Health Benefits and Uses of Oregano

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Oregano (Origanum vulgare)

Oregano botanically known as Origanum vulgare, Oregano is a flowering plant from the same family as mint. There are various types of Oregano available. The common type is Oregano Vulgare which is also known as Spanish Thyme and Wild Marjoram. Another species is Origanum majorana called Sweet Marjoram, which is similar to Oregano. It is an aromatic perennial flowering herb that comes under the mint family Lamiaceae is known for its intense flavor leaves with a slight sweetness and flowering tops. Oregano is a staple herb that is used in various cuisines worldwide. It is widely distributed or grown in the hilly region of the Mediterranean countries, western Asia, and in some parts of Mexico and the United States. This herb is used as an essential ingredient in the Mediterranean cooking style and also used in season foods. Apart from giving flavor, it has been used to treat health issues for thousands of years. Oregano is represented by 6 subspecies which is distributed widely across North Africa and Euroasia. It is also introduced to North America. Oregano possesses an essential oil having characteristics sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes which is responsible for its aromatic properties. Oregano is grown as a small evergreen perennial herb in mild climates, and grows from 8 inch to 32 inches in height. Oregano has 1–4 cm oval-shaped leaves which are arranged oppositely, and covered with glandular trichomes, i.e., plant hairs. The stems are soft, square, and hairy and they become woody when they’re older. The flowers are tiny, purple, 3–4 mm long, and are formed in clusters. All the varieties contain essential oil and the principal components of them are thymol and carvacrol. This plant was developed initially on the plantation of Mount Olympus. Broadly it is grown in Central Asia, Mediterranean and South Asia. Turkey is considered as the largest exporters of Oregano. Israel, Greece and Turkey produce high quality Oregano essential oils. Although it’s native to Europe, it now grows all over the world.

Oregano was used by Ancient Romans and Greeks. Oregano was grown in Greece. Greek people believed that Oregano was created by the Goddess Aphrodite (Goddess of Love). According to the Greek text, Aphrodite wants it to be a symbol of joy and happiness in her garden. This name comes from the Greek words "oros", which means "mountain", and "ganos", "joy" or "delight". The term, Oregano, is converted from Greek to mean “The joy of the mountain”. In historical Grecian societies, wreaths of Oregano were utilized in marriage ceremonies to bless the happy couple as well as utilized in funeral services to provide peace to the departed. Secondly, Romans used Oregano for their taste, and it is easy to cultivate. Then, due to its unique flavor, this herb got spread throughout Europe and Northern Africa. In the middle ages period, Oregano leaves are used to treat various medical conditions such as indigestion, rheumatism, toothache, and cough. Since the Romans overcome Greece, they incorporated a big part of Grecian culture into their own. It absolutely was these overcoming Romans who were in charge of the prevalent usage of Oregano all through Europe as well as to foreign countries. Since this adaptable, stinky spice wound its way on the “spice road”, a trading route between the Middle East and Asia, Oregano ultimately arrived at China in the middle age exactly where it absolutely was utilized nearly exclusively for therapeutic reasons. It was used in Anhui, Yunnan, Hubei, Gansu, Sichuan, Jiangxi, and Fujian Provinces of China. Chinese people used it for treating fever, vomiting, and stomach upset. It is also believed that wearing this herb will give good dreams. In the Elizabethan era, Oregano was used to cheer good luck, happiness, peace, health, protection, and welcoming or thanking loved ones. US people did not know about it until World War II. US soldiers found Oregano during the Italian Campaign and brought it to the US, whenever soldiers as well as an influx of foreign immigrants launched it together with other spices or herbs to American culture.

The herb has also been used for centuries as a culinary spice. It’s often used as an herb to flavor food. It gives a different kind of flavor to the dishes and it is available in fresh, dried, or oil, which is said to have significant health benefits. It suits well with tomato, pizzas, and pasta sauces. Oregano essential oil is made by air-drying the leaves and shoots of the plant. Once they’re dried, the oil is extracted and concentrated by steam distillation. Oregano essential oil can be mixed with a carrier oil and applied topically. However, it should not be consumed orally. Oregano oil extract, on the other hand, can be produced via several extraction methods using compounds like carbon dioxide or alcohol. It’s widely available as a supplement and can often be found in pill or capsule form. Greek or Italian Oregano will have a powerful aroma and pungent taste, but the dull flavor Oregano is cultivated for Ornamental purposes, which is not suitable for cooking. Ornamental Oregano can be grown in the garden for decoration purposes.

Health Benefits of Oregano

There are over 40 varieties of Oregano found in the world, but Origanum vulgare is the one that possesses various health benefits. You can use fresh leaves, dried leaves, or Oregano oil for cooking, seasoning, and medicinal benefits. The strong, spicy-smelling, yellowish-brown Oregano oil can be extracted from the dried Oregano leaves using a steam distillation process. Consuming modern medicine for health issues will cause some side effects that may lead to liver or stomach upset. Here, gastrointestinal problems, headaches, and pains can also be treated with a common ingredient available in your home. This little shrub should be in your garden, or you can keep it as dried Oregano in the kitchen for its healing power.

Oregano offers numerous health benefits. It is used internally for treating respiratory tract problems such as asthma, coughs, croup, allergies, bronchitis, bloating, heartburn and parasites. It is also helpful for headaches, urinary tract infections, bleeding after tooth is pulled, diabetes, high cholesterol and heart conditions. The oil extracted from Oregano is applied for skin condition such as athlete’s foot, acne, canker sores, dandruff, ringworm, wounds, warts, psoriasis, rosaceae and also for toothaches, gum disease, spider or insect bites, varicose veins and muscle or joint pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine used Oregano for treating vomiting, fever and diarrhea. The fresh leaves were used in tea for strengthening the immune system and for dealing with infections. The remedial properties of this oil are antimicrobial, antiseptic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, antioxidant, emmenagogue, anti-allergenic, digestive, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulant. Oregano has some essential nutrients, and when consumed in small quantities, it will give the required nutrients to your body. For example, Just taking-in one teaspoon of powder Oregano can provide 8% of your daily vitamin K requirement. Biblical texts denote Oregano as a cleansing tonic. The Ancient Arabic Medicine used this herb for food preservation and for treating gastrointestinal disorders. The Natural Medicinal System of Philippines used Oregano and its essential oil for treating cough and ear aches in children. It was also used in curing pain and given for women after childbirth for its emmenagogue properties. Hippocrates, the great Greek philosopher, physician, the father of western medicine and scholar, used Oregano for medicinal purposes. He used it as both an anesthetic and for digestive problems. History denotes that it was the Greeks who discovered the disinfectant and antimicrobial properties of this oil and they used it for treating skin infections, sore throat, wounds, viral infections and for protecting the body from the effect of harmful organisms.

The chemical compounds which possess various health benefits are carvacrol, thymol, ocimene, limonene, pinene, and caryophyllene. These are the compounds that give unique flavor to the Oregano. Oregano has polyphenols, including various flavones. Over 60 different chemical compounds have been identified in the Oregano, but carvacrol and thymol constitute over 80% of chemicals. Other 20% include p-cymene, γ-terpinene, germacrene-D, caryophyllene, spathulenol, β-fenchyl alcohol, δ-terpineol, acetate, borneol, bisabolene, cymene, geranyl, linalool, linalyl acetate, pinene, vitamins, and minerals. Oregano has vitamins A, for the development and maintenance of the immune system; vitamins C, for the growth and repair of body tissues; vitamins K, aids the blood to clot quickly; vitamins E and minerals like iron, calcium, and magnesium. This antioxidant-rich food has antioxidants such as tryptophan, lysine, valine, arginine, and tocopherol. The essential Oregano oil is composed of monoterpenoids and monoterpenes. Nutrient amount present in 1 gram Oregano: energy: 2.7 calories, carbohydrate: 0.7 g, carbohydrate: 0.7 g, fiber: 0.4 g, calcium: 16.0 mg, phosphorus: 1.5 mg, potassium: 12.6 mg, folate: 2.4 mcg. It also has minerals such as: manganese for the regulation of brain and nerve function, magnesium for the regulation of muscle, heart, and nerve function, and it also maintains your bones strength and iron for vital in the production of red blood cells. These nutrients assist in formation of DNA and RNA building blocks, metabolizing bones, prevention of anemia and optimal brain function. Besides this, it also contains potassium, manganese and copper. It has high content of antioxidants which helps to neutralize free radicals. It has lutein, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin as carotenoids. Medicinally it is effective for treating colds, flu, indigestion and regulation of menstrual cycle. As a poultice, it is used as an aid for sore muscles and eczema. Leaves and flowers are mild stimulant which enhance flow of bile from gall bladder to intestines and also aids digestion and prevent gas.

A 2018 comprehensive review "Carvacrol and human health" published in Phytother Res. by Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Elena Maria Varoni, Marcello Iriti, Miquel Martorell, William N Setzer, María Del Mar Contreras, Bahare Salehi, Azam Soltani-Nejad, Sadegh Rajabi, Mercedeh Tajbakhsh, Javad Sharifi-Rad, carvacrol is a phenolic monoterpenoid found in essential oils of Marjoram (Origanum majorana), Oregano (Origanum vulgare), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris), Pepperwort (Lepidium flavum), Wild Bergamot (Citrus aurantium bergamia), and other plants. Carvacrol possesses a wide range of bioactivities putatively useful for clinical applications such antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Carvacrol antimicrobial activity is higher than that of other volatile compounds present in essential oils due to the presence of the free hydroxyl group, hydrophobicity, and the phenol moiety. The present review illustrates the state-of-the-art studies on the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of carvacrol. It is particularly effective against food-borne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Bacillus cereus. Carvacrol has high antioxidant activity and has been successfully used, mainly associated with thymol, as dietary phytoadditive to improve animal antioxidant status. The anticancer properties of carvacrol have been reported in preclinical models of breast, liver, and lung carcinomas, acting on proapoptotic processes. Besides the interesting properties of carvacrol and the toxicological profile becoming definite, to date, human trials on carvacrol are still lacking, and this largely impedes any conclusions of clinical relevance.

Skin & Hair Condition and Care:

Skin Care:

Oregano is good for skin, because it has all properties best known as antifungal, antiseptic and of course antioxidants which are good for skin. The antifungal and antiseptic are effective to treat skin conditions while antioxidants are essential to keep the skin cells healthy and promote the cells regeneration. Being an anti-allergenic oil, Oregano acts as a sedative and pacifies the hyper-sensitive reaction responsible for allergies.

Every topically applies undiluted Oregano oil on the skin tags every night and gradually it helps to disappear the skin tags. If you feel excessive warmth on the site of application, then apply Lavender oil or Coconut oil to cool down.

Skin Aging (Wrinkles):

Therapeutic grade Oregano essential oil contains powerful antioxidant properties, and is an excellent oil to have in your medicine cabinet if you want to slow down the aging process. But how does it work? To understand how Oregano oil works for aging, we need to take a quick look at the process of aging itself. Aging is largely caused by free radicals and oxidation in the body, which is why antioxidants are so important. Oregano oil contains an abundance of antioxidants that defend the body against free radicals and other damaging agents that speed up aging. Phenols present in the oil are powerful antioxidants and target and neutralize free radicals responsible for causing certain cancers, aging, wrinkles, nervous system disorders, muscle degeneration and more.

A 2020 study "Chemical Compositions and Anti-Skin-Ageing Activities of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil from Tropical and Mediterranean Region" published in Molecules by Natnaree Laothaweerungsawat, Jakkapan Sirithunyalug, Wantida Chaiyana, revealed the cosmeceutical potential of Origanum vulgare essential oil as a skin-ageing retardant. The Origanum vulgare essential oil from a highland area of a tropical country, obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated and compared to a commercial oil from the mediterranean region. Their chemical compositions were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activities were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric thiocyanate assay. Anti-skin-ageing activities were determined by means of collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase inhibition. Carvacrol was the major component in both oils, but a higher amount was detected in highland area oil (79.5%) than commercial oil (64.6%). Highland area oil possessed comparable radical scavenging activity to commercial oil (IC50 = 1.8 ± 0.8 mg/mL) but significantly higher lipid peroxidation inhibition (38.0 ± 0.8%). Carvacrol was remarked as the major compound responsible for the reducing power of both oils. Interestingly, highland area possessed significant superior anti-skin-ageing activity than ascorbic acid (P < 0.01), with inhibition against collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase of 92.0 ± 9.7%, 53.1 ± 13.3%, and 16.7 ± 0.3%, at the concentration of 67, 25, and 4 µg/mL, respectively. Since highland area oil possessed comparable anti-hyaluronidase activity to commercial oil and superior anti-collagenase and anti-elastase (P < 0.01), highland area was suggested to be used as a natural skin-ageing retardant in a cosmetic industry.

Mix 20 drops of Oregano essential oil with ¼ cup Coconut oil (solid at room temperature) and ¼ cup Moringa oil, an excellent carrier oil that naturally rejuvenates dull, tired and aging skin and prevents sagging facial muscles. Blend and apply on the face. This daily regimen can help you age gracefully and is an excellent alternative to chemically-ridden anti-wrinkle creams.

Overexposure to Sunlight:

A 2020 study "Photoprotective Activity of Plectranthus amboinicus Extracts and HPLC Quantification of Rosmarinic Acid" in Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia by Marcio Vinicius C Terto, Juliana M Goms, Josean F Tavares et al., evaluated that overexposure to sunlight can cause harmful skin effects such as erythema and skin cancer. Sunscreens provide photoprotective agents. Filters based on natural products provide sunscreen properties, along with antioxidant, healing, and moisturizing activity. Study evaluated the photoprotection potential and antioxidant activity pf P. amboinicus. Analyses showed that the the extract had good photoprotection (SPF = 12.63), promising antioxidant activity (EC50 = 112.39 g/ml), total phenolic content (142.39 ± 1.12 mg GAE/g) and Rosemaria acid concentrations 22.5 G/ml).

Skin Infections:

Oil of Oregano can be applied straight on the skin to deal with itches, skin ailment, as well as inflamed gums, as long as it’s been diluted. Generally refer to the instructions in your particular bottle before you apply topically on the skin, since extremely concentrated oils may possibly first have to be combined with Olive oil or Coconut oil just before application (usually one teaspoon of carrier oil per every drop of Oregano oil).

Psoriasis:

Oregano oil can benefit those who have skin conditions such as eczema, candidisis, acne, psoraiasis, rosacea, and those suffering from skin infections can find relief from the external topical application of Oregano oil. Especially those who suffer from psoriasis (an inflammatory skin condition) say that Oregano oil helps them to alleviate symptoms, and although there's no official published research on this, it may well be because Oregano oil is a natural anti-inflammatory.

Mix 10-15 drops of Oregano oil in 2-3 tablespoons of a carrier oil such as Coconut, Jojoba or Olive oil and apply to the affected areas. Please note that Oregano oil is considered to be an oil having hot properties so can cause irritation to the skin if used directly. It is best to mix with a carrier oil and try a small area on your skin first and if your skin feels irritated or you see redness, discontinue use.

Acne:

Many people suffer from acne usually for them antibiotics are prescribed. But over time they develop antibiotic resistance making the antibiotics less effective. Antibiotics are often prescribed in acne treatment; however, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the two of the major acne-associated bacteria, developed antibiotic resistance. Essential oils present a natural, safe, efficacious and multifunctional alternative treatment. And antibiotics also come with lot of side effects Oregano exhibits strong microbial properties against acne causing bacteria and it also does not have any side effects making it a wonderful alternative for prescription acne medications. The antiseptic and antibacterial medicinal properties of Oregano essential oil can work wonders for those who suffer from acne. Oregano oil contains carvacrol, an active compound with excellent antimicrobial properties that can help to kill acne-causing bacteria, dry out acne lesions and reduce swelling and inflammation. It is especially beneficial against cystic acne, a severe type of acne that usually occurs in the teenage years, where pores become clogged leading to large pimples, chronic inflammation and infection.

In accordance with the American Academy of Dermatology, countless Americans are afflicted by acne and also over 85% of teenagers in the USA are afflicted by acne. Oregano oil eliminates the acne leading to bacteria therefore clearing as well as avoiding acne/pimples.

A 2018 study "Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Acne Topical Nanoemulsion-In Vitro and In Vivo Study" published in Molecules by Mohammed H Taleb, Nourtan F Abdeltawab, Rehab N Shamma, Sherein S Abdelgayed, Sarah S Mohamed, Mohamed A Farag, Mohammed A Ramadan, aimed to assess the potential anti-acne activity of selected seven essential oils commonly used in Mediterranean folk medicine. Antimicrobial activity screening of these oils showed Oregano to exhibit the strongest antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.34 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.67 mg/mL against P. acnes; and MIC of 0.67 mg/mL and MBC of 1.34 mg/mL against S. epidermidis. The composition of the most effective essential oils (Oregano and Thyme) was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Monoterpenoid phenols predominated Oregano and Thyme essential oil with thymol percentile 99 and 72, respectively. Thymol showed MIC 0.70 mg/mL against both P. acnes and S. epidermidis whereas MBC was 1.40 and 2.80 mg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Moreover, Oregano exhibited the strongest anti-biofilm effect against S. epidermidis with MBIC 1.34 mg/mL and killing dynamic time of 12 and 8 h against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Oregano and Thyme, the most effective essential oils, was formulated and tested as a nanoemulsion in an acne animal mouse model. The formulation showed superior healing and antimicrobial effects compared to the reference antibiotic. Collectively, our data suggested that Oregano and Thyme oil nanoemulsion is a potential natural and effective alternative for treating acne and overcoming the emerging antibiotic resistance.

For making the anti acne face pack, take a tablespoon of gram flour in a bowl. Now add in 3 drops of Oregano oil and enough Cucumber juice to form a paste. To use, apply this pack all over the face and neck. Wait for it to completely dry and then wash it off. You can also use fresh Oregano extract in face packs too.

Add 2-3 drops of Oregano oil to a little water. Soak a cotton ball with the blend and dab onto acne lesions. Carvacrol, the active compound in Oregano oil, helps to fight bacteria and reduce inflammation caused by acne. Please note that it is best to not use Oregano oil directly on acne as it can actually burn the skin. Also, when using it as a natural treatment for acne, try it on a small area on your skin first and if your skin feels irritated or you see redness, discontinue use. Use this particular solution on the acne using a cotton ball. If you have redness right after use take a rest for several days and also the use lesser quantity of oil within the water and apply.

Warts:

Warts are annoying growths that usually appear on the feet, hands or can appear in other areas of the body as well. They are caused by a virus called the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Warts can become quite painful, especially plantar warts that occur under the feet and can affect your ability to walk. Warts can also spread to other areas of the body so dealing with them as quickly as you can is recommended. Oregano essential oil can work very well to burn off warts due to its high concentration of carvacrol.   

Mix 3-4 drops of Oregano essential oil with 1 teaspoon of a carrier oil such us Neem oil (which also excellent against warts). Apply the blend with a clean cotton swab 4-5 times a day and make sure to use a clean swab if you are treating more than one wart so you don't spread the infection. After treatment cover the wart with a tape or bandage so it is not fueled by oxygen. Within a week or two you should be able to notice a sizeable difference in the size of the wart.

Skin Abscesses:

A 2013 study "Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses" published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Francisco Fábio Martins de Oliveira, Alba Fabiola Torres, Thially Braga Gonçalves, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro Santiago, Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho, Milena Braga Aguiar, Lilia Maria Carneiro Camara, Silvia Helena Rabenhorst, Alice Maria Costa Martins, José Telmo Valença Junior, and Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias, evaluated the effectiveness of P. amboinicus against MRSA clinical isolates. An ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciproflloxacin. There was a significant reduction in abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries and inflammatory scores. Results showed effectiveness of PA fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays.

Athlete's Foot and Ringworm:

Fungal infections like athlete’s foot and ringworm can be treated aromatically with the antifungal properties of this oil.

A 2001 research on "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms" proved that among the 11 essential oils tested for effectiveness against microbes. Oregano was the most powerful against athlete’s foot. Combined with salt and heat, researchers concluded that essential oils (specifically Oregano) were a promising treatment.

Toenail Fungus:

It has been seen in tests that oil of Oregano is approximately 100 times more efficient as compared to traditional medications in fighting Candida infections, the reason for fungal infection of the nails.

Oil of Oregano can be applied directly or even combined with Olive oil around the affected nails and cuticles. Utilize 3 times each day. To prevent reinfection, keep feet dry and in addition prevent walking barefoot in public places such as shower/changing rooms and gyms, and prevent sharing shoes and socks.

Bed Sore:

To prepare Oregano anti-bedsore herbal mixture, mix 50 g of Oregano with 50 g of Knotweed herb and 50 g of Dandelion leaves. Pour 2 tablespoons of the prepared mixture into 500 ml of cool, boiled water. Heat until boiling, then cook, covered, for 10 minutes. After cooling down, use to rinse the parts of the body that are exposed to pressure ulcers. In higher concentrations, it can be added to the bath as a disinfectant.

Promotes Hair Growth (Hair Loss):

Since Oregano has anti bacterial properties, it helps treat all scalp infections.

For making Oregano hair oil, take a cup of Coconut oil in a bowl. Now add in ¼ cup of extra virgin Olive oil. Add 5 drops of Oregano oil to it. Mix well and use it is a hair oil daily. This oil will treat all scalp problems along with promoting fast hair growth.

Dandruff:

If you have an itchy scalp and suffer from dandruff, try Oregano oil. Research shows that dandruff is caused by a yeast infection or fungus in the scalp and not the many reasons most people believe cause dandruff, like a dry or oily scalp, too much or too little hair washing etc. Being a natural anti-fungal Oregano oil can help fight yeast and fungal infections, including dandruff.

Add to shampoo 5-6 drops of therapeutic-grade Oregano essential oil to around 1 tablespoon of shampoo and massage into the scalp. Make sure you don't get any shampoo into your eyes. Leave for 10 minutes and wash off. Repeat for a week.

For make hair oil, add 10-15 drops of Oregano oil and 8-10 drops of Tea Tree oil (also excellent for dandruff and flaking scalp) to 1-2 tablespoons of Coconut oil or Neem oil and rub into the scalp after washing your hair. Leave overnight for best results.

Respiratory Conditions:

Oregano helps with respiratory infections. This one seems to be a job for Oregano oil more than Oregano the herb. Though some say ingesting Oregano can encourage sweating and help you get rid of unwanted phlegm in your lungs. But the essential oil is the real star when it comes to respiratory infections as you can use it in as spray or vapor. Essential oils are the concentrated oils distilled from the herb itself, essentially creating a concentrated form of Oregano. As Oregano essential oil has warming effect, it can assist the body when it is cold and treat problems like cold, sinusitis, headache, mucous congestion, whooping cough, pneumonia and other respiratory infections. Oregano essential oil is said to be one of the best essential oils for opening blocked sinus passages and treat congestion as a natural decongestant.

Dr Light Miller, ND & Dr. Bryan Miller, DC in their book "Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing", which integrates the ancient healing science of Ayurveda with the modern development of Aromatherapy, said that "Oregano essential oil is a warming diaphoretic oil that eliminates surface toxins, provoke perspiration, improve blood circulation and relieve headaches due to congestion or cold". Oregano oil removes surface toxins, enhances blood circulation, and relieves headaches due to cold.

One study shows that a spray containing aromatic essential oils from five plants, including Oregano, was found to significantly relieve symptoms immediately in those with upper respiratory infections.

Add 2 drops of Oregano oil to steaming water and inhaling this medicated steam will aid in alleviating congestion, open blocked nasal passages and relieve pain due to cold and infection. You can also blend 2 drops of Oregano oil with Coconut oil and gently massage the soles of your feet or apply on your chest and back or add it to warm bathing water for immediate relief from cold, sore throat and sinus problems. You can also put one drop of oil of Oregano and a couple drops of Eucalyptus in a bowl of steaming water, put a towel loosely over your head and inhale the steam for about 5 minutes. Keep doing this until you feel better.

Oregano oil or even leaves can be used in the bowl of boiling water. Lean over the bowl as well as inhale the steam to release phlegm as well as calm bronchial spasms. Include Oregano oil or even leaves in your bath to calm aches, disinfect as well as clear the lungs.

Common Cold:

The strong and unique aroma of Oregano comes from certain chemicals found like thymol, limonene and ocimene. Those chemicals are also potent in treating cold caused by viral infections. The powerful antioxidant and antiseptic properties in Oregano make it an excellent treatment for the common cold.

To make Oregano tea for common cold, take ¼ teaspoon of dried or fresh Oregano in a cup. Add in half cup of boiling hot water. Strain after 10 minutes, add honey and few drops of Lemon juice to taste and your Oregano tea is ready. Oregano tea can be used as a home remedy for treating cold, cough, indigestion, to reduce inflammation and also to improve immunity.

Add 2-3 drops of Oregano oil to an edible carrier oil such as Olive or Coconut oil and take it sublingually (under your tongue). Swish the blend for a minute, giving it time to absorb into your blood system, and then spit it out. Repeat 2-3 times a day.

Flu:

The antiviral property in Oregano can effectively shorten the duration of flu symptoms. Some common telltale symptoms of the flu are high fever, cough, sore throat, headache, vomiting, loss of appetite as well as aches and pains in the joints and muscles.

To treat these symptoms, simply mix a few drops of Oregano oil in a glass of water and drink it once daily for three to five days or add several drops of Oregano oil in your diffuser and breathe in the medicinal vapors. Great for cold and flu season.

Cough:

Add a few drops of Oregano oil to a bowl of boiling water, place a towel over your head and breathe in the potent healing vapors for 5-10 minutes. The hot steam helps to loosen mucus in the airways helping the cough to be more productive. This home remedy is extremely beneficial for those suffering from bronchitis and whooping cough.

Add 5-8 drops of Oregano oil to 1-2 tsp of Coconut oil (solid at room temperature) and rub on the chest as a soothing balm for respiratory tract infections and coughs. You can also rub this balm on the soles of the feet for added benefit.

Sore Throat:

Sore throat is probably not a serious condition but it is really uncomfortable and if it is not treated properly could lead to more uncomfortable conditions like fever and cold.

When you feel a cold or sore throat coming on, simply add 3 drops of Oregano oil to a glass of Orange juice and you ought to notice outcomes in a couple of hours. Drink it once daily for up to 5 days until your symptoms are gone. You can also drink Oregano tea two or three times a day for symptom relief.

To treat sore throat, add to 2 drops of Oregano oil in a gargle. But it must be diluted sufficiently in the gargle, otherwise, it causes heat in the throat area.

Nasal Congestion:

Oregano is a wonderful natural treatment for nasal congestion as it works as a safe and reliable antihistamine.

To clear blocked throat and nasal passages, add 2-3 drops of Oregano oil to one-half cup of boiling water. Cover your head with a towel and inhale the vapor coming off the mixture. Do this twice daily. A deep sniff of Oregano oil directly from the bottle is a great pick-me-up and can help open up the airways. Alternatively, you can add three drops of Oregano oil to a glass of juice and drink it daily for three to five days.

Sinus:

Unblock your sinuses using a facial steam made utilizing oil of Oregano. The oil of Oregano may also help kill any kind of bacteria within the sinuses and lungs. An oil of Oregano facial steam may also be helpful along with allergies, as oil of Oregano is really an all-natural antihistamine.

Add a few drops of Oregano oil to a bowl of boiling water, place a towel over your head and breathe in the powerful vapors for 5-10 minutes. The moist steam helps to loosen and drain mucus in the nasal passages and the antibacterial properties of the oil help to fight infections and relieve cold symptoms. This home remedy is excellent for those suffering from sinus infections or pneumonia.

Make a face steam, begin by boiling 3 to 4 cups of water in the pot. Eliminate the pot through heat after the water boils. Then, include numerous drops of oil of Oregano to the water. Make lid off the pot to allow the steam rise. Place a towel around your head and also over the pot, developing a barrier, and also gradually breathe in the steam. Be cautious, as it’s hot. Obviously. Hang out just like you’re in the sauna and simply allow the steam loosen blockage.

You may also include ½ cup of vinegar for an additional anti-bacterial boost, even though it won’t smell so excellent. Massage the feet bottom with herbal massage oil prepared with 2 drops of Oregano oil, 5 drops of Roman Chamomile, 6 drops Lavender and 5 drops of Coconut oil. Massage quarterly for three days in a week to get an effective result.

Asthma:

Asthma is one of the conditions of respiratory track disorder. It is not an easy condition to treat but much easier to avoid by putting away all things that could be the trigger of the allergic reaction. Oregano contains some properties that could act as anti-allergic that could treat this condition optimally. Though of course there are some words of cautions related to allergic you should aware too. Oregano is rich in carvacrol, flavonoids and terpenes, all compounds that act as "lung-cleansing elements". So, Oregano will clear the respiratory tract and bronchial tubes, giving relief from asthma attacks. When suffering from an asthma attack, drink Oregano tea sweetened with honey four to five times a day. Another option is to extract the juice from Oregano leaves and take one tablespoon of it every hour to relieve asthma and chronic coughs.

A 2010 study published in International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences by D Srinivasa Rao, V Prasada Rao and K R S Sambisiva Rao, isolated forskolin, a diterpenoid, from a methanolic extract of Oregano, has been used to treat asthma. Forskolin has been thought to be responsible for its pharmaceutical activity through restoration of antioxidant enzyme activity with its ability to scavenge free radicals. The results validate the use of forskolin as an anti-asthmatic agent. The same study evaluated antioxidant potency of forskolin for protective action in lung damage in rats caused by ova albumin. Results showed forskolin exhibited better antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation induced by ova albumin and aluminum hydroxide.

A 2007 study published in Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 39, No. 2 showed stabilization of mast cells in rat mesenteric tissue and suggests further studies into mast cells with its role in Type 1 hypersensitivity-mediated diseases like asthma and rhinitis.

Oregano tea can be used as reducing an asthma attack. Sweeten the tea along with honey and keep sipping it hot. Breathing in the vapors of Oregano will help with clearing the nasal pathways. However, one must do it a minimum of 4-5 times each day to determine the end result.

Fever:

Oregano also found in the form of oil that could function as health tonic. It is because Oregano oil is so rich of carvacol that is effective in treating mild fever. What you need to do is just stirring some Oregano oil with your favorite hot drink, like tea will help you treating fever, although consulting your doctor with your condition is still necessary.

Alleviates Allergy:

Being a natural anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory and a mild sedative Oregano essential oil helps to reduce the way the body reacts to allergens such as pollen, mold and other airborne irritants that can cause inflammation in the airways. Therapeutic-grade Oregano oil contains carvacrol and rosmarinic acid, a natural antihistamine that can help reduce swelling and is effective in treating allergic reactions. Both these active components found in Oregano essential oil can help relieve allergy symptoms like sneezing, congestion and itching.

Add a few drops of Oregano oil to a bowl of boiling water, place a towel over your head and breathe in the strong vapors for 5-10 minutes. The hot steam helps to loosen mucus, open up the airways, and the anti-inflammatory properties of the oil help to soothe and relieve allergy symptoms. Add several drops of Oregano oil in your diffuser, let it waft through the air and breathe in the medicinal vapors. This remedy is great for allergy season.

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD):

This aromatic herb is an excellent source of potassium, an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control rapid heart rate and blood pressure caused by high intake of sodium. The disease-fighting antioxidants present in Oregano are believed to help prevent and repair oxidative stress and heart disease. Oregano is a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids help reduce inflammation throughout the body and also lower the risk of heart disease. Drink one cup of Oregano tea daily to improve your heart health.

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension):

One of the most amazing things that Oregano could do to your life is assisting in controlling blood pressure. It is not an easy task but since Oregano could blend perfectly with other foods like it is easy to add Oregano as part of daily diet and deal with all the negative effects of sodium that enter your body.

Cholesterol Levels:

Oregano contains zero level of cholesterol. Due to this reason it is a healthy diet for the people with cholesterol. Oregano possesses omega 3 fatty acids which help in rebalancing the level of cholesterol. Carvacrol, the main compound in Oregano oil, has also been shown to help lower cholesterol. It is recommended for patients with cholesterol problems. Studies have shown that Oregano oil may help lower cholesterol.

In a study on mice that were fed a high fat diet over 10 weeks. The mice given carvacrol alongside the high fat diet had significantly lower cholesterol at the end of the 10 weeks, compared with those that were just given a high fat diet. The cholesterol-lowering effect of Oregano oil is thought to be the result of the phenols carvacrol and thymol.

In one study, 48 people with mildly high cholesterol were given diet and lifestyle advice to help lower their cholesterol. 32 participants were also given 0.85 oz (25 mL) of Oregano oil extract after each meal. After 3 months, those given the Oregano oil had lower LDL "bad" cholesterol and higher HDL "good" cholesterol, compared with those who were just given diet and lifestyle advice.

Heart Attack:

There are a lot of factors that could cause heart attack from inflammatory condition, cardiovascular problem; the spike of cholesterol level up to heart is forced to work too hard due to disturbance in the artery. Oregano contains compound called beta-caryophyllin which could act as anti-inflammatory, Oregano also contains omega 3 fatty acids that are good to control cholesterol and all cardiovascular conditions so it is effective to prevent heart attack.

Hematologic Diseases:

Blood Clotting:

Blood clotting got its bad reputation because sometimes they were formed in the location they’re not supposed to be there like in the artery that will disturb the blood circulation. However, without the ability of blood to clot, when you’re finger cut even by paper, the blood will keep bleeding and never stop which is scary. Oregano contains some properties that promote proper blood clotting.

Hemoglobin Levels:

Hemoglobin is actually essential protein found in red blood cells which has function to distribute oxygen throughout the body cells. That’s why the level of hemoglobin in your body will affect the amount of oxygen distributed to your body. Surely you know how important oxygen to your body is and Oregano has properties that could assist in increasing the level of hemoglobin. In other words, just by adding Oregano to your food daily, it helps oxygenating your body cells.

Increases the Production of White Blood Cells:

White blood cells are part of immunity system. The better the immunity system is functioning should be balanced with the production of white blood cells. Oregano which is rich of carvacol and thymol will assist in increasing the production of white blood cells in order to fight bacteria and other conditions caused by viral infections effectively.

Anemia:

As rich of manganese and iron, Oregano is also effective to prevent anemia by making sure the production of red blood cells are in the right level so body will get enough blood and you could say goodbye to anemia completely. Though in acute level, you should contact your doctor for more intensive treatment.

Genotoxity in Bone Marrow:

Cyclophosphamide, an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, can bind DNA, causing chromosome breaks, micronucleus (Mn) formation, and cell death. Because Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has antioxidative properties, it might protect against DNA damage. The genoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells was evaluated using a Mn assay.

A 2015 study "Genoprotective effects of Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells" published in Pharm Biol. by Emran Habibi, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Amirhossein Ahmadi, Aroona Chabra, Farshad Naghshvar, Razieh Keshavarz-Maleki, mice were pre-treated with aerial parts of Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract at different doses (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) for 7 d. One hour after the last administration of Origanum vulgare, animals were injected with cyclophosphamide at 200 mg/kg. After 24 h, the bone marrow cells of both femurs were flushed and the frequency of MnPCEs was evaluated to measure the chromosomal damages. In addition, the number of PCEs per 1000 NCEs in each animal was recorded to evaluate the bone-marrow suppression; mitotic activity was calculated as [PCE/(PCE + NCE)] × 100 to assess the cell division. At 400 mg/kg, Origanum vulgare displayed its maximum protective effect, reduced the number of MnPCEs from 10.52 ± 1.07 for cyclophosphamide group to 2.17 ± 0.26 and completely normalized the mitotic activity (p < 0.001). Origanum vulgare also led to significant proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after the mice were treated with cyclophosphamide, mitigating the bone marrow suppression. Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract exerts a potent genoprotective effect against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mice bone marrow, which might be possibly due to the scavenging of free radicals during oxidative stress conditions.

Digestive Disorders:

Oregano essential oil is a heating carminative oil that aids in increasing the pitta flow and promotes quicker digestion. Oregano is a beneficial herb in promoting the health of the gut. Digestive problems such as diarrhea, pain, and bloating (gas buildup) are the common issues caused by parasites, and Oregano treats these issues. It is also helpful in protecting the gut problem called a "leaky gut". In this condition, the gut wall gets damaged and so the bacteria and toxins easily enter the bloodstream.

Numerous herbalists will suggest a great cup of Oregano tea to assist support a fantastic digestive system. A few of the oils found in Oregano tea may possibly help with relaxing as well as supporting the gastrointestinal system. This will make this specific tea helpful to enjoy after a large or even serious meal.

Massaging your stomach with 2 drops of Oregano oil blended with Sesame oil can assist in treating slow digestion due to excess of mucous deposits in the stomach or fullness. You can also add 2-3 drops of Oregano oil in warm compresses to help with stomach upsets, relieving gas, enabling the movement of food and for regularizing the entire process of digestion.

Stomachache:

Since Oregano has anti spasmodic properties, it helps treats stomach pain fast.

To treat stomach pain, take 5 grams of fresh or dried Oregano in a pan. Now boil a cup of water, once it comes to a boil, switch off and pour over the Oregano. Let it steep for 10 minutes and then strain. Drink a cup of this to get good relief from stomach pain.

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

Oregano may benefit gut health in a number of ways. Gut symptoms like diarrhea, pain, and bloating are common and can be caused by gut parasites. This happens when the gut wall becomes damaged, allowing bacteria and toxins to pass into the bloodstream. It also reduced the number of bacteria in the gut.

In a study on pigs, Oregano essential oil protected the gut wall from damage and prevented it from becoming “leaky”. Studies have claimed that Oregano oil decreases the E. coli bacteria in the gut, protects the intestinal wall from damage, and prevents it from leakage.

A 2021 clinical trial "The Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum vulgare L. Correlated with the Gastrointestinal Perturbation in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome" published in Molecules by Timea Claudia Ghitea, Amina El-Kharoubi, Mariana Ganea, Erika Bimbo-Szuhai, Tiberiu Sebastian Nemeth, Gabriela Ciavoi, Monica Foghis, Luciana Dobjanschi, Annamaria Pallag, Otilia Micle, the metabolic syndrome (MS) promotes acute and chronic infections, due to the pro-inflammatory condition given by TNFα and IL6 or by affecting the microbiota. MS is also correlated with insulin resistance, causing inflammation and infections throughout the organism. The purpose of this study was to track the effect of using the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (EOO) as an antibacterial treatment, compared to allopathic treatment with antibiotics in MS patients. A group of 106 people with MS was divided into four subgroups: L1-staphylococcal infection group, L2-Escherichia coli infection group, L3-streptococcal infection group with EOO treatment, and CG-control group without infection or treatment. EOO is responsible for the antibacterial effect, and reduced minor uncomplicated infections. After a 10-day treatment, intestinal side effects were absent, improving the phase angle. The results suggest that EOO may exhibit an antibacterial effect, similar to the antibiotic treatment, without promoting MS-specific dysbiosis, and it also improves the phase angle in patients, which is used as an index of health and cellular function.

Mix 50 g of Oregano with 25 g of Mint leaves and 25 g of Valerian root. Pour 250 ml of boiling water over 1 tablespoon of herbs and infuse, covered, for 15 minutes and strain. Drink half a glass after a meal to help regulate digestion, against indigestion, diarrhea and belching.

Colitis:

A combination of Thyme and Oregano oils shows promise in the treatment of colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease.

An animal-based study published in Mediators of Inflammation found colitis-afflicted mice experienced a significant reduction in inflammation after treatment with the combination treatment. Due to a lack of clinical trials, it's unknown whether a combination of Thyme and Oregano oils may be beneficial in treatments for colitis in humans.

Another study published in The Journal Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology found that Oregano oil could lower the negative effects of induced colitis in rats and opens the door to new ideas about its benefit to the colon and liver.

One 2007 study found that a combination of Oregano and Thyme essential oils could lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Because if this, the essential oil mixture may be helpful in reducing symptoms from inflammatory illnesses like colitis.

Stimulates Appetite:

A number of studies have shown that Oregano helps relax stomach tension, which in turn stimulates appetite.

Simply dilute some Oregano oil in water and use it as a hot steam treatment or rub it into your skin to encourage increased appetite. At the same time, this herb stimulates bile release to facilitate digestion and treats flatulence, indigestion and bloating.

Optimal Nutrients Absorption:

Fiber is essential for maintaining gut health and promotes the uptake of nutrients. Loaded with fiber, Oregano has good impact on digestive health. Fiber being a vital element for healthy digestive system, it promotes bulk of stool and enhance peristaltic motion that moves food through digestive tract and efficiently excretes it. An unhealthy digestive system interferes in optimal absorption of nutrients which is extracted from foods consumed. The diet rich in fiber stimulates motion inside bowel system to ensure optimal absorption of nutrients. The number of people who think before they eat is progressively increasing today but less people understand that unhealthy digestive system could disturb the optimal absorption of nutrients extracted from foods they have consumed. Foods rich of fiber will stimulates the motion inside the bowel system to make sure optimal nutrient absorption.

Metabolism:

Healthy metabolism is essential to make sure body is functioning properly. However, there are a lot of factors that are affecting the metabolism system. Some factors will slow down the metabolism while others will speed up the process. Oregano contains some properties that could speed up metabolism so body could function optimally.

Intestinal Parasites:

Intestinal parasites are unwanted inhabitants of the gastrointestinal system that can seriously increase the risk for various diseases. Parasites may cause common symptoms like constipation, gas, or even bloody stools. It’s best to not be worried about having a parasite but eat Oregano regularly so you’re safe either way. To kill these harmful parasites, dried Oregano is a good natural option because it is extremely volatile and antiparasitic. Also, Oregano oil contains two powerful antimicrobial agents known as thymol and carvacrol. These substances have shown to be very effective in treating intestinal parasites. They destroy parasites naturally, and you might not even have to know about it. You’ll just feel the amazing effects. As a natural anti-parasitic Oregano oil is excellent for killing parasites and fighting parasitic infections.

In a study researches gave 600 mg of Oregano oil to 14 people who had gut symptoms as a result of a parasite. After daily treatment for 6 weeks, all participants experienced a reduction in parasites, and 77% were cured. Participants also experienced a reduction in gut symptoms and tiredness associated with the symptoms.

A 2014 study found that Oregano oil can help kill the norovirus, which can lead to gastroenteritis or the stomach flu. It is also beneficial for worm infections and has shown promising potential against several food-borne pathogens such us E. coli, listeria and salmonella.

Another study done in the year 2000 showed that in a majority of cases supplementing with Oregano oil caused the harmful organisms to be completely eliminated from the body.

To treat intestinal parasites, take sublingually if you'd rather not take the oil internally, adding 2-3 drops to an edible carrier oil such as Olive or Coconut oil and taking it sublingually (under your tongue) can work as well. Swish the blend under the tongue for a minute or so giving it time to dissolve and absorb into your blood, and then spit it out.

Take internally in adding a few drops of Oregano oil to your food can potentially kill bacteria, but make sure to use therapeutic-grade Oregano oil. You can also add 2-3 drops to your tea or warm water and add some raw honey to mellow down the strong flavor. Add 2-3 drops of Oregano oil to water, along with some freshly squeezed Lemon juice, and drink it three times a day.

Pain & Inflammation:

Relieves Pain:

A study found that Oregano extract reduced pain in rats, and that the response was dose-dependent, meaning the more Oregano extract the rats consumed, the less pain they appeared to feel.

One older study in mice tested standard painkillers and essential oils, including Oregano essential oil, for their ability to relieve pain. It found that Oregano essential oil significantly reduced pain in mice, exerting effects similar to those of the commonly used painkillers fenoprofen and morphine. The research proposed these results were likely due to the carvacrol content of Oregano.

Reduces Inflammation:

Inflammation in the body is linked to a number of adverse health effects. It is caused due to injuries on the skin surface or illness in the body parts. It is a normal immune response of your immunity system to prevent infection due to invaders or microbes. The anti-inflammatory, immune stimulant and warming diaphoretic properties of Oregano oil assist in eliminating toxins from the body, reduce inflammation, increase blood circulation and lessen pain and inflammation in rheumatic and arthritic patients. But, prolonged inflammation causes the risk of diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune conditions. Inflammation involves a dynamic network that is highly regulated by signals that initiate the inflammation process as well as signals that downregulate it. However, an imbalance between the two leads to tissue damage. Throughout the world, inflammatory disease becomes common in the aging society. The drugs which are used clinically have serious side effects. Natural products or compounds derived from natural products show diversity in structure and play an important role in drug discovery and development. Oregano is known for helping with digestion and even decreasing the symptoms of colitis, which is caused by inflammation in the digestive system.

Already, we have seen that Oregano has a high amount of antioxidants, which aids in neutralizing free radicals and decreasing inflammation. Oregano contains compounds like carvacrol that possess anti-inflammatory properties. Based on one text, thymol and rosmarinic acid compounds present in the Oregano have anti-inflammatory properties. Carvacrol, one of the key components in Oregano oil, has also been shown to reduce inflammation. This is not the same as humans eating Oregano in the diet.

Animal studies have found that carvacrol minimizes swelling in the mice paws up to 57%. And a mixture of Thyme and Oregano oil lowers the number of inflammatory markers in mice with an inflamed colon. But, these studies are done with highly concentrated amounts of Oregano. So Studies are required to find how a usual dosage would reduce inflammation. In animal studies, Oregano extract minimizes inflammation, autoimmune arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergic asthma.

One mouse study found that Oregano essential oil, along with Thyme essential oil, reduced inflammatory markers in those that had artificially induced colitis.

Another study directly applied different concentrations of carvacrol to the swollen paws or ears of mice. Carvacrol reduced paw and ear swelling by 35–61% and 33–43%, respectively.

Based on a scientific study conducted by scientists at Bonn University, Germany, there is a compound called beta-caryophyllin found in Oregano which could act as anti-inflammatory. To deal with the diseases is better to treat the inflammatory first.

A 2021 study "Origanum vulgare L.: In vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Molecular Docking Studies, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity in LPS Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells" published in Med Chem. by Reyaz H Mir, Gifty Sawhney, Rohini Verma, Bilal Ahmad, Parveen Kumar, Soni Ranjana, Asha Bhagat, Sreedhar Madishetti, Zabeer Ahmed 2, Sanjay M Jachak, Sangdun Choi, Mubashir H Masoodi, aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential by evaluating various in vitro parameters. Inflammation-induced in macrophages via LPS is the most accepted model for evaluating the antiinflammatory activity of various plant extracts and lead compounds. The extracts (OVEE, OVEAF) as well as the isolated compound (OVRA) of Oreganum Vulgare inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and NO without affecting cell viability. The study established that the leaf extracts of Origanum vulgare L. exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and thus confirm its importance in traditional medicine.

In a 2019 study "Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus inhibit maturation and release of interleukin 1ß through inhibition of NF-kB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation" in Frontiers in Pharmacology by Wohn-Jenn Leu, Jui Ching Chen, and Jih-Hwa Guh, about inhibitory activity on blocking the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome uncontrolled inflammation may produce massive inflammatory cytokines, with interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) playing a key role in tissue damage and serious disorders. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the major mechanisms in maturation and release of IL-1ß. Extracts from P. amboinicus have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. PA-F4, an extract from P. amboinicus inhibited ATP-induced release of caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18 from lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-primed cells. PA-F4 showed inhibitory activity on NLRP3 infllammasome activation. inhibited LPS-induced p65 NF-kB activation. Four constituents were identified in the PA-F4 viz., rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, and carvacrol, which inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 release. Study concludes the PA-F4 displayed inhibitory activity on activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. It inhibited LPS-priming step through blocking of p65 NF-kB activation, inhibited ATP-signaling pathways and the release reaction of caspase 1, IL-1ß and IL-18.

A 2014 in-vitro study "Evaluation of Anti inflammatory effect of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract" published in Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research by Dayana Janakiraman, Chettancherry Somasundaram Parameswari, evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from P. amboinicus against the denaturation of protein in vitro. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory effect which may be attributed to polyphenolic content and may be a synergistic activity rather than a single compound.

Another 2012 in-vitro and in-vivo study "Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng" in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Yung-Jia Chiu, Tai-Hung Huang, Chuan-Sung Chiu, Tsung-Chun Lu, Ya-Wen Chen, Wen-Huang Peng, and Chiu-Yuan Chen, evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. Results showed inhibition of pain induced by acetic acid and formalin and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The effects were mediated by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory mediators through blocking NF-xB activation. 

Gurgel, A. P. A. D.; Silva, J. G. da; Grangeiro, A. R. S.; Oliveira, D. C.; Lima, C. M. P.; Silva, A. C. P. da; Oliveira, R. A. G.; Souza, I. A. in 2009 study published in Journal of Ethnopharmacology evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves. Results showed significant decreases in paw edema in the carrageenan method and inhibition of growth of sarcoma-180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumors in mice. The effect of leaves extract on induced arthritis in Wistar rats. Arthritis was induced by 2% uric acid and 1.5% oxonic acid.

Women's Health Issues:

Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea):

Menstrual cramps are annoying for women and the addition of Oregano to regular diet might be helpful in dealing with cramps and also aids irregular menstruation. Not too many women know that Oregano is a great component for relieving menstrual cramps. Since it serves as an effective pain reliever; there are many cases in which Oregano successfully reduced the pain intensity and discomfort during menstruation. Oregano also regulates a normal menstrual cycle.

You can simply chew fresh Oregano leaves thrice a day to tackle painful cramps or consume it in tea form to help you deal with uncomfortable symptoms in a matter of minutes that are common among a large percentage of the female population. To make the tea, mix one-half teaspoon of Oregano in one cup of water and bring it to a boil. Strain it, and add sugar to taste. Drink it three or four times a day during your cycle.

To take internally,  add 2-3 drops of therapeutic-grade Oregano oil to Ginger or Chamomile tea to get relief from painful periods and help stimulate blood flow.

To apply topically, for painful menstrual cramps, blend 6-7 drops of Oregano oil with a little Coconut oil and massage on the lower abdomen to relieve pain.

Menopause:

Oregano relieves the negative effects of menopause. There are also a few studies to believe that using Oregano regularly prevents a premature menopause. Though more studies are still strongly required for further proofs but many women have enjoy the benefits of Oregano in aiding their irregular menstruation period. These remedies are not for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Befefits in Breast Feeding:

A 2001 "Consumption of bangun-bangun leaves to increase breast milk production among Batakneese women in North Sumatra Island, Indonesia" study published in Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia by R Damanik, N Damanik, Z Daulay, S Saragih, R Premier, N Wattanapenpaiboon, ML Wahlqvist, of Batakneese women were given bangun-bangun soup during their nursing period, most consuming a bowl of soup three times daily for 30-40 days. The study aimed to gather information about the women's beliefs and experiences in the use of the herb. The participants felt their breasts become full with breast milk.

Vaginal Infections:

Since Oregano has got both antibacterial and anti fungal properties, it very effectively fights of the pathogens that causes vaginal infections. A simple vaginal wash in which Oregano oil is included will greatly prevent vaginal infections. We can also boil the fresh leaves with water and use it as a vaginal wash.

A 2017 study "Origanum vulgare essential oil affects pathogens causing vaginal infections" published in Journal Appl Microbiol. by M Karaman, M Bogavac, B Radovanović, J Sudji, K Tešanović, L Janjušević, aimed to investigate the application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil as an alternative antimicrobial agent against vaginal infections. Microdilution methods were applied for the detection of the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal (MBC/MFC) concentration of 15 clinical strains originating from women with symptoms of vaginal infection. Optical density determination (OD) was used for detection of the Candida growth rate. Staining with DAPI was used to detect the influence of essential oil on nuclear condensation and fragmentation, while the brine shrimp bioassay was used to determine the toxicity of essential oil. Chemical composition analysis was done using GS-MS. According to the MIC and MBC/MFC values, the most susceptible strains to essential oil were: Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2, Staphylococcus aureus 3 and Candida albicans 1-3. Inhibition of C. albicans filamentation was detected at 0·45 μl ml-1. The obtained inhibition (%) from Candida growth curves points to a shorter period of time (24 h) for determining IC50 as MIC and IC99 as MFC value. These values could be recommended as valid parameters for the faster detection of the effectiveness of essential oil on Candida isolates. Examination of potential of the Origanum vulgare essential oil as a main antimicrobial constituent within vaginalettes in gynaecological practice.

Men's Health Issues:

Spermatozoa:

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during semen cryopreservation can induce structural and functional changes in spermatozoa. It is well known that antioxidants can mitigate the effect of ROS. Moreover, the application of antioxidants in freezing media is an appropriate strategy for protecting spermatozoa against deleterious effects of ROS during the cryopreservation process. As an example, oregano is a medicinal plant with important activities, with antiseptic, antibacterial, antithrombotic, and antioxidant properties.

A 2020 study "Aqueous Origanum vulgare Extract Improves the Quality of Cryopreserved Human Spermatozoa Through Its Antioxidant Effects" published in Biopreserv Biobank by Elham Shiri, Farid Abolhassani, Zahra Khosravizadeh, Atefeh Najafi, Maryam Khanezad, Mahdi Vazirian, Parvin Fallahi, Zahra Rezaeian, Azim Hedayatpour, aimed at evaluating the antioxidant effects of oregano extract on cryopreserved human spermatozoa. In the first phase, 13 semen samples with different concentrations of oregano extract (0.0, 50, 100, 150, 300, and 500 μg/mL) were cryopreserved to achieve an optimal dose of oregano extract. Then, motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. In the second phase, 20 samples were cryopreserved in freezing media supplemented with or without the optimal concentration of oregano (100 μg/mL). After thawing, motility, the levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) were evaluated. The results showed that 100 μg/mL oregano extract significantly increased the total motility in frozen-thawed spermatozoa in comparison with the control group (28.2 ± 4.3 vs. 42.4 ± 1.6, p < 0.05). This concentration significantly decreased the percentage of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-positive cells (25.53 ± 1.2 vs. 21.48 ± 1.2) and the malondialdehyde level (4.25 ± 0.7 vs. 0.82 ± 0.4 μM) (p < 0.05). In the oregano group, the percentage of vital spermatozoa without PS externalization was significantly higher than that in the control group (25.88 ± 1.6 vs. 16.8 ± 1.9, p < 0.001), while the percentage of dead spermatozoa with PS externalization spermatozoa was significantly lower than that in the control group (51.65 ± 1.4 vs. 60.36 ± 1.9, p < 0.05). In general, the addition of oregano extract to sperm freezing extender has protective effects against oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Alleviates Testis and Sperm Damages:

A 2020 study "Origanum vulgare L. leaves extract alleviates testis and sperm damages induced by finasteride: Biochemical, Immunohistological and apoptosis genes based evidences" published in Andrologia by Xiaoning Chen, Hui Feng, Attalla F El-Kott, Eman M Abd-Ella, was to investigate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of Origanum vulgare on finasteride-induced oxidative injury in mouse testis and sperm parameters. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups: negative control, received 0.5 ml/day distilled water; positive control, received 25 mg/kg finasteride orally; and three groups received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day Origanum vulgare extract plus 25 mg kg-1 day-1 finasteride for 35 days. At day 36, serum luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β), glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide levels were assessed. Also, apoptotic changes investigated through genes expression and immunohistochemical staining. Finasteride in 35 days resulted in significant destructive alterations in the testis architecture, suppressed antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation. The expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated, whereas p53 and caspase-3 were up-regulated. Origanum vulgare improved the serum level of hormones and restored the antioxidant defence. 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of Origanum vulgare alleviated the testis structure and sperm parameters, up-regulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and down-regulated the p53, caspase-3 genes in treated groups. The findings indicate that Origanum vulgare extract improved function and structure of testis tissue against finasteride-induced testicular toxicity.

Immune Diseases:

Boosts Immune System:

If you find yourself getting sick year after year during cold and flu season, Oregano oil can help boost your immunity. has two most essential components such as thymol and rosmarinic acid which is an antioxidant compounds that are closely related to lowering oxidative stress in the body. Free radicals are the destructive by products of cellular metabolism that are the cause for cancer as well as other chronic diseases. The addition of Oregano to the diet enhances immunity and prevents the body from harmful and silent killers.

There's quite a bit of research to show that Oregano oil helps fight bacterial and viral infections and some studies have shown it to be better than other natural remedies such as Echinacea. Along with its ability to fight bacterial and fungal infections, it also contains natural antioxidants that prevent free radical damage and as an anti-parasitic it wards off powerful invaders that can wreak havoc in the body.

A 2020 study "Effects of dietary Origanum vulgare on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) immune and antioxidant status" published in Fish Shellfish Immunol. by José María García Beltrán, Daniel González Silvera, Cristóbal Espinosa Ruiz, Vittorio Campo, Latifeh Chupani, Caterina Faggio, María Ángeles Esteban, due the known medicinal properties of Oregano, the effect of diets enriched with 0% (control), 0.5% and 1% Oregano leaves powder was studied on the growth, immune and antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish fed with Oregano 0.5% and 1% enriched diets improved both humoral (IgM and bactericidal activity in skin mucus and protease activity in serum) and cellular (head kidney leucocytes phagocytic ability) immunity at 15 and 30 days. Furthermore, the addition of Oregano did not provoke any significant effect neither in the growth promotion nor in the liver antioxidant enzymes activity studied in the serum and skin mucus. The possibility of using Origanum vulgare as a functional additive to fish diet is discussed.

According to a 2013 study, Oregano and other herbs in the Lamiaceae family can help stimulate the immune system. This might explain the traditional use of Oregano for treating illness. But Oregano is more than an immune stimulator.

Add 2-3 drops of Oregano oil to 2-3 drops of an edible carrier oil such as olive or Coconut oil and take it sublingually (under your tongue). Swish the blend under the tongue for a few minutes giving it time to absorb into your central nervous system and blood, and then spit it out. Doing this as a daily ritual right before you sleep is recommended to boost your immunity. Add several drops of Oregano oil in your diffuser and breathe in the powerful medicinal vapors. This is great to boost your immunity during cold and flu season.

Speeds up Healing Process:

After illness, human body remains in weakest state during healing process and to strengthen immunity is essential. Addition of Oregano to the diet ensures optimal activity of immune system. It accelerates healing process. Oregano leaves are used in the form of tea.

Benefits on DNA:

A 2015 study "Evaluation of cytotoxic, DNA protecting and LPS induced MMP-9 down regulation activities of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. essential oil" published in Pharmacognosy Journal by Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Gunasekar Ramya, Madhusudhanan Gogulramnath, Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar, M.S. Kanthimathi, of Essential oil of leaves showed cytotoxicity against breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HT-29) cancer cell lines, protected against 75% of DNA damage in 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells, and significant concentration dependent reduction in MMP-9 production. Results suggest the essential oil is a potent bioactive substance with potential for use in herbal medicinal preparations.

Tumors & Cancers:

Oregano is rich in antioxidants which helps in the prevention of cancer cells by neutralizing free radical damage. Carvacrol, the main active compound of Oregano that possess cancer-fighting properties. The extract from Oregano inhibits the growth of lung cancer and prostate cancer cells. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that breaks unwanted cells into apoptotic bodies. It is further eliminated from the cells by the phagocytosis process without any inflammation. Therefore, Oregano extract has been shown to “lead to growth arrest and cell death” in colon cancer cells, while a phytochemical in Oregano, carnosol, has also been “evaluated for anti-cancer property in prostate, breast, skin, leukemia, and colon cancer with promising results”. Origanum vulgare L. essential oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities. Nanoencapsulation of Origanum vulgare essential oil into liposomes seems to be a promising strategy to maintain and improve these biological properties.

Studies have indicated that carvacrol may have cancer-fighting properties. Various studies have been made in finding the benefits of Oregano against human skin cancer, breast, liver, and colon. A researcher found that Oregano extract helps in preventing DNA damage that is caused due to oxidative stress and mitogens, a protein that causes unwanted cell division (which is a primary reason for the growth of cancer cells).

In test-tube studies on cancer cells, carvacrol has demonstrated promising results against lung, liver, and breast cancer cells. It has been found to inhibit cell growth and cause cancer cell death. Although this is promising research, no studies have been carried out on people, so more research is needed.

The University of Arizona research and the study by The Long Island University have proved that Oregano essential oil has antioxidant and anti-cancerous properties that fights against many types of human cancers. 

A 2022 study "Nanoencapsulation of Origanum vulgare essential oil into liposomes with anticancer potential" published in Pharmazieby T L Kryeziu, E Haloci, A Loshaj-Shala, U Bagci, A Oral, G J Stefkov, A Zimmer, M Basholli-Salihu, was carried out to develop a suitable liposomal formulation for the effective encapsulation of Origanum vulgare essential oil in order to improve the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The characterization of liposomal nanocarriers was conducted in terms of size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. An MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic activity of the prepared and characterized Origanum vulgare essential oil liposomes in MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Antioxidant activity was determined by assessing DPPH scavenging activity. Origanum vulgare essential oil exerted cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 50 μg/ml. The essential oil of Origanum vulgare was effectively encapsulated in liposomes, with no significant change observed among the formulations. The antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced after encapsulating the essential oil in liposomes. Origanum vulgare essential-oil-loaded Phospholipon 90H liposomes demonstrated considerably increased cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells, whereas Lipoid S100 liposomes showed no significant differences from the non-encapsulated essential oil. Phospholipon 85G liposomes had the least cytotoxic impact. As a result, liposomes containing Origanum vulgare essential oil may be promising nanocarriers for the development of anticancer agents.

A 2020 study "In Silico Anticancer Activity and In Vitro Antioxidant of Flavonoids in Plectranthus amboinicus" in Pharmacogn Journal by Kesaktian Manurung, Delmi Sulastri, Nasrul Zubir, Syafruddin Ilyas, evaluated the anticancer and antioxidant activities of flavonoids from P. amboinicus. Flavonoids from leaves are chrysoeriol, circimaritin, eriodictyol, luteolin, rutin, salvigenin, thymoquinone, quercetin, apigenin, and 5-O-methyl-luteolin. Anticancer activity testing was done by in silico against several cancer receptors while antioxidant activity was done in vitro using DPPH method. Results showed the flavonoid compounds in P. amboinicus have similar anticancer activity to the reference molecule P-glycoprotein-1, cyclin dependent kinase-2, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase receptors. as well as better anticancer activity than the reference molecule.

Another 2017 study published in Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 10, Issue 5 of ß-Sitosterol, a steroid from P. amboinicus, showed activity in inhibition of cancer growth toward T47D, MCF-7, HeLa, and WiDr cell lines through P13K, EGFR, ER-a, ER-ß, and HER-2 pathways. Results suggest potential of ß-sitosterol as an anticancer agent.

A 2013 study published in Cancer Letters found that a compound in Oregano looked promising as a inhibits cancer cell growth and causes cell death in lung, liver, prostate, skin, leukemia and breast cancer cells.

Human Cancer Cell Lines (Cytotoxicity):

A 2021 study "Evaluation of cytotoxic activity and anticancer potential of indigenous Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) dry extracts on MG-63 bone osteosarcoma human cell line" published in Rom J Morphol Embryol. by Cerasela Elena Gîrd, Teodora Costea, Valentina Mitran, aimed to investigate the cytotoxic activity of indigenous Rosemary and Oregano freeze-dried extracts upon MG-63 osteosarcoma human cell line. We have determined the influence of analyzed dry extracts on cell morphology, cell survival and cell proliferation. The evaluation of dry extracts effect upon cell proliferation and viability was assessed by means of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. For cytotoxicity evaluation, Live & Dead and lactate dehydrogenase assays have been used. To further investigate the potential anticancer effect, we have studied the influence of dry extracts upon cells, by means of caspase-3∕7 assay and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. Cells were incubated with extracts in the following concentration range (100-700 μg∕mL) for 24 hours. According to our results, both dry extracts have shown cytotoxic effects by means of all used methods. Bone osteosarcoma cells viability significantly decreased with increasing concentration of analyzed extracts (beyond 300 μg∕mL for Rosemary dry extract and only at 700 μg∕mL for Oregano dry extract). According to our results, apoptosis is one of the main mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic properties of analyzed extracts. Moreover, Rosemary extract has also shown decreased expression of PCNA, when compared to control (untreated cells). Both extracts were standardized in phenolic compounds (being a rich source of flavones and phenolcarboxylic acids), so we assume that these are the main constituents involved in the cytotoxic effect. Still, further preclinical studies are needed to confirm the antitumor properties and to go deeply in the molecular mechanisms involved.

In 2014 study "Cytotoxic Effect of n-Hexane, Ethylacetate and Ethanol Extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) on HeLa and Vero Cells Lines" published in International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.6, No.6 by Rosidah, Poppy Anjelisa Z. Hasibuan, evaluated the cytotoxic activity of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of P. amboinicus using MTT assay. All three extracts showed cytotoxic effect to HeLa cells with IC50 of 76.322 µg/ml, 143.291 µg/ml, and 88.997 µg/ml, respectively. n-Hexane and ethanol extracts were selective to HeLa cells.

A 2013 study "Phenolic constituents and biological activities of leaf extracts of traditional medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus Benth" published in TANG by Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Praveena Bhatt, Gilbert Joseph, Pradeep Negi, Mandyam Chakravarthy Varadaraj, for phenolic contents of crude leaf extracts yielded phenolics like caffeic acid, coumaric acid, rutin, quercetin and gallic acid. An acetone extract showed higher antibacterial activity than an EA extract, both showing highest activity against B. cereus. Both extracts showed inhibitory effect on cancer cell lines HCT-15 and MCF-7.

Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy:

A 2010 study "Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation" published in Mutagenesis by B S Satish Rao et al., exposed to gamma radiation: The hydroalcoholic extract of CA showed dose-dependent radical scavenging against free radicals, rendered radioprotection against radiation induced DNA damage. Study results established antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective activities and suggests a potential for chemoprevention.

Breast Cancer:

Researchers at The United Arab Emirates University reported that Oregano exhibits anticancer activity by encouraging cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (cancer cells commit suicide) of a form of breast cancer. Leading them to believe Oregano may help slow or prevent the progression of breast cancer.

A 2020 study "Effect of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour. Spreng n-Hexane Extract on T47D Cells Line: Proliferation, Apoptosis and It's Combination with Doxorubicin" published in Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research by Poppy Anjelisa Zaitun Hasibuan, Rosidah, Pandapotan Nasution, and Syafruddin Ilyas, investigated the growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-mediating effect of P. amboinicus n-hexane extract on T47D cell lines. The extract inhibited the growth of T47D breast cancer cells in a dose and time dependent manner and could induce apoptosis. However, the combination with doxorubicin did not show synergistic effect. The results suggest the extract could be a potent agent for chemoprevention of breast cancer.

Another 2017 study "Bioactive Compounds from Tobangun [Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng] Chloroform Fraction Induce Apoptosis in Breast Cancer (MCF-7 Cells) in Vitro" published in Traditional Medicina Journal by Wahid Yulianto, Nuri Andarwulan, Puspon Edi Giriwono, Joko Pamungkas, sough to identify the active compounds in the chloroform fraction which have effect on the apoptosis-related genes expression of breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Expressions of P53 and P21 genes were significantly increased. Expressions of caspase 0, caspase 7, and caspase 1 were significantly increased in a concentration dependent manner. Most of the compounds in the chloroform fraction were identified as diterpenoids which may contribute to the apoptosis inducing activity of the fraction.

Another 2016 study "In Vitro antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extract on MCF-7 cell line" published in Der Pharmacia Lettre by Bowya Mohan, Sivakumar Ramalingam, Renuka Saravanan and Dheeba B, about anti-proliferative on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, crude ethanolic extracts of P. amboinicus showed antioxidant and antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells lines which may be attributed to the presence of n-Hexadecanoic acid and phytol. 

In 2013, lab studies suggested that Origanum majorana could help slow or stop the progression of metastatic breast cancer. Researchers found that this remarkable herb may help prevent and treat breast cancer by slowing its progress.

Colon Cancer - Colorectal Cancer:

Oregano is a very good source of fiber that helps bind bile salts and cancer-causing toxins in the colon and remove them from the body. This in turn forces the body to break down cholesterol to make more bile salts, thus lowering high cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of colon cancer. Some test-tube studies have shown that Oregano and its components may help kill cancer cells. However, keep in mind that these were test-tube studies using high amounts of the herb and its compounds. Human studies using typical doses are needed to determine its effects.

One test-tube study treated human colon cancer cells with Oregano extract and found that it stopped the growth of cancer cells and helped kill them off.

Another test-tube study showed that carvacrol, one of the components in Oregano, also helped suppress the growth and spread of colon cancer cells.

In a 2009 study "Origanum vulgare induces apoptosis in human colon cancer caco2 cells" published in Nutr Cancer by Isabella Savini, Rosaria Arnone, Maria Valeria Catani, Luciana Avigliano, Oregano spice is widely used in the Mediterranean diet, which is associated with a low risk for colon cancer. Although the medicinal benefits of Oregano, such as the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities, are well known; nonetheless, only few data are available on its effect in cancer prevention, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Here, we investigated the effect of Origanum vulgare ethanolic extracts on redox balance, cell proliferation, and cell death in colon adenocarcinoma Caco2 cells. Oregano extract leads to growth arrest and cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Changes in glutathione content, as well as the increase in its oxidized form, may be involved in Oregano-triggered death. Both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways appear to be activated by spice extract. Our findings suggest that Oregano amounts found in the Mediterranean diet can exert proapoptotic effects, which are selective for cancer cells. Moreover, whole extract, instead of a specific component, can be responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects.

Prostate Cancer:

Prostate cancer has been listed as the second important cause of cancerous death in American men.

A study found that the presence of the active constituent, carvacrol in Oregano oil helps in the treatment of prostate cancer by stimulating apoptosis (programmed death of cells) in prostate cancer cells.

Liver Cancer - Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC):

In a study, ethanol extract of Oregano has proven to be very effective against liver cancer cells. This is due to the presence of bio active compounds carvacrol, thymol, citral and limonene present in Oregano. A cup Oregano tea can be consumed often to get the ant cancer properties it offers.

Stomach Cancer - Gastric Cancer:

One study has reported that the anti-cancer activities of Oregano oil fights against stomach cancer. It shows that the use of Oregano triggers apoptosis by increasing BAX and preventing fatty acid pathways in stomach cancer.

Skin Cancer (Melanoma):

Scientists have found evidence that extracts may help prevent DNA damage in cells due to oxidative stress, radiation, and mitogens, a type of protein that can cause unwanted cell division. Researchers have also found evidence that carvacrol and thymol may prevent melanoma cells from growing and skin cancer from spreading. While eating Oregano by itself is unlikely to prevent cancer, a varied, plant-based diet that is rich in antioxidants may help prevent cell changes that can lead to cancer.

Diabetes Mellitus:

Oregano tea (without honey) is also good for diabetic patients as carvacrol reverses all the symptoms of diabetes. Compounds in Oregano may help manage type 2 diabetes.

Authors of a 2016 rodent study concluded that Oregano extract may help: improve insulin resistance, regulate the expression of genes that affect fat and carbohydrate metabolism
restore damaged liver and kidney tissues. The authors noted that some people already use Oregano leaves and oil to manage high blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. Experts do not know what causes it, but oxidative stress may play a role.

In a 2015 study, researchers found that an extract of Oregano improved type 1 diabetes in mice. They suggested this could be due to Oregano’s antioxidant properties, its effect on the immune system, and its ability to prevent β cell death.

A 2011 study "Alcoholic leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus regulates carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats" published in Indian Journal Pharmacol by B. C. Koti, Aparna Gore, A. H. M. Thippeswamy, A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy, and Rucha Kulkarni, explored the possible mechanisms of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed an antihyperglycemic effect with dose-dependent reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase). Results suggest the antidiabetic activity of PA was mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities. 

Another 2009 study in Pharmacologyonline 3 by Subhas Candrappa M, Shivakumar Hugar, Itgappa M, Nagarajappa K, evaluated the effect of Coleus aromaticus (cuban Oregano) leaves on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme levels in alloxan rendered diabetic rats. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly lowered the alloxan mediated hyperglycemia. Activity of antioxidant enzymes such as DOD, CAT, and GPxase were increased in liver homogenate of diabetic animals treated with the extracts.

Blood Sugar:

If you have been diagnosed as a type 2 diabetic, you are in luck, as Marjoram is here to offer you much needed assistance with your blood glucose levels. Marjoram, Oregano and Rosemary contain specific enzymes which contribute to improved blood glucose readings since their actions are said to help improve insulin sensitivity. Development of insulin resistance is a major hurdle diabetics face and which often worsen their prognosis of the condition. These herbs effectively inhibit certain enzymes which improve insulin tolerance. Whether you eat the herb fresh or dried, it can be a great help to a diabetic patient’s ability to manage their blood sugar levels.

Diabetic Foot Ulcers:

A singe-center, randomized, controlled, open-label 2012 study "Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica cream for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers" published in Evidence based Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Yuan Sung Kuo, Hsiung-Fei Chien, William Lu, evaluated the effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus and Centella asiatica and compared its effects to a hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers in 24 type 1 or type 2 diabetic patients aged 20 or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers post surgical debridement. Results showed that for treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness.

Endocrine Diseases:

Weight Loss:

This herb contains no cholesterol and is a rich source of dietary fiber. Adequate fiber intake helps in managing weight, thereby keeping the body fit and reducing the risk of several diseases. The active component known as carvacrol present in Oregano oil is capable of dissolving fat into droplets. Being overweight can cause fat sludge to pile up in your liver, gallbladder, lymph system, and elsewhere in the body. Oregano helps dissolve this buildup, which in turn helps you lose weight. Oregano tea is commonly known as to be a abundant source of fiber. Thanks to Oregano’s carvacrol content, Oregano oil may aid weight loss.

In one study, mice were fed either a normal diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet with carvacrol. Those given carvacrol alongside their high fat diet gained significantly less weight and body fat than those just given a high fat diet. Furthermore, carvacrol appeared to reverse the chain of events that can lead to the formation of fat cells. More research is needed to demonstrate that Oregano oil has a role in weight loss, but it may be worth trying as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle.

Liver Disorders:

It is true that too much toxin in your body could be harmful for your liver health because liver will be forced to work too hard to eliminate those toxins. However, just by adding Oregano to your daily food, there are some properties found in Oregano is effective in helping your liver to eliminate toxin, so it will not work too hard.

Mix 50 g of Oregano with 50 g of Mugwort herb, 50 g of Chamomile flowers, 25 g of Shanties herb, 25 g of Goldenrod herb, 25 g of Knotweed herb and 25 g of Elderberry fruit. Add 1 tablespoon of the finished mixture pour 200 ml of boiling water. Set aside, covered, for 30 minutes and drain. Drink half a glass on an empty stomach and half a glass in the evening before going to bed to stimulate liver function.

Detox the Body:

It is almost impossible to avoid toxin at all cost with some much foods you should consume in daily basis. It is important for you to remember that even the healthiest food in the world contains toxin that harmful for your body. The solution is not avoiding the food but how to speed up the toxin elimination and Oregano which is rich of minerals is the best solution available in this matter. Oregano is rich in nutrients having high content of calcium, manganese, vitamin K, iron, fiber and various organic compounds which assist in detoxification of the body. Research shows that Oregano assist liver function and also speeds up elimination process of toxins.

Liver Protection (Hepatoprotective):

Despite its wide clinical use, cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, possesses many adverse effects, including hepatotoxicity. Because Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has antioxidative properties, it might protect against above-mentioned damage.

A 2015 study "Protective effects of Origanum vulgare ethanol extract against cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity in mice" published in Pharm Biol. by Emran Habibi, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Aroona Chabra, Farshad Naghshvar, Razieh Keshavarz-Maleki, Amirhossein Ahmadi, evaluated the protective effects of Origanum vulgare extract on CP-induced liver toxicity. Mice were pretreated with aerial parts of Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract (intraperitoneally) at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days before the administration of a single 200 mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of CP 1 h after the last injection of Origanum vulgare. After 24 h, animals were anesthetized, blood samples and hepatic tissues were collected and used for biochemical and histological examination. Serum levels of hepatic markers were increased after CP treatment but restored in the Origanum vulgare-pretreated groups. The serum ALT, AST, and ALP of the CP group were 196.49 ± 3.82, 143.78 ± 4.79, and 203.18 ± 3.81 IU/l, respectively. However, pretreatment with 400 mg/kg Origanum vulgare significantly decreased the serum ALT, AST, and ALP to 52.49 ± 2.18, 44.78 ± 2.06, and 65.62 ± 1.73 IU/l, respectively (p < 0.001). Histological examinations also confirmed the protective effects of Origanum vulgare against CP-induced liver toxicity. The results reveal that Origanum vulgare with high amount of flavonoids and phenolic compounds induces potent hepatoprotective mechanisms against CP. Therefore, Origanum vulgare might help defend the body against the side effects, particularly hepatic damages induced by chemotherapeutic agents.

Lipid Profiles and Liver Biomarkers in Athletes:

A 2021 randomized controlledtrial "Effect of Origanum dubium, Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, and Lavandula angustifolia essential oils on lipid profiles and liver biomarkers in athletes" published in Z Naturforsch C J Biosci. by Hasan Maral, Süleyman Ulupınar, Ayşegül Türk Baydır, Serhat Özbay, Konca Altınkaynak, Engin Şebin, Erdinç Şiktar, Necip Fazıl Kishalı, Yusuf Buzdağlı, Cebrail Gençoğlu, İzzet İnce, aims to determine the effects of essential oils of Origanum dubium (DUB), Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (HIR), and Lavandula angustifolia (LAV) on lipid profiles and liver biomarkers in athletes. 34 trained athletes were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or the control group (CON). The concentrations of serum lipids and liver biomarkers were assessed before and after the 14-day essential oil intervention. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed 68.0 and 82.1% carvacrol in DUB and HIR, respectively, and 34.50% linalyl acetate and 33.68% linalool in LAV essential oils. One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated a significant difference (p = 0.001) among the groups for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) when the associated preintervention values were used as a covariate. The related pairwise comparisons revealed that DUB (p = 0.001) and HIR (p = 0.024) had greater HDL-C values than CON. From the two-way ANOVA, an interaction between time (before vs. after) and the groups (DUB vs. HIR vs. LAV vs. CON) was found for HDL-C (p = 0.030). Findings indicated a significant increase in DUB (p = 0.0001) and HIR (p = 0.010) for HDL-C, and there was a significant decrease in DUB (p = 0.023) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, there was no difference in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and all liver biomarkers.

Kidney Disorders:

Diuretic:

A 2010 study published in Pharmacognosy Research by Roshan Patel, Naveen K Mahobia, Ravindra Gendle, Basant Kaushik, Sudarshan K Singh, evaluated a water extract of leaves for diuretic activity in male albino rats. Results showed significant increase in urine output and electrolytes concentration. Study evaluated ethanol and aqueous extracts of shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus in male albino rats. Furosemide was used as standard. Results showed significant increase in urinary volume and increase in urinary concentration of Na, K, and Cl ions.

Urinary Track Infection (UTI):

When your liver is not working properly, urinary track disorder is the direct effect that could happen. However, for those who have been diagnosed with this condition could ease up the symptoms by consuming Oregano in daily basis because as anti-inflammatory it could treat urinary track disorder efficiently and at the same time assisting liver to keep working optimally to treat the disorder completely.

Antioxidants:

Spice plants have a great influence on world history. For centuries, different civilizations have used them to condiment the foods of kings and nobles and applied them as embalming preservatives, perfumes, cosmetics, and medicines in different regions of the world. In general, these plants have formed the basis of traditional medicine and some of their derived substances have been utilized to treat different human diseases. Essential oils obtained from these plants have been also used as therapeutic agents and have shown supportive uses in remedial practices. The discovery and development of bioactive compounds from these natural products, based on their traditional uses, play an important role in developing the scientific evidence of their potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food applications.

Oregano contains numerous phytonutrients, including thymol and rosmarinic acid, that have also been shown to function as potent antioxidants that can prevent oxygen-based damage to cell structures throughout the body. You might think of fruits or vegetables being full of antioxidants, and you are right. But did you know that this incredible herb contains significantly more antioxidants than fruits and vegetables? On a per gram fresh weight basis, Oregano has demonstrated:

  • 42 times more antioxidant activity than apples,
  • 30 times more than potatoes,
  • 12 times more than oranges,
  • 4 times more than blueberries.

Free radicals are everywhere and a natural product of metabolism. However, they can build up in the body through exposure to environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke and air pollutants. This powerful herb is also very helpful in helping to heal upper respiratory disorders. According to Lung Institute, it works as a natural decongestant and antihistamine. These antioxidants may help prevent cell damage, and are especially useful in keeping the immune systems healthy. You never know when the next pandemic will hit. It’s thought that free radical damage plays a role in aging and the development of some diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. Fresh Oregano has a very high antioxidant content. In fact, it’s much higher than that of most fruits and vegetables. It is one of the top five spices in the world with one of the highest Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) scores meaning it will more effectively neutralize free radicals.

One older test-tube study compared the antioxidant content of 39 commonly used herbs and found that Oregano had the highest concentration of antioxidants. It found that Oregano contained 3–30 times the levels of antioxidants in the other herbs studied, which included Thyme, Marjoram, and St. John’s Wort.

Some other test-tube studies said that Oregano and Oregano essential oil are an enriched source of antioxidants. Research is done to compare the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices and common additives. Here, the extract prepared from Oregano is more potent than butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene in preventing lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a process in which the oxidative degradation of lipids happens. Here the free radicals take or steal electrons from the lipids in the cell and thus resulting in cell damage.

In laboratory studies, Oregano has demonstrated stronger antioxidant capacity than either of the two synthetic anti-oxidants commonly added to processed food, Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA).

A 2020 review "Bioactive Natural Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Spice Plants: New Findings and Potential Applications" published in Biomolecules by Lidiane Diniz do Nascimento, Angelo Antônio Barbosa de Moraes, Kauê Santana da Costa, João Marcos Pereira Galúcio, Paulo Sérgio Taube, Cristiane Maria Leal Costa, Jorddy Neves Cruz, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar Andrade, Lênio José Guerreiro de Faria, using recent studies, we exhibit a general overview of the main aspects related to the importance of spice plants widely used in traditional medicine: Cinnamomumzeylanicum (True Cinnamon), Menthapiperita (Peppermint), Ocimumbasilicum (Basil), Origanumvulgare (oregano), Piper nigrum (Black Pepper), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary), and Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) and we discuss new findings of the bioactive compounds obtained from their essential oils, their potential applications, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action, focusing on their antioxidant activity. We also exhibit the main in vitro methods applied to determine the antioxidant activities of these natural products.

Another 2020 study "Improvement of antioxidant activity of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) with an oral pharmaceutical form" published in Biomed Pharmacother. by María Pilar de Torre, Jose Luis Vizmanos, Rita Yolanda Cavero, María Isabel Calvo, evaluated that aging-related diseases can be triggered by multiple factors such as oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, so today, compounds capable of reducing or neutralizing free radicals are being studied for a therapeutic use. Origanum vulgare L. is a traditional medicinal plant used for a wide number of health problems due to its antimicrobial, carminative and antioxidant activities. However, when administered orally, gastrointestinal digestion can modify some of therapeutical properties. To avoid this, two different solid oral formulations have been designed for an Origanum vulgare extract evaluating their antioxidant behaviours in vitro and in vivo after a simulation of gastrointestinal digestion. The results showed that the divided powder has a lower antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo than the encapsulated extract. The quantitative difference of polyphenols found on HPLC-DAD (especially luteolin, apigenin and caffeic acid) may explain the differences in pharmacological activity. Thus, we propose that the best form to administrate Origanum vulgare extracts to maintain the antioxidant properties is the encapsulated form, that is, two capsules of 250 mg of a hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare with a minimum of 33 % of rosmarinic acid as a daily dose.

A 2018 study "Acute nephroprotective and antiocidant activitier of aqueous leaf exctract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Roxb.) grown in Sri Lanka" published in Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry by AMSS Amarasiri, AP Attanayake, KAPW Jayatilaka and LKB Mudduwa, evaluated the nephroprotective and total antioxidant activities of aqueous leaf extract of P. amboinicus in wistar rats. Antioxidant activity was determined using three standard assays. The extract showed nephroprotective activity in adriamycin induced toxicity by measures of blood and urine renal parameters and treatment related histological changes in renal tissues. 

According to a 2015 study. Oregano oil has very high amounts of antioxidants that help fight free radicals. These antioxidants include: phenols, triterpenes, rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Because of its antioxidants, Oregano oil is protective against damage from some medications, Oregano oil extract is very concentrated, you need much less Oregano oil to reap the same antioxidant benefits as you would from fresh Oregano.

A 2011 study "Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts" published in Molecules by Biljana Kaurinovic, Mira Popovic, Sanja Vlaisavljevic, Svetlana Trivic, where the antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O₂•⁻ and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe²⁺/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H₂O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O₂•⁻ radicals and the neutralization of H₂O₂. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare extracts.

Free Radicals:

Oregano has a high level of carvacrol and thymol, which are antioxidants that aids in blocking damages to the cells due to free radicals. The use of artificial antioxidants to inhibit free radical damage can lead to toxic side effects. But natural antioxidants found in the herb decrease the oxidative damage and help in deterring mutagenesis, oncogenesis, and aging process. Oregano is enriched with antioxidant compounds that aids in fighting against the harmful free radicals which cause damage to the body cells at the molecular level. This cell damage will lead to the death of individual cells, and if more cells have died, then it will cause tissue or organ failure. The blocking of free radical activities has been useful in reducing the risk of of chronic diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. While consuming Oregano with other antioxidant-rich foods like fruits and vegetables, it will act as a healthy dose of antioxidants that enhance your body health.

Oxidative Stress:

A 2021 study "Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil Prevents Behavioral and Oxidative Stress Changes in the Scopolamine Zebrafish Model" published in Molecules by Luminita Capatina, Edoardo Marco Napoli, Giuseppe Ruberto, Lucian Hritcu, investigated the protective effects and the mechanism of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum essential oil on cognitive impairment and brain oxidative stress in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of cognitive impairment. Our results show that exposure to Sco (100 µM) leads to anxiety, spatial memory, and response to novelty dysfunctions, whereas the administration of Oregano essential oil (25, 150, and 300 µL/L, once daily for 13 days) reduced anxiety-like behavior and improved cognitive ability, which was confirmed by behavioral tests, such as the novel tank-diving test (NTT), Y-maze test, and novel object recognition test (NOR) in zebrafish. Additionally, Sco-induced brain oxidative stress and increasing of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were attenuated by the administration of Oregano essential oil. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were used to elucidate the Oregano essential oil composition, comprising thymol (38.82%), p-cymene (20.28%), and γ-terpinene (19.58%) as the main identified components. These findings suggest the ability of Oregano essential oil to revert the Sco-induced cognitive deficits by restoring the cholinergic system activity and brain antioxidant status. Thus, Oregano essential oil could be used as perspective sources of bioactive compounds, displaying valuable biological activities, with potential pharmaceutical applications.

A 2020 study "Dietary Origanum vulgare essential oil attenuates cypermethrin-induced biochemical changes, oxidative stress, histopathological alterations, apoptosis, and reduces DNA damage in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)" published in Aquat Toxicol. by Asmaa F Khafaga, Mohammed A E Naiel, Mahmoud A O Dawood, Hany M R Abdel-Latif, was designed to evaluate the possible protective roles of dietary Origanum vulgare essential oil against cypermethrin (CP)-induced serum biochemical changes and oxidative stress of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Moreover, histopathological alterations, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and DNA damage in the gills and hepatic tissues were also assessed. Briefly, fish were allotted into six groups with three triplicates whereas a group fed on basal diet and did not exposed to CP and served as control (CTR), two groups were fed on diets supplemented with two levels of Oregano essential oil (0.5 % and 1.0 %), a group exposed to sub-lethal concentration of CP (1/10 of 96 h-LC50 = 0.4134 μg/L), and two other groups exposed to the same concentration of CP and fed on diets supplemented with both levels of Oregano essential oil (CP + 0.5 % Oregano essential oil, and CP + 1.0 % Oregano essential oil), respectively, for 30 days. CP induced significant elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, and creatinine levels indicating hepato-renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Besides, there was a significant decrease in serum catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, CP induced significant histopathologic alterations in gills, anterior kidneys, and hepatic tissues with activation of apoptosis (Caspase-3) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Comet assay demonstrated significant DNA damage in gills and liver tissues of the CP-exposed group. Interestingly, a significant attenuation of serum ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, CAT, and SOD levels (P < 0.05) was noticed in CP-exposed fish and concurrently fed diets supplemented with either 0.5 % or 1.0 % Oregano essential oil. Moreover, histopathologic alterations and apoptosis were significantly reduced along with a concomitant significant decrease in DNA damage (P < 0.05) which indicated the mitigation of DNA damage. Conclusively, the study showed that Oregano essential oil is an effective counteractive treatment against CP-induced damage in exposed common carp and is recommended during the formulation of fish rations.

Bone & Muscle Related Disorders:

Bone Health:

To promote bone health, you cannot just simply consume anything with calcium because studies and researches stated that for bone health, there are some factors that should be covered as well like its density, its growth and the stock of minerals during old ages should be enough. Oregano is rich of minerals that are essential for bone health and also contains vitamin K to promote the bone growth and maintains the bone density.

Joint and Muscle Pain:

If you have sore and tired muscles oil of Oregano can work wonders due to its anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and anesthetic action. It penetrates deep into the tissues and can relieve pain caused by muscle cramps, aching muscles, carpal tunnel syndrome and other muscular injuries. Oil of Oregano is now gaining attention as a natural alternative to chemical-filled drugs that can have adverse side effects. Oregano essential oil, being a power anti-inflammatory, can penetrate the skin and go deep into the joints to help relieve pain and inflammation and help increase mobility. Due to its high content of carvacrol, Oregano oil can activate heat shock proteins or HSPs through T cells in the body. T cells are high-stress regulators and HSPs are responsible for defending the body against inflammation.

Studies have shown that carvacrol can increase the T cell response to self stress proteins and down-regulate inflammatory disease. Research has shown that the oil can go to the synovial fluid in the joints and serve as a natural pain-killer.

Mix 5-7 drops of Oregano essential oil with 1 teaspoon of a carrier oil such us Moringa oil (Moringa oil is recommended as a study showed that it is a potent anti-inflammatory, making it an excellent carrier oil for relieving painful, arthritic joints).

You can also add 2-3 drops of Peppermint oil (an excellent analgesic) to the blend. The cooling sensation of Peppermint oil will help to alleviate pain. Rub and massage the blend into the affected joints 2-3 times daily. You can also use the same blend to relieve cramps and sore aching muscles.

Arthritis:

Arthritis affects millions of people around the world and causes joint pain and inflammation of the joints. Prescription drugs administered to arthritis patients usually include Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) which are typically pain relievers. Inflammatory problems just like arthritis are combined with pain and also lack of mobility of the affected joint. It’s the most typical inflammation related symptom in the aged along with rheumatoid arthritis, osteo arthritis as well as gouty arthritis being the 3 most typical types of arthritis. Carvacrol in Oregano oil has the capacity to stimulate HSP or even the heat shock proteins that are the body’s natural anti-inflammatory defense mechanism. Whenever HSP is stimulated higher stress, inflammation as well as self-induced arthritis is suppressed. As inflammation decreases, joint as well as muscle mobility is renewed. Also, like a pain killer Oregano oil is really as efficient as Morphine since the oil has the capacity to pass through deep down in the skin.

To use outwardly on the affected joints, combine 1 drop of Oregano oil along with 5 drops of additional virgin Olive oil or even Coconut oil. To make use of internally, combine 2 drops Oregano oil in the glass of fruit juice and also consume. It really is recommended to be used for the maximum of about 6 weeks at a time, and then a pause of the minimum 2 weeks is recommended just before resuming again.

Gently massaging the affected area with 2 drops of Oregano oil blended with Coconut oil or adding it to your bath helps in reducing pain and inflammation in arthritis. Oregano essential oil has been proved by the Physiotherapy research to contain morphine-like properties that act as a perfect pain relief aid.

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

The anti-inflammatory, immune stimulant and warming diaphoretic properties of Oregano oil assist in eliminating toxins from the body, reduce inflammation, increase blood circulation and lessen pain and inflammation in rheumatic patients. Since Oregano has anti inflammatory properties, using it as a massage oil will help reduce the inflammation.

A 2010 "Potential Use of Plectranthus amboinicus in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis" study by Jia-Ming Chang, Chun-Ming Cheng, Le-Mei Hung, Yuh-Shan Chung, and Rey-Yuh Wu, investigated the therapeutic efficacy of Oregano in treating rheumatoid arthritis in a rat model. Oregano significantly inhibited footpad swelling and arthritic symptoms in collagen-induced arthritic rats, while serum anti-collagen IgM and CRP levels were consistently decreased, together with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1ß. Results demonstrated the potential anti-arthritic effect of Oregano in treating rheumatoid arthritis.

To make the oil, take 100 grams of the dried Oregano in a cup. Add in two cups of Sesame oil to it. Now sun dry this mixture under hot sun for a day or two. Strain and use it as a massage oil.

Osteoporosis:

We should ensure that we obtain enough vitamins and minerals for bone health. Iron, calcium and manganese are essential for maintaining bone health. Oregano has adequate amounts of nutrients which help to prevent osteoporosis in life. Don’t just rely yourself to calcium when it comes to bone health but you should consume foods that could make sure your body got enough calcium and minerals essential to bone health during your old age. The ability of bones to stock minerals is also important and vitamin K found in Oregano will make sure you that and prevent osteoporosis to occur today as well as later when you’ve reached senior age.

Injuries:

Wounds:

Not only is it good for our bodies, but Oregano essential oil may even have wound-healing properties that may be found in many skin care products. Skin acts as a protective barrier between the body and the external environment. Skin wounds are a common inflammatory disorder for the solution of which plants and essential oils have been applied as a medical option for centuries. Origanum vulgare essential oil is largely used in folk medicine, but its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully known.

A 2020 study "Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil provides anti-inflammatory activity and facilitates wound healing in a human keratinocytes cell model" published in Food Chem Toxicol. by Rosanna Avola, Giuseppe Granata, Corrada Geraci, Edoardo Napoli, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Venera Cardile, evaluated the anti-inflammatory/antioxidant activity as well as wound healing capacity of a well-characterized Origanum vulgare essential oil on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and histamine (H) or subjected to a scratch test. The expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inter-cellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were verified. The DNA damage was shown by the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and activation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Moreover, the abnormal modification of extracellular matrix components (ECM) was examined by determining matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and -12. Compared to untreated control, Origanum vulgare essential oil showed efficacy in supporting and enhancing the cell motility. In IFN-γ and H treated cells, OEO displayed a significant reduction of ROS, ICAM-1, iNOS, COX-2, 8-OHdG, MMP-1, and MMP-12. Origanum vulgare essential oil proved useful to treat inflammation and support cell motility during wound healing.

A 2012 study "Wounds Healing Activity of Aquerous Extracts of Leaves and Roots of Coleus armonaticus in Rats" published in Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica ñ Drug Research, Vol. 69 No. 6 evaluated wound healing activity of aqueous extract of leaves and roots of C. aromaticus in excisional wound model in albino rats. A ten percent ointment of aqueous extract of root showed complete epithelization after 12 days, while a 5% ointment of leaf extract showed complete healing after 16 days.

Mental Health & Behavioural Conditions:

Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome:

A combination of Oregano oil with Lavender oil and Elevation oil is effective to treat post-traumatic stress syndrome.

Take 2 drops Oregano oil, 3-4 drops of Lavender and Elevation oil 3 drops in palm and rubs the hands inhale the smell of the oils till it completely absorbed and then drink sufficient water.

Depression:

In 2018, scientists looked at how treatment with Oregano oil and other substances affected rats with depression due to chronic unpredictable stress. Stress-related behavior in rats given Oregano treatment improved after 14 days. The study authors concluded that Oregano might relieve stress-related behavior.

Coordinated Social Behaviour:

Coordinated social behaviour is fundamental for ant ecological success. However, even distantly-related organisms, such as plants, have evolved the ability to manipulate ant collective performances to their own advantage. In the parasitic system encompassing Maculinea butterflies, Myrmica ants, and Origanum vulgare plants, the ant-plant interaction elicits the release of a volatile terpenoid compound (carvacrol) which is used by the gravid butterfly to locate the ideal oviposition site.

A 2018 study "Origanum vulgare terpenoids modulate Myrmica scabrinodis brain biogenic amines and ant behaviour" published in PLoS One by Giuseppe Mannino, Gholamreza Abdi, Massimo Emilio Maffei, Francesca Barbero, showed that this ant-plant association is maintained by the effect of Origanum vulgare terpenoids on ant behaviour and that food plants might gain protection by Myrmica ants by chemically manipulating workers to forage in their surroundings. The variation in the locomotor ability of three ant species (Formica cinerea, Tetramorium caespitum, and Myrmica scabrinodis) was studied after treatment with the two major Origanum vulgare terpenoid volatile compounds (i.e., carvacrol and thymol). The brain levels of three biogenic amines (dopamine, tyramine and serotonin) were analysed in ants exposed to the Origanum vulgare terpenoids by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Carvacrol and thymol increased the locomotor activity of all ant species tested, but if blended reduced the movement propensity of Myrmica scabrinodis. Dopamine and tyramine production was positively correlated with the worker locomotor activity. In Myrmica ants, both brain biogenic ammines were negatively correlated with the aggressive behaviour. Blends of Origanum vulgare volatiles affected the locomotor ability while increased the aggressiveness of Myrmica workers by altering the aminergic regulation in the ant brains. This behavioural manipulation, might enhance partner fidelity and plant protection. Our findings provide new insights supporting a direct role of plant volatiles in driving behavioural changes in social insects through biogenic amine modulation.

Neurological Health & Nerve Diseases:

Neuroprotective:

A 2013 study published in International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 3, Issue 1 investigated the neuroprotective effect of PA in aluminum induced neurotoxicity in rats. Treatment showed significant attenuation of lipid peroxidation and reversed the decrease in brain CAT and GSH levels. Results suggest a potential role in the management of Alzheimer's disease and oxidative stress.

Stroke:

Strokes are the other form of heart attack. If in heart attack, heart is the one attacked, in stroke, brain is the one attacked. The factors that cause stroke is almost similar to factors that cause heart attack. So, for you who are currently having problems with the cardiovascular system and intend to reduce the risk of stroke, adding dried Oregano leaf tea to daily diet is highly recommended.

Sleep Disorders:

Improves Sleep:

Thymol is one of the chemicals found in Oregano that responsible to the aromatic smell of Oregano. Surprisingly, if you have problem with your sleep, adding Oregano to your dinner could help you having a good night sleep because thymol also has function to sooth your body while you’re sleeping.

Oral Diseases:

Oregano oil contains thymol, which is the active ingredient used in over the counter mouthwashes available in your local drug store to fight bad breath, bacteria and plaque. Thymol is an antiseptic and acts as a powerful antibacterial and antifungal agent to fight bad breath and even gingivitis.

An unsweetened tea can be used like a gargle to clean mouth problems. A drop of Oregano oil on toothbrush will help completely take care of gum disease and tooth decay.

Bad Breath (Halitosis):

A 2019 study "Formulation and Antibacterial Activity of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng Leaves Ethanolic Extract as Herbal Mouthwash Against Halitosis Caused Bacteria" published in Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medicinal Sciences by Nazliniwaty Nazliniwaty, Lia Laila, reports on the formulation of P. amboinicus ethanolic extract of leaves as herbal mouthwash and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus mutans and S. aureus. Screening yielded glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, tannin and steroid/triterpenoid. The antibacterial activity of the mouthwash showed the dosage form of 2% extract successfully inhibited the growth of bacteria with 12.00 and 11.25 mm of inhibition diameter for both S. aureus and S. mutans, respectively.

Add to toothpaste: Add 1 drop of Oregano oil to your toothbrush (with or without toothpaste), and brush your teeth. If you have tooth pain, Oregano oil can also serve as a natural anesthetic to relieve pain and swelling.

Home-made mouth wash: Combine 5 drops of Oregano oil and 5 drops of Peppermint oil to 2 cups of spring water. Pour all ingredients into a clean bottle (glass is preferred) and shake to mix. Swish about 10 ml or 2 teaspoons of the mouthwash in your mouth for 30 seconds or so and spit out. Use it daily.

Ear Diseases:

Earache:

Ear infections can be extremely painful due to fluid build-up in the ear caused by the eustachian tubes (tubes that connect the middle ear to the nose) becoming blocked. This can occur due to viral or bacterial infections, blocked sinuses, allergies, swollen adenoid glands and more. Oregano oil can help relieve the pain caused by an ear infection as it is a natural anti-inflammatory and has anesthetic properties and is one of the most effective essential oils to use for ear infections.

Add 2-3 drops of Oregano oil with 2-3 drops of a carrier oil such as Jojoba or Coconut oil and rub and massage it on the outside of the ear. Be careful not to get it inside the ear canal. The oil will permeate the skin and absorb into the tissues and help alleviate pain and throbbing in the ear.

Pet Health:

Pet Bath:

Oregano oil is a safe, natural remedy to treat and control skin, fungal and parasitic infections in pets such as dogs and cats. It has also proven beneficial in treating arthritis in dogs.

To control fleas and prevent parasite infestation and growth combine 1 full teaspoon of Oregano oil with 1 gallon (16 cups) of water and use it as a final rinse after bathing your pet.

To apply topically, dilute a few drops of Oregano oil with a carrier oil such as Coconut oil and apply the oil to areas of the skin affected by fungus or parasites such as ringworm. Also apply in areas where you can see pets have lost their fur, perhaps due to hot spots (red, itchy, inflamed skin). You can also apply the same blend to joints and muscles to treat arthritis in your pet.

Feed Hens:

A 2019 study "Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) to feed laying hens and its effects on animal health" published in An Acad Bras Cienc. by Marcos J Migliorini, Marcel M Boiago, Lenilson F Roza, Mauricio Barreta, Alessandra Arno, Weber S Robazza, Alessandro C Galvão, Gabriela M Galli, Gustavo Machado, Matheus D Baldissera, Roger Wagner, Lenita C M Stefani, Aleksandro S DA Silva, evaluated the effect of Oregano essential oil added to the feed of commercial laying hens. This research was focused on the analysis of biochemical changes linked to hepatic function, and protein and lipid metabolism. It was used 240 laying hens (59 weeks-old) distributed in a completely randomized design of six treatments (five repetitions with eight birds each). The experiments were constituted by a control treatment (CT) with the inclusion of zinc bacitracin and five treatments of Oregano essential oil (OEO: 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg.kg-1), respectively. After 28 days of feeding, an increase on serum levels of total proteins and globulins was observed on groups T150 and T200, as well as an increase on albumin levels on group CT. After 84 days of feeding, a significant reduction on total proteins and albumin was observed on group T200, as well as an increase in serum triglycerides. OEO at 200 mg.kg-1 increased globulin levels on day 28, which may be considered an effect in the inflammatory response, which increases serum immunoglobulins and proteins.

Insects & Pests:

Insect Bites and Stings:

One of the great health benefits of Oregano oil is its ability to help relieve the irritation of insect bites. Again, this is largely thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties. But that’s not all Oregano oil does in terms of fighting off pesky bugs.

  • Antiseptic spray: Add 20 drops of Oregano oil and 15 drops of lemon or lime essential oil in a spray bottle and fill it up with water. Shake and spray on kitchen counters to keep small critters like ants and cockroaches away.
  • Natural pesticide: Want a safe and natural pesticide for your vegetables? If you find that your vegetables are getting infested with annoying pests, add 1 full teaspoon Oregano oil to 5-7 drops of regular dish washing liquid in 8 cups or ½ a gallon spray can of water and spray the blend on your vegetable patch to keep it pest-free.
  • Keep the bugs away: Insects despise the strong, pungent smell of Oregano oil. Add a few drops of Oregano oil to cotton balls and keep them in the corners of your house, your kitchen cabinets and even your garden to repel insects away.

Repels Housefly (Musca domestica):

A 2019 study "Efficacy of Origanum vulgare essential oil and carvacrol against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae)" published in Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. by Yongjian Xie, Qianqian Huang, Yuqing Rao, Liang Hong, Dayu Zhang, was evaluated. The major constituents of the Origanum vulgare essential oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were carvacrol (58.13%), p-cymene (17.85%), thymol (8.15%), γ-terpinene (4.96%), and linalool (3.69%). Toxicity of Origanum vulgare essential oil against larvae and pupae was evaluated using fumigation and contact assays. The contact toxicity (LC50) of Origanum vulgare essential oil and carvacrol for larvae was 0.23 and 0.03 μL/cm2, respectively. The fumigation toxicity (LC50) of Origanum vulgare essential oil and carvacrol for larvae was 9.52 and 2.78 μL/L, respectively. Pupal toxicity was evaluated by percentage inhibition rate (PIR). PIR of Origanum vulgare essential oil at 0.25 μL/cm2 was 90.9% for the contact assay and 100% at 20 μL/L for the fumigation assay. PIR of carvacrol was 29.5% (0.025 μL/cm2) and 81.8% (1.25 μL/L) for the contact toxicity and fumigation assay, respectively. Origanum vulgare essential oil and carvacrol have significant toxicity to the housefly and are potential insecticides for housefly control.

Repels Mosquitos:

Oregano oil is an excellent antiseptic and insect repellent. Oregano oil can be the safer alternative to using strong repellents that contain DEET, which although permitted by health agencies, have debatable health concerns.

In a 2005 study, both the active ingredients in Oregano essential oil, carvacrol and thymol, were documented to be highly effective in repelling mosquitoes.

Repels Chikungunya vector and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes (Dengue):

A 2014 study "Mosquitocidal efficacies of medicinal plant Coleus aromaticus Benth (Lamiaceae) leaf extracts against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera culicidae)" published in International Journal of Current Research in Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences by M Baranitharan and S Dhanasekaran, evaluated the mosquitocidal activity of Coleus aromaticus leaf extracts against larvae of Aedes aegypti. Results showed the diethyl ether extract has outstanding potential for controlling the dengue vector mosquito Ae. aegypti. The domino effect showed the larvicial, ovicidal, and repellent activity was dose reliant. 

Repels Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes (Malaria):

A 2010 study "Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito" ipublished n Parasitology Research by Annadurai Senthilkumar, Venugopalan Venkatesalu, showed the essential oil of P. amboinicus is an inexpensive and ecofriendly source of a natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

Repels Termites:

A 2002 study published in Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 17, Issue 6 by Gurdip Singh, Om Prakash Singh, Y. R. Prasad, M. P. de Lampasona, C. Catalan, investigating the leaf essential oil of C. amboinicus yielded six components. The major component was thymol (94.3%), followed by carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, spathuylenol, terpinen-4-ol. The oil was insecticidal to white termites (Odontotermes obesus Rhamb). It was more active than synthetic insecticides, Thiodan and Primoban-20 against termites, although it was ineffective against Tribolium castaneum, a stored product pest.

Repels Bed Bugs:

A 2018 study revealed that Oregano oil also helps repel bed bugs. It was so effective that it performed better than a common commercial, chemical-filled product DEET. Again, before applying it to your skin, make sure to dilute it with a carrier oil.

Repels Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner):

A 2020 study "Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene from Origanum vulgare essential oil against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)" published in Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. by Xue Gong, Yujian Ren, evaluated the larvicidal activity, and ovicidal activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil and its major components against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The chemical composition of the Origanum vulgare essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS analysis revealed that the Origanum vulgare essential oil was composed of ten compounds. The major constituents were carvacrol (78.35%), followed by p-cymene (6.85%) and γ-terpinene (3.70%). In larvicidal activity assay, the Origanum vulgare essential oil achieved a LC50 value of 265.51 μg/ml. The three major constituents from the Origanum vulgare essential oil were tested individually for toxicity against larvae of H. armigera. Carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene appeared to be most effective against H. armigera, with LC50 values of 51.53, 121.32, and 150.15 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, EC50 values of carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene against H. armigera eggs were 33.48, 47.85, and 56.54 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, this study showed that Origanum vulgare essential oil and its major constituents have the potential to develop as new eco-friendly insecticides against H. armigera.

Repels Pests:

You can also grow Oregano in your garden to help keep pests away, and this makes it a welcome add on to your vegetable or herb garden.

Parasites:

Parasites like tape worms, round worms, mosquitoes, fleas, lice and bed bugs cause innumerable communicable diseases that affect the human body severely. Oregano essential oil has anti-parasitic properties that aids in killing parasites.

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