mental accuracy and memory.
- Put a couple drops of Peppermint oil on the kerchief or even tissue and inhale to soothe mucous membranes inflamed by infection or allergy. At the same time, add drops to hot water as well as breathe the steam.
- If you have the after effects of the sunburn where skin is a little warm and itchy, use a drop of Peppermint oil (combined with Lavender) to cool, soothe and stop itching.
- Apply on the back of the neck and shoulder during the day to maintain your energy levels up.
- Add up to 4 drops in your favorite plain carrier oil as well as rub into sore muscles for exercise caused soreness.
- Rub 4-6 drops within your palm and after that massage in the clockwise fashion round the abdomen (circling the naval) to ease indigestion, flatulence, as well as diarrhea.
- Massage approximately 6 drops on an area of recent or even long-term inflammation to lessen swelling
- Rub a few drops instantly to a bruised or even injured place to decrease bruising and pain
- Rub Peppermint oil on joints to relieve arthritis or even tendonitis pain.
- Add a few drops of oil in your favorite lotion as well as rub on sore feet.
- Add a 2-6 drops in your footbath to cure sore feet (water must be moving/agitated whilst soaking).
- Inhale just before and/or throughout a workout to improve your mood and lower fatigue.
- Place 1-2 drops in your tongue and swallow to relieve indigestion and heartburn.Take 2-4 drops in the within capsule and take internally to assist curb appetite.
- Place 1-2 drops in your tongue, let saliva build up then swish to get rid of foul breath.
- Add to food like a flavoring or preservative.
- Help bring down nausea or indigestion. Inhale the scent to assist stop nausea instantly. For indigestion, rub Peppermint oil combined with a carrier oil in your abdomen in the circular pattern.
- Create an all natural chest rub simply by melting shea butter, beeswax, as well as Coconut oil in equal amounts with some drops of Peppermint oil to assist with congestion.
- Relieve a headache by combining Peppermint oil with a carrier oil and rubbing in your sinus’ or temples. Help reduce a tension headache by also rubbing on the neck.
- Add a few drops of Peppermint oil into an Olive Oil Candle to assist improve alertness and also to help relieve stress.
- Add a few drops of Peppermint oil and lavender oil into a carrier oil to alleviate itchy bug bites.
- Add a few drops of Peppermint oil in a foot bath with epsom salts to assist relax tired, worn feet.
- Add a few drops in your morning water to assist with digestion throughout the day. (In case your body can’t handle this you can purchase empty capsules to place the drops in so the oil does not release till it hits your stomach).
- To help motion sickness, rub a tiny amount which has been diluted with a carrier oil on the insides of the wrists.
- Create an invigorating bath with the addition of a few drops of Peppermint oil to warm bath water.
- Mix Peppermint oil using a carrier oil and put on bumps and bruises to aid with pain and bring down the bump.
- Add a couple of drops of Peppermint oil to homemade shampoo to assist with dandruff.
- Mix Peppermint oil with a carrier oil to relieve cramps.
- Inhale the scent of Peppermint oil when studying and then before a test to assist with brain function and also to increase alertness.To help relieve a rash, blend a few drops of Peppermint oil with a few coconut oil and rub in the effected area.
- Peppermint oil can help with hot flashes. Simply add a few drops into a spray bottle of cold water and spritz in your body when needed.
Medical Uses of Peppermint:
- Tea made with Peppermint leaves are used for treating fevers, digestive disorders, headaches and various minor ailments.
- Infusion is used for treating irritable bowel syndrome, spastic colon and digestive problems.
- Apply the lotion externally to skin providing relief from pain and reduce sensitivity
- Dilute it and inhale or chests rub to treat respiratory infections.
- Peppermint oil promotes relaxation, memory, concentration, energy and wakefulness.
- It lowers itchiness and discomfort of inflammation and joint pain.
- It provides relief sting of sunburns.
- Peppermint essential oil provides relief from cough, fatigue and back pain. Also helpful to promote circulation and relieve muscular pain, spasms and cramps.
- For colds, fill bowl with hot water adding few drops of Peppermint oil. Then cover the head and bowl with towel and slowly breathe in.
Edible Uses of Peppermint:
- Leaves are consumed raw or cooked.
- It is used as a flavoring for salads and cook foods.
- Make a Peppermint limeade by mixing lime juice with Stevia and muddled Peppermint leaves. Top it off with filtered water and ice cubes.
- Incorporating Peppermint into a fresh fruit salsa with chopped Apples, Pear, Lemon or Lime juice, Jalapeno, and honey. Serve with Cinnamon pita chips or on top of baked chicken.
- Jazzing up your water by adding Peppermint leaves and cCcumber for a refreshing treat.
- Adding a few chopped Peppermint leaves to your next chocolate chip cookie dough.
- Pouring hot water over Peppermint leaves and steeping for 5-6 minutes for homemade Peppermint tea. Try using chocolate mint leaves for a twist.
- Chopping Peppermint and tossing with fresh Pineapple for a quick snack.
- The essential oil extracted from flowers and leaves are used to flavor chewing gum, sweets and ice cream.
- Dried leaves are used to make tea.
Other Uses of Peppermint:
- Use it as a garnish or in pot-pourris.
- Acne: Take 1-2 drops of Peppermint oil, 1 teaspoon of a carrier oil preferably olive oil along with 1 teaspoon of Vitamin-E in a bowl. Apply this mixture on the acne and rinse it off after a while. This would not only eradicate the bacteria that are causing acne but also diminish blemishes.
- Bacterial and Fungal Infections: Applying 2 drops of Peppermint essential oil blended with gentle carrier oils like coconut oil aids in treating bacterial and fungal infections. / Add 2 drops of this oil in warm foot bath or in bathing water for fighting against such detrimental microbes.
- Cold and Cough: Add a few drops of this oil to boiling water. Next, inhale the steam rising from the water to get relief from running nose and congestion Be careful not to burn yourself while doing so.
- Dandruff: Adding 3 to 4 drops of Peppermint oil to your shampoo or hair conditioner can add shine to your hair and make it look smooth and silky.
- Dental Care: Add a drop of this oil to normal water and rinse thoroughly to use it as a mouthwash.
- Digestive Issues: Gently rub 3 drops of Peppermint essential oil with Sesame oil on the stomach and abdomen to help relieve indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, bloating, constipation and pain.
- Facial Scrub: Add 1-2 drops of the essential oil to salt (preferably rock salt) and a teaspoon of suitable carrier oil like olive oil to formulate an efficacious scrub which could be used twice a week. (Avoid the area around the eye while scrubbing). This will help you get all the benefits of Peppermint oil for skin such as maintaining the skin texture and natural oil balance.
- Fever: Applying two drops of Peppermint oil blended with coconut oil on your foot helps in quicker recovery from fever. This blend can also be rubbed on the chest, back and neck for treating congestion, cough and blocked nose.
- Repelling Insects: Add a few drops of Peppermint essential oil to half a cup of water and spray it on the regions infected by pests or on those places where the insects are commonly seen as an example, window sill, cupboards, door, etc. / You could even add a few drops of this oil on a cotton ball and place it where needful. The strong scent of the oil would keep them at bay.
- Skin Care: Gently massaging your skin with 2 drops of Peppermint oil blended with sweet almond oil helps in nourishing and hydrating dry, dull and lifeless skin. You can also add 2 to 3 drops of oil in your daily lotions and creams and apply it on the affected area.
- Skin Itchiness: Add two drops of the Peppermint essential oil to one teaspoon warm coconut oil or Aloe Vera gel. You can even include a drop of tree oil if available. This mixture would collectively work against the itching sensation and provide immediate relief. Even the itching caused by nasty insect bites could be reduced with this oil.
- Skin Toner: Mix a few drops of water, apple cider vinegar, and the essential oil (1 drop). Apply this mixture over the face and leave it overnight. Wash the product with cold water the next morning to get a toned and radiant facial skin.
- Sore Throat: Gargling with a half teaspoon of rock-salt mixed with Peppermint oil added into warm water could eliminate the bacteria and give relief from sore throat.
- Stress: 3 to 4 drops of Peppermint oil blended with Sesame oil can act as an efficacious massage oil and as a bathing oil for enhancing your mental strength, treating stress, reducing fatigue and anxiety. It also helps in treating anger, mental strain, confusion, nervousness, palpitations, vertigo and depression.
- Sunburns: Add 15 drops of Peppermint oil to a glass bottle measuring two ounces. Next, fill this bottle with Aloe-Vera gel and shake vigorously. Apply this mixture over the skin to soothe the inflammation and promote healing.