Health Benefits and Uses of Lemon Balm (Melissa)
Lemon Balm, Melissa, Balm, Common Balm, or Balm Mint, scientifically known as Melissa officinalis, is a bushy, herbaceous, perennial plant in the mint family, that is typically grown in herb gardens and border fronts for its lemon-scented leaves. Lamiaceae. The plant is native to south-central Europe, North Africa, the Mediterranean region, (Basin, Iran), and Central Asia but has escaped gardens and naturalized in many parts of the U.S. (Eastern, Midwestern and Pacific Northwest states) and now around the globe. Texts describing Lemon Balm can be found as far back as Ancient Turkey, where it was planted near bee hives to encourage the bees to return home to the hive rather than swarm away. According to Greek mythology, Melissa was a nymph who discovered and taught the use of honey. She was one of the nymph nurses of Zeus as a baby, but rather than feeding him milk, Melissa fed him honey, hence the genus name Melissa, Greek for “honey bee”, also the name of a Cretan princess who first discovered how to obtain honey.
The Lemon Balm grows up to the height of 30 to 150 cm and lasts for two years usually. The plant is found growing in thickets, fence rows, abandoned home sites, vacant lots, and areas along roadsides, banks of ponds, floodplain areas along drainage canals, and waste areas. The Lemon Balm tree has a creeping root system that can be kept under check if wanted. It has fibrous and rhizomatous root and stem is light green, 4-angled, single-furrowed along their sides, and glabrous to finely hairy. Pairs of spreading opposite leave occur along these stems, becoming gradually smaller as they ascend. The Melissa officinalis, has egg shaped leaves and small white or pink colored flowers. It is also known to have a strong odor that is reminiscent of Lemon which is why it is called Lemon Balm. Leaves are 3½ inch (9 cm) long and 2 inch (5 cm) across, ovate in shape, and either crenate or crenate-serrate along their margins. Flowers are 8-13 mm. in length with corollas that are longer than their calyces.
For more than 2,000 years Lemon Balm has been cultivated as a culinary and medicinal plant. Herbalists in the Renaissance period held this herb in high regard for its healing ability, with many attributing to it the potential for a long life when taken every day in elixir form. The first cosmetic use of Lemon Balm goes back to the 14th century when the Queen of Hungary reportedly used it to erase years from her face by softening wrinkles. Today, it’s still recommended for boosting the appearance of skin and reducing the appearance of fine lines. The Lemon Balm herb has typically been used to make tea, tinctures and the oil extracted to make a wonderfully fresh, lemony essential oil that is known as Melissa essential oil. It has been cultivated since at least the 16th century as an ornamental plant, for its oil (used in perfumery), and its many virtues. A perfume containing Lemon Balm, known as Carmelite Water, was in high demand in Renaissance times due more to practicality than the need to allure through scent. Carmelite Water helped to cover the stench of unwashed bodies as bathing was considered an “opening” for sinful thoughts due to exposure of naked skin to the eyes of the bather. As most people of that time period only bathed once a year, or in some cases once a lifetime, the need for sweet smelling perfumed waters was very high. Carmelite Water also covered the smell of disease (plague), death (from plagues), and filthy living environments (attributors to plague) so rampant at that period of human history. It is also widely used as a vegetable and to add flavor to dishes. The leaves are used as an herb, in teas, and also as a flavouring agent. Lemon Balm is also strategically grown to attract bees for honey production. The leaves as well as the flowering tops are used widely in medicinal drugs.
Lemon Balm is an ancient herb which was used by the Greeks more than 2000 years ago for numerous medicinal properties that it possesses. This Herb has been known as an active cure for neural disorders. Plants also have a history of herbal medicine usage for a variety of purposes including, inter alia, calming nervous disorders, soothing insect bites and treating colds. Lemon Balm was used as far back as the middle Ages to reduce stress and anxiety, promote sleep, improve appetite, and ease pain and discomfort from indigestion (including gas and bloating, as well as colic). Even before the Middle Ages, Lemon Balm was steeped in wine to lift the spirits, help heal wounds, and treat venomous insect bites and stings. Today, Lemon Balm is mixed with other calming, soothing herbs like Valerian, Chamomile, and Hops, to promote relaxation. It is also used in creams to treat cold sores. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant that has long been used in different ethno-medical systems especially in The European Traditional Medicine and The Iranian Traditional Medicine for the treatment of several diseases. People throughout Europe have been using Lemon Balm for centuries as a digestive aid and to calm frazzled nerves. It was traditionally used to treat headaches, migraines, stomach cramps and urinary infections amongst other things.
Melissa is used to treat hair loss, baldness, trauma, inflammation, high blood pressure, hyperactive thyroid, phobias and palpitations. Use Lemon Balm to help ease anxiety, nervous tension, insomnia, and headaches. It can even be helpful for those suffering with nervous heart palpitations. Similar to other plants in the mint family, such as Rosemary and Clary Sage, Lemon Balm helps to restore those who are overwrought and exhausted. Rejuvenating Lemon Balm may be useful for easing parental exhaustion, for students studying for exams, and for overstimulated children. In particular, Lemon Balm can calm restlessness in children and help bring sleep to little ones who are so overtired that they are wired. When digestive upsets come to call, Lemon Balm can help. Especially when tummy issues are associated with nervous stress, Lemon Balm's mild antispasmodic action will help to soothe cramps. Lemon Balm gently stimulates the liver and helps to enhance digestion. The bright herbaceous green leaves are full of healthful vitamins and minerals, making it a great addition to your family’s diet. Lemon Balm is also a potent antiviral and can be of great help during viral illnesses, such as colds, flu, and even during a bout of shingles. It can assist the body in fighting infection, while easing the discomfort and restlessness that can sometimes accompany illness.
The Melissa officinalis yields a very small quantity of essential oil. This oil comprises of geraniol ect, citral citronellal and euginol acetate. The Melissa officinalis contains eugenol that kills bacteria and has been proved to relieve muscle numbing. It is also rich in tannins that give it an antiviral effect. The terpenes in Melissa officinalis give it a soothing effect. Melissa officinalis also contains alpha-humulene, caffeic acid, caryophyllene, geranial, geraniol and neral.
Lemon Balm has been in use for more than 2000 years and few sources state that its use was recorded in Theophrastus’ Historia Plantarum around 300 B.C. and was used by the ancient Greeks and Romans. French Emperor King Charles V and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V are said to have taken Melissa beverages for augmenting their health. Pliny The Elder, the renowned Roman naturalist have said that planting Lemon Balm near bee hives will attract bees to return to their hives and “causeth the bees to keep together and causeth others to come unto them”, denoting that rubbing the leaves of Melissa on bee hives will encourage the bees to come back. An Arabian proverb quotes Lemon Balm as “Balm makes the heart merry and joyful” and the Arabian physician Avicenna (11th century) used Melissa in the treatment of melancholy and depression. Paracelsus, the Swiss alchemist and physician called Melissa as “the elixir of life” for he trusted that this magical herb has the power to augment strength and pave way for longevity. Called as the "heart’s content" in southern parts of Europe, Lemon Balm tea was the most famous morning tea after it was taken along with honey after breakfast by the Princes of Sydenham Diana, the ancient Roman Goddess and Welsh prince Glamorgan, who lived 116 and 108 years respectively, attributed the reason for his longevity to the regular drinking of Lemon Balm tree. The Lemon Balm was also recommended for strengthening the brain and relieving languishing nature as well as to prevent the problem of balding especially seen in men. 12th century herbalist Saint Hildegarde von Bingen said “Lemon Balm contains within it the virtues of a dozen other plants”. As we’ll see, it does have many varied uses. The herb is known to promote longevity in people. It has been prescribed by the dispensary in London as early as 17th century. It was prescribed to be taken in every morning for the purpose of renewing the youthfulness and vigor of an individual. The London Dispensary (1696) says: "An essence of Balm, given in Canary wine, every morning will renew youth, strengthen the brain, relieve languishing nature and prevent baldness'. John Evelyn wrote: "Balm is sovereign for the brain, strengthening the memory and powerfully chasing away melancholy". Greek physician Dioscorides used Lemon Balm for treating toothaches, dog bites, scorpion stings, blocked menstruation, toothache and gout. He also used Lemon Balm as a medicinal herb, describing it as useful to treat a disordered state of the nervous system. Popular herbalist Nicholas Culpeper said "Melissa is effective in treating melancholy and boils and is good for the mind, spleen, heart and liver. Melissa has been associated with moon, water and feminine". Kurt Schnaubelt in his book "Advanced Aromatherapy" quotes Melissa oil as “The way in which Melissa oil combines an excellent antiviral component with a soothing but pervasive sedative power is difficult to imagine; it has to be experienced. In its complexity, power, and gentleness, Melissa oil perfectly illustrates how nature time after time works better than one-dimensional synthetic medicines”.
A 2022 review "The Properties of Melissa officinalis L" published in Front Biosci (Schol Ed) by Wissam Zam, Cristina Quispe, Javad Sharifi-Rad, María Dolores López, Mauricio Schoebitz, Miquel Martorell, Farukh Sharopov, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Deepak Chandran, Manoj Kumar, Jen-Tsung Chen, Raffaele Pezzani, aimed that Melissa officinalis is a plant known in numerous countries for its medicinal activities. This plant has been used since ancient times to treat different disorders, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, neurological, psychological conditions. Melissa officinalis contains several phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and many others at the basis of its pharmacological activities. Indeed, the plant can have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, antinociceptive effects. Given its consolidated use, Melissa officinalis has also been experimented with clinical settings, demonstrating interesting properties against different human diseases, such as anxiety, sleeping difficulties, palpitation, hypertension, depression, dementia, infantile colic, bruxism, metabolic problems, Alzheimer's disease, and sexual disorders. As for any natural compound, drug, or plant extract, also Melissa officinalis can have adverse effects, even though the reported events are very rare and the plant can be considered substantially safe. This review has been prepared with a specific research strategy, interrogating different databases with the keyword Melissa officinalis. Moreover, this work analyzes the properties of this plant updating currently available literature, with a special emphasis on human studies.
One of the main things that Lemon Balm is known for is its stress-relieving, calming properties. In fact, it is one of herbs to have on hand when the stress is high. People have been using it as a mild, natural tranquilizer for thousands of years. These properties present in Lemon Balm help protect you from stress. Actually, the anxiolytic property acts like a drug that helps to relax your strained and tired nerves. Officially we call this a relaxing nervine, an herb that relaxes, soothes and supports the nervous system. It can be used for anxiety, hysteria, frayed nerves, stress, insomnia, seasonal affective disorder, nervous tension.
Aromatherapy with Lemon Balm was more effective than with Lavender essential oil at reducing agitation but less at helping with irritability in a trial on 49 elderly people.
Another study also demonstrated that chronic administration of Lemon Balm relieved stress-related effects. Further studies should incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers.
A 2014 randomized controlled trial "Anti-stress effects of Lemon Balm-containing foods" published in Nutrients by Andrew Scholey, Amy Gibbs, Chris Neale, Naomi Perry, Anastasia Ossoukhova, Vanessa Bilog, Marni Kras, Claudia Scholz, Mathias Sass, Sybille Buchwald-Werner, administered Lemon Balm as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised Melissa officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults' self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF) administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active Lemon Balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral "costs" at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix. According to the results, a sweetened water-based drink containing 0.3 grams of Lemon Balm extract reduced stress and improved mood in a group of 25 healthy young adults, compared to a placebo. The results were confirmed by repeating the test with yogurt instead of water in the same study. Participants felt the stress-reducing effects within one to three hours after eating the yogurt.
A 2004 study found that taking Lemon Balm eased the negative mood effects of laboratory-induced psychological stress. Participants who took Lemon Balm self-reported an increased sense of calmness and reduced feelings of alertness. Although this was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, it had a small sample size of 18 people. Further research is needed to elaborate on these findings.
Melissa essential oil should be rubbed on the shoulders, forehead or chest or it should be diffused at night to lower the stress and enhances the emotional well-being.
Take 300 mg of Lemon Balm in capsule form twice a day. You can take a single dose of 600 mg in acute episodes of stress.
A mix of Lemon Balm, Valerian, Passionflower, and Butterbur extracts reduced acute stress in a trial on 72 healthy people. Taken together, limited evidence suggests that Lemon Balm helps with stress. Further research is needed to confirm these results and investigate how to use Lemon Balm therapeutically.
Anxiety and Fear:
Lemon Balm contains the active compound rosmarinic acid, an enzyme which effectively increases GABA (gamma amino-butyric acid) in the brain. It is one of the inhibitory neurotransmitters, used by the brain to prevent over-excitement and attain balance. It is responsible for ensuring that we are not overly stressed and plays a role in sleep cycles. Increasing stimulation of GABA receptors will produce a sedative or calming effect and explains why Lemon Balm works well as an anti-anxiety herb. Lemon Balm may also be used to help reduce symptoms of anxiety, such as nervousness and excitability for over 2,000 years, and modern science has validated its relaxing effects through numerous clinical studies.
In a pilot trial Lemon Balm completely eliminated anxiety in 14 people with stress. Also, a combination of Lemon Balm and Valerian root significantly reduced anxiety in 24 healthy volunteers.
The intake of 600 mg of Lemon Balm reduces stress levels and induces a sense of calmness in the body according to a study. Lemon Balm contains a compound called rosmarinic acid which lowers the symptoms of anxiety-like excitement and nervousness. Foods containing Lemon Balm has a positive effect on your mood which reduces stress and anxiety as well. Larger human studies should be conducted to confirm these results.
In another study Lemon Balm extract was given at a dose of 300 mg twice daily to a group of stressed people with mild-to-moderate anxiety and sleep disturbances. A combination of Lemon Balm and Valerian root significantly reduced anxiety in 24 healthy volunteers. This study found that Lemon Balm reduced anxiety by 18%, reduced stress-associated symptoms by 15% and lowered insomnia by 42%. Although this is promising, more research is needed to truly determine its efficacy.
Research published in 2014 examined the mood and cognitive effects of foods containing Lemon Balm. The supplement was mixed into a beverage and into yogurt along with either natural or artificial sweeteners. Participants in both groups reported positive effects on various aspects of mood, including reduced levels of anxiety.
A 2013 review from The University of Melbourne of plant-based medicines that included 53 species supports the efficacy of the chronic use (i.e., greater than one day) of Lemon Balm in the treatment of anxiety disorders. It concluded that current evidence supports acute anxiolytic activity in Lemon Balm.
Melissa essential oil can be diffused in an aromatherapy oil burner to uplift the mood, promote emotional balance and a restful night's sleep. A couple of dabs of diluted oil on the back of the ears or neck can also help to overcome nervousness and anxiety.
Melissa essential oil has antidepressant, hypnotic and sedative properties, and it may create a feeling of peace and warmth. It can promote emotional balance and has uplifting compounds.
Melissa oil has also been shown to modulate mood and cognitive performance in healthy young volunteers, who reported no side effects or symptoms of toxicity. Even at the lowest doses, self-rated “calmness” was elevated with melissa oil treatment, making it a great essential oil for depression.
A 2021 systematic review and meta-analysis "The effects of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on depression and anxiety in clinical trials" published in Phytother Res by Javid Ghazizadeh, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Wolfgang Marx, Ali Fakhari, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan, Mohammadali Torbati, Somaiyeh Taheri-Tarighi, Mostafa Araj-Khodaei, Mojgan Mirghafourvand, were considered to investigate the effects of Lemon Balm as a medicinal herb on anxiety and depression in clinical trials and its side effects. All randomized clinical trials published up to October 30, 2020 that examined Lemon Balm in patients with symptoms of depression or anxiety, with acute or chronic manifestations, were searched in 12 online databases. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan software. Continuous data were analyzed using standardized mean differences. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using Chi2 , I2 , and p value tests. Based on meta-analysis results, Lemon Balm significantly improved mean anxiety and depression scores compared with the placebo (SMD: -0.98; 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.33; p = 0.003), (SMD: -0.47; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.21, p = 0.0005) respectively, without serious side effects. Current evidence suggests that Lemon Balm may be effective in improving anxiety and depressive symptoms, particularly in the acute setting. Due to the high level of heterogeneity between studies, results should be interpreted with caution. The small number of clinical trials and differences between their methods were the limitations of the present study. Further high-quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of the Lemon Balm.
Another 2020 study "Melissa officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract inhibits anxiety and depression through prevention of central oxidative stress and apoptosis" published in Exp Physiol. by Javid Ghazizadeh, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan, Mohammadali Torbati, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Ali Fakhari, Javad Mahmoudi, Mostafa Araj-Khodaei, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, evaluated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis (HAEMO) on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in restraint stress-exposed mice. In order to induce a depression-like model, mice were subjected to restraint stress (3 h day-1 for 14 days) and received normal saline or HAEMO (50, 75 and 150 mg kg-1 day-1) for 14 days. The administered doses of HAEMO were designated based on the concentration of one of the main phenolic compounds present in the extract, rosmarinic acid (2.55 mg kg-1 at lowest dose); other phytochemical analyses including assays for antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids were also carried out. The behavioural changes in an open field task, elevated plus maze, tail suspension and forced swimming tests were evaluated. Also, malondialdehyde levels and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity were assessed in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, levels of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 3 in the brain as well as serum concentration of corticosterone were evaluated. HAEMO (75 and 150 mg kg-1 ) significantly reversed anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours. Also, HAEMO reduced MDA levels, enhanced enzymatic antioxidant activities and restored serum levels of corticosterone. An immunoblotting analysis also demonstrated that HAEMO decreased levels of pro-apoptotic markers and increased anti-apoptotic protein levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of restraint stress-exposed mice. Our findings suggested that HAEMO reduced inflammation and had anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in mice.
A 2013 study conducted at the University of Melbourne found that the effects of Melissa essential oil were shown to help improve anxiety, depression, neuroprotectivity and cognition.
Improves Mood and Cognitive Function:
Melissa essential oil is an effective mood lifter and an antidepressant. It has been found to drive away sadness and inspire joy and hope. That is why it was called the "elixir of life" or the "nectar of life" all the way back in the 15th Century.
Melissa essential oil has also been shown to modulate mood and cognitive performance in healthy young volunteers, who reported no side effects or symptoms of toxicity. Even at the lowest doses, self-rated “calmness” was elevated with melissa oil treatment, making it a great essential oil for improve mood. Research has shown that a dose of 600 mg per day resulted in reduced negative mood effects and increase self-ratings of calmness.
In another study Lemon Balm improved cognitive performance and mood in 20 healthy participants. Lemon Balm also increased accuracy and attention in cognitive performance tasks in 20 college students.
Although these participants did experience an increase in levels of alertness and performance, it’s still possible for fatigue to set in over time.
Research in 2021 suggests that Lemon Balm may benefit mood and cognitive performance. The study demonstrated that treatment with Lemon Balm led to improvements in tasks involving memory, concentration, and mathematics. The findings suggest that Lemon Balm may be effective in improving anxiety and symptoms of depression in some people. However, the researchers note that further high quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of the Lemon Balm. These findings also relate to Lemon Balm supplements, not Lemon Balm tea.
Combining Lemon Balm with food also affects its absorption rate, which may have had an impact on its efficacy. Additional research is needed. Take 300 to 600 mg of Lemon Balm three times a day.
Focus and Concentration:
Recently Lemon Balm produced an unexpected result in a research study, it greatly increased the ability to concentrate and perform word and picture tasks. There’s some evidence this herb helps improve hyperactivity, concentration problems and impulsiveness in elementary school children. Taken internally in food products, it also seemed to enhance mood and/or cognitive performance, as demonstrated in a study involving young adults. It has potential to improve problem solving, math skills, concentration and alertness, according to available research. Although it works differently than sedative medications.
A study investigating 300 mg of Lemon Balm extract supplementation on stress and cognitive function found that 300 mg significantly improved maths performance alertness and immediate recall compared to baseline.
In another study of Lemon Balm at Northumbria University in England students were tested for weeks while using either Lemon Balm or a placebo. The students did significantly better on the tests after taking Lemon Balm and continued to post improved scores for up to six hours after taking the herb. The students taking Lemon Balm were noted to be calmer and less stressed during the tests.
A 2014 study also looked at the effects of Lemon Balm in improving cognitive function. Participants were asked to do cognitive tasks involving memory, mathematics, and concentration. The results of these computerized tasks suggest that participants who ingested Lemon Balm performed better than those who didn’t.
A 2013 study conducted at The University of Melbourne found that the effects of Melissa essential oil were shown to help improve anxiety, depression, neuroprotectivity and cognition. Lemon Balm improved cognitive performance and memory in 2 small trials on 23 healthy people. Similarly, Lemon Balm improved cognitive performance and mood in 20 healthy participants. Lemon Balm also increased accuracy and attention in cognitive performance tasks in 20 college students.
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):
Lemon Balm is very calming and helps to balance out an easily distracted mind. Even those who deal with regular racing thoughts can benefit from the balancing power of Lemon Balm.
One study showed an oral dose taken daily for four months appeared to help reduce agitation and decrease symptoms of agitation in those with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Lemon Balm may also help address other mental health concerns as well, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although more research is needed.
Lemon Balm seems to have the capacity to increase the flow of oxygen to the body's tissues, exhibiting restorative and protective effects in various neurological diseases, such as stroke, cardiorespiratory arrest, and traumatic brain damage. Lemon Balm increases GABA by inhibiting GABA transaminase, an enzyme that breaks it down. GABA is a neurotransmitter that helps send messages between the brain and the nervous system.
Lemon Balm protects brain cells and supports brain health and function. Antioxidants such as eugenol in Lemon Balm detain free radicals before they can attack brain cells. Rosmarinic acid, which is a key compound in Lemon Balm, is also beneficial in this regard. Members of the mint family such as Peppermint, Rosemary and Lemon Balm generally act as cerebral vasodilators, which means they open the blood flow to the brain, providing more oxygen and glucose to brain cells. If the brain doesn’t get enough blood, it can quickly affect brain function.
Animal studies show that, when provided shortly after such an episode, Lemon Balm appears to be protective of the brain.
Lemon Balm also improves memory and brain function by binding to nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the brain. Both of these types of receptors are activated by acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays roles in enhancing memory and alertness. Also known as gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA is a neurotransmitter that helps send messages between the brain and the nervous system.
In one study Lemon Balm improved performance and memory in healthy participants. It extracts impacts on receptor binding properties, which in turn, have shown benefit for improved cognitive effects such as alertness and memory.
Further research is needed to confirm the potential role of Lemon Balm in improving cognitive function or even preventing conditions characterized by memory loss and learning disability like Alzheimer’s and dementia.
Learning and Memory:
A 2021 study "The effect of Melissa officinalis L. extract on learning and memory" published in Journal Ethnopharmacol by Mohsen Naseri, Reza Arabi Mianroodi, Zeynab Pakzad, Peyman Falahati, Masomeh Borbor, Hossein Azizi, Sima Nasri, was to evaluate the impact of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis L. on learning and memory, considering its impact on nitric oxide synthase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Rutin was main flavonoid compound and rosmarinic acid was the main phenolic compound of the Melissa officinalis extract. Streptozotocin induced diabetes and impaired learning and memory in diabetic rats. Melissa officinalis treated-control group showed a higher alternation score in the Y-maze task and step-through latency in the passive avoidance task compared to the vehicle treated diabetic group. Melissa officinalis-treated rats showed a higher alternation score in the Y-maze task in all doses compared to the vehicle treated diabetic group (P < 0.05). In addition, in the passive avoidance task Melissa officinalis increased step-through latency (P < 0.05) but not initial latency, in all doses. Furthermore, in diabetic rats, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nitric oxide synthase genes decreased. However, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nitric oxide synthase gene expression was increased in Melissa officinalis-treated rats compared to diabetic rats (P < 0.05). Melissa officinalis improved learning and memory in diabetic rats, which may have occurred by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nitric oxide synthase gene expression.
"A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of a combined extract of sSage, Rosemary and Melissa, traditional herbal medicines, on the enhancement of memory in normal healthy subjects, including influence of age" published in Phytomedicine in 2018 by N S L Perry, R Menzies, F Hodgson, P Wedgewood, M-J R Howes, H J Brooker, K A Wesnes, E K Perry, of 44 normal healthy subjects (mean age 61 ± 9.26y SD; m/f 6/38) participated in this study. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study was performed with subjects randomised into an active and placebo group. The study consisted of a single 2-week term ethanol extract of SRM that was chemically-characterised using high resolution LC-UV-MS/MS analysis. Immediate and delayed word recall were used to assess memory after taking SRM or placebo (ethanol extract of Myrrhis odorata (L.) Scop.). In addition analysis was performed with subjects divided into younger and older subgroups (≤ 62 years mean age n = 26: SRM n = 10, Placebo n = 16; ≥ 63 years n = 19: SRM n = 13, Placebo n = 6). Overall there were no significant differences between treatment and placebo change from baseline for immediate or delayed word recall. However subgroup analysis showed significant improvements to delayed word recall in the under 63 year age group (p < 0.0123) with Cohen's effect size d = 0.92. No adverse effects were observed.
This pilot study indicates that an oral preparation of SRM at the selected dose and for the period of administration is more effective than a placebo in supported verbal episodic memory in healthy subjects under 63 years of age. Short- and long- term supplementation with SRM extract merits more robust investigation as an adjunctive treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease and in the general ageing population. The study design proved a simple cost effective trial protocol to test the efficacy of herbal medicines on verbal episodic memory, with future studies including broader cognitive assessment.
Diabetes is a systemic disease, which can cause synaptic defects in the hippocampus. Hippocampus plays a crucial role in learning and memory. Melissa officinalis has been used as for memory enhancement in Traditional Persian Medicine.
Melissa essential oil is also considered a nervine substance. This means that it serves as a tonic for the nervous system, keeping it healthy, functioning properly, and preventing nervous disorders. Problems like vertigo, nervousness, and convulsions can be treated using this property of Melissa essential oil.
Chronic Neurodegenerative Diseases:
Chronic neurodegenerative diseases like dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc., can be combated with the help of Lemon Balm extract.
According to a study, patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who took Lemon Balm daily for 4 months improved their cognitive function. Lemon Balm herb also improved cognitive tasks which involved memory, concentration and mathematics in participants as compared to those who didn't ingest the herb.
Improves Cognitive Function:
Previous in vitro and in vivo studies on Alzheimer's disease models have reported that rosmarinic acid (RA) can inhibit the formation of amyloid-β fibrils as well as the oligomerization and deposition of amyloid-β protein. Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg of RA is tolerable and safe in healthy individuals and patients with mild Alzheimer's disease dementia.
A 2023 randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial "Effects of Melissa officinalis Extract Containing Rosmarinic Acid on Cognition in Older Adults Without Dementia" published in Journal Alzheimers Dis., by Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi, Kenji Sakai, Junji Komatsu, Kazuo Iwasa, Mai Horimoto, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Masahito Yamada, Kenjiro Ono, aimed to assess the effects of M. officinalis extract on cognition in older adults without dementia. This study included individuals who were diagnosed with subjective or mild cognitive impairment (n = 323). The trial involved M. officinalis extract supplementation (500 mg of RA per day) period of 96 weeks followed by a washout period of 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale score, and the secondary endpoints were other cognitive measure results as well as safety and tolerability. There were no significant differences in cognitive measures between the placebo and M. officinalis groups from baseline to 96 weeks. However, based on the analysis of Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes scores in participants without hypertension, the score was found to be increased by 0.006 and decreased by 0.085 in the M. officinalis and placebo groups, respectively; this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Furthermore, there were no differences in vital signs, physical and neurological measures, or hippocampal volume between the two groups. These results indicate that M. officinalis extract may help prevent cognitive decline in older adults without hypertension.
Plant cell culture is a biotechnology cultivation method that permit to cultivate plants in a short period of time and to obtain extracts with a high degree of standardization and high safety profile.
A 2022 study "Attenuation of neuroinflammation in microglia cells by extracts with high content of rosmarinic acid from in vitro cultured Melissa officinalis L. cells" published in Journal Pharm Biomed Anal., by Vittoria Borgonetti, Giovanna Pressi, Oriana Bertaiola, Chiara Guarnerio, Manuela Mandrone, Ilaria Chiocchio, Nicoletta Galeotti, evaluate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity of a standardized Melissa officinalis L. phytocomplex extract (MD) obtained with an in vitro plant cell culture. The MD has been chemically characterized and the content of total polyphenols was 5.17 ± 0.1 % w/w, with a content of rosmarinic acid (RA), its main constituent, of 4.02 ± 0.1 % w/w. MD was tested in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation, in which microglia cells (BV2) were stimulated with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS; 250 ng/mL) for 24 h and its pharmacological activity was compared with that of RA. MD (10 µg/mL) and RA (0.4 μg/mL) reduced pro-inflammatory factors (NF-kB, HDAC, IL-1ß) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells and counteracted the toxic effect produced by activated microglia medium on neuronal cells. This work shows the efficacy of MD on reducing microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and promoting neuroprotection, highlighting the innovative use of in vitro plant cell cultures to obtain contaminant-free extracts endowed with marked activity and improved quali-quantitative ratio in the constituents' content.
Dementia is an increasing deficiency in thought processes caused by brain damage such as from a stroke or disease such as Alzheimer's disease.
A small but interesting study used Lemon Balm, aromatherapeutically to calm overexcited individuals suffering from dementia.
A study in the Journal of Complimentary Medicine shows that the Melissa essential oil treats the agitation in severe dementia. A drop of Melissa oil should be rubbed by placing it between the palms, breathe for 30 seconds by making a cup over the nose and mouth.
Lemon Balm may help treat diseases like Alzheimer’s and dementia, which are characterized by memory loss and learning disability. Lemon Balm contains volatile (essential) oils, including citronellal and citral A and B, which are known to have sedative properties. In both animal and human studies, Lemon Balm taken by mouth has had calming effects. In larger doses, it may promote sleep. Melissa is probably the most studied of the essential oils for its ability to serve as a natural treatment for Alzheimer’s, and it’s very likely one of the most effective.
In one study, researchers found that using Lemon Balm also improved memory and lengthened attention span in individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This effect may be due to its content of antioxidants, which are thought to protect body cells from damage caused by a chemical process called oxidation.
Scientists at Newcastle General Hospital’s Institute for Aging and Health conducted a placebo-controlled trial to determine the value of Melissa essential oil for agitation in people with severe dementia, which is a frequent and major management problem, especially for patients with severe cognitive impairment. 72 patients with clinically significant agitation in the context of severe dementia were randomly assigned to the Melissa essential oil or placebo treatment group.
Researchers found that 60% of the Melissa oil group and 14% of the placebo-treated group experienced a 30% reduction of agitation scores. There was an overall improvement in agitation in 35% of patients receiving melissa oil and 11% in those treated with placebo, suggesting that quality of life was improved significantly with essential oil treatment.
Alzheimer's disease is the common type of dementia and is currently incurable. Existing FDA-approved Alzheimer's disease drugs may not be effective for everyone, they cannot cure the disease nor stop its progression and their effects diminish over time.
A 2023 systematic review of randomized controlled trials "Natural remedies for Alzheimer's disease" published in Metab Brain Dis., by Saara Ahmad, Saad Bilal Ahmed, Asra Khan, Muhammad Wasim, Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Fatima Ahmed, Zehra Batool, Saima Khaliq, Hamna Rafiq, Prashant Tikmani, Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani, aimed to explore the role of natural alternatives in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A systematic search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane and PubMed databases and reference lists up to November 30, 2021. Only randomized control trials were included and appraised using the National Institute of Health framework. Data analysis showed that herbs like Gingko Biloba, Melissa Officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Ginseng and Saffron alone or in combination with curcumin, low-fat diet, NuAD-Trail, and soy lecithin showed significant positive effects on Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, combination of natural and pharmaceuticals has far better effects than only allopathic treatment. Thus, different herbal remedies in combination with FDA approved drugs are effective and more promising in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
A 2020 randomized placebo-controlled double-blind 24-week trial "Safety and efficacy of Melissa officinalis extract containing rosmarinic acid in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease progression" published in Science Rep. by Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Kenjiro Ono, Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi, Toshitada Nagai, Shoko Kobayashi, Junji Komatsu, Miharu Samuraki-Yokohama, Kazuo Iwasa, Kunihiko Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Masahito Yamada, using Melissa officinalis extract richly containing rosmarinic acid on patients with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease with the aim to examine the safety and tolerability (primary endpoint) of rosmarinic acid (500 mg daily) and its clinical effects and disease-related biomarker changes (secondary endpoints). Patients (n = 23) diagnosed with mild dementia due to probable Alzheimer's disease were randomized to either the placebo or Melissa officinalis extract group. No differences in vital signs or physical and neurologic examination results were detected between the Melissa officinalis and placebo groups. No serious adverse events occurred. There were no significant differences in cognitive measures; however, the mean Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire score improved by 0.5 points in the Melissa officinalis group and worsened by 0.7 points in the placebo group between the baseline and 24-week visit, indicating a significant difference (P = 0.012). No significant differences were apparent in disease-related biomarkers between the groups. Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg of rosmarinic acid taken daily was safe and well-tolerated by patients with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Our results suggest that rosmarinic acid may help prevent the worsening of Alzheimer's disease-related neuropsychiatric symptoms.
However, in 2011, a follow-up study seems to have refuted the evidence and shows that it had no more impact on the patients than medication or placebo. The researchers specifically point out that they blinded more factors in the study and used a more "rigorous design". The research is conflicting, but it seems Melissa oil does potentially do as well as medication can in some instances.
A 2022 study "Melissa officinalis L. ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation and upregulates Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced rat" published in Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. by Hagar N Abd Allah, Manal Abdul-Hamid, Ayman M Mahmoud, Eman S Abdel-Reheim, evaluated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract (MOE) on oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of pilocarpine - administered rats, pointing to the involvement of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Rats received neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of pilocarpine via intraperitoneal administration and were treated with Melissa officinalis extract for 2 weeks. Melissa officinalis extract prevented neuronal loss; decreased lipid peroxidation, Cox-2, PGE2, and BDNF; and downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats. In addition, Melissa officinalis extract enhanced GSH and antioxidant enzymes, upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA abundance, and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. Na+/K+-ATPase activity and GABA were increased, and glutamate and acetylcholine were decreased in the hippocampus of epileptic rats treated with Melissa officinalis extract. In conclusion, Melissa officinalis extract attenuated neuronal loss, oxidative stress, and inflammation; activated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling; and modulated neurotransmitters, GFAP, and Na+/K+-ATPase in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. These findings suggest that Melissa officinalis can mitigate epileptogenesis, pending further studies to explore the exact underlying mechanisms.
For epilepsy, mix 50 g of Lemon Balm with 50 g of Walnut leaves, 50 g of Willow bark, 50 g of Nettle leaves, 50 g of Rue, 50 g of Lavender, 50 g of Burdock root, 50 g of Hops, 50 g of Chamomile, 50 g of root Valerian and 50 g of St. John's wort. Pour 1 heaped tablespoon of the mixture into 200 ml of boiling water, and leave it to infuse for 3 hours. Drink a glass of heated infusion three times a day before eating.
Stress, depression, anxiety and nervousness are the reasons why many people do not sleep at night. Lemon Balm has been used for centuries to address sleep disturbances, including restlessness and insomnia, to reduce anxiety and to promote a sense of calm. Lemon Balm oil extract, especially when combined and taken with Valerian root extract, can improve the quality of sleep in adults and children. Lemon Balm has also been considered beneficial in removing insomnia problem and anxiety. Boil it in water and drink it. Lemon Balm has anti-stress and anxiolytic activity, which promotes good sleep by reducing stress. Since ancient Rome, herbalists and writers have praised the benefits of Lemon Balm, alone and in combination with other herbs, in the treatment of sleep disorders. Nowadays, a large number of clinical studies suggests that Lemon Balm may be the only known plant with a sedative action with virtually no toxicity.
If you have difficulty falling asleep, you will find an ally in Lemon Balm. Studies show the it encourages restful sleep. Several studies have used Lemon Balm and Valerian combinations to treat stress, anxiety and insomnia. The studies have shown improved sleep patterns and reduced stress and anxiety.
In a study Lemon Balm extract was given at a dose of 300 mg twice daily to a group of stressed people with mild-to-moderate anxiety and sleep disturbances. This study found that Lemon Balm reduced anxiety by 18%, reduced anxiety-associated symptoms by 15% and lowered insomnia by 42%.
According to a 2013 study published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Lemon Balm improved insomnia in 85% of people with anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances in a pilot trial on 20 people. Oral Lemon Balm, alone or in combination with Valerian, improved sleep quality in a trial on 100 women suffering from menopause symptoms and insomnia and help relieve restlessness and sleep disorders such as insomnia. Similarly, a combination of Lemon Balm and Valerian improved sleep disturbances and restlessness in trials on over 900 children. Drink a cup of tea brewed with valerian and Lemon Balm before bed.
In a study from 2011, Lemon Balm was shown to help with mild-to moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Another study found that menopausal women suffering from interrupted sleep reported much better rest after taking an extract of Lemon Balm and Valerian. In the study a Lemon Balm and Valerian combination was found to be as effective as the prescription drug Halcion.
Researchers in one 2006 study found that children who took a combined dose experienced a 70 to 80% improvement in symptoms. Both the researchers and parents regarded Lemon Balm as being a good or very good treatment. Still, more research is needed to validate these findings.
A 1999 clinical study from Inselspital in Bern, Switzerland, supports the idea that Lemon Balm's sedative action is potentiated in combination with other herbs with similar properties. However, to properly assess the benefits of Lemon Balm for sleep, it is also necessary to consider its traditional use in sleep disorders and its well-documented relaxing properties, which under appropriate conditions can lead to sleepiness.
Lemon Balm is approved for "nervous sleeping disorders" and "functional gastrointestinal complaints" by Commission E of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. Commission E is the German governmental agency that evaluates the safety and effectiveness of herbal products. The United States does not have a comparable agency to evaluate herbal products.
In people suffering from stress related sleep problems, Lemon Balm has been shown to improve sleep when taken at a dose of 300 mg twice daily for approximately 2 weeks.
To make sleepy time herbal syrup, place about ¾ cup Lemon Balm leaves into a small pot and add enough water to just cover the leaves. Simmer, covered partially, until the liquid is reduced in half. Strain out and compost the leaves. While still quite warm, measure out about ½ cup of the concentrated tea and stir ¼ cup raw honey into it. Add more honey to taste, if you wish. You can make larger or smaller batches, keeping a ratio of about 2 parts lemon balm infusion to 1 part honey. Store in the refrigerator for a week or so. Dose by the spoonful at night to help calm and relax everyone from children to adults. Keeping in mind that honey should not be given to infants under one year old.
Rosmarinic acid (a compound in Lemon Balm) is believed to improve sleep in people with insomnia. Ingesting Lemon Balm may help individuals who experience insomnia or have difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep.
A study explored the effects of Lemon Balm on sleep disturbances in people with chronic stable angina (CSA). The results demonstrated that 8-week supplementation with Lemon Balm can decrease depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep disorder in people who have CSA.
Other studies have found Lemon Balm to have positive effects on insomnia when combined with other herbs and nutrients. For example, IQP-AO-101 contains asparagus extract, saffron extract, Lemon Balm extract, vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc. The clinical study results show that IQP-AO-101 improves sleep quality and well-being in people with moderate sleep disturbances and is well-tolerated.
A study from 2021 investigated the links between Lemon Balm and the benefits to postmenopausal women. The researchers concluded that they would recommend Lemon Balm to improve the quality of life of menopausal women with sleep disturbance.
For insomnia and nervous agitation, mix 50 g of Lemon Balm leaves with 50 g of Marigold herb, 50 g of Mistletoe herb, 100 g of Calendula flower, 100 g of Lavender flower and 50 g of Chamomile flower. 2 teaspoons of the mixture pour 200 ml of boiling water. Infuse, covered, for 15 minutes. Drink 1 glass twice a day.
Older sources list it as being helpful for heart palpitations as well. A heart-related benefit of Lemon Balm may be its ability to protect the heart muscles from injuries. Melissa officinalis has been shown in certain studies to reduce the occurrence of premature beats, tachycardia and fibrillation within the heart, all without causing any negative side effects. Studies suggest that Lemon Balm essential oil has the ability to protect the heart, in part by lowering high triglycerides and improving cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
In one trial using an orally administered extract of Lemon Balm leaf, subjects seemed to experience a significant drop in benign heart palpitation episodes, which is believed to be tied to its ability to enhance one’s mood.
Researchers gave an oral extract of the plant to animals in a 2016 study and found it resulted in a reduction of heart rate and blood pressure, plus they found indications of resistance to heart injury in lower doses.
The same 2012 study that discovered these results also revealed that inhaling Lemon Balm oil reduces some of the factors that lead to perpetual growth of a common liver cancer cell.
Heart Protection (Cardioprotective):
A 2022 study "Melissa officinalis L. Supplementation Provides Cardioprotection in a Rat Model of Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis" published in Oxid Med Cell Longev by Nevena D Draginic, Vladimir L Jakovljevic, Jovana N Jeremic, Ivan M Srejovic, Marijana M Andjic, Marina R Rankovic, Jasmina Z Sretenovic, Vladimir I Zivkovic, Biljana T Ljujic, Slobodanka L Mitrovic, Stefani S Bolevich, Sergey B Bolevich, Isidora M Milosavljevic, due to existing evidence regarding antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Melissa officinalis extracts, this study was aimed at investigating the potential of ethanolic Melissa officinalis extracts to prevent the development of myocarditis and its ability to ameliorate the severity of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by investigating Melissa officinalis extracts effects on in vivo cardiac function, structure, morphology, and oxidative stress parameters. A total of 50 7-week-old male Dark Agouti rats were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into the following groups: CTRL, nontreated healthy rats; experimental autoimmune myocarditis, nontreated rats with experimental autoimmune myocarditis; Melissa officinalis extracts 50, 100, and 200, rats with EAM treated with either 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg of Melissa officinalis extracts for 3 weeks per os. Myocarditis was induced by immunization of the rats with porcine myocardial myosin (0.5 mg) emulsion on day 0. Cardiac function and dimensions of the left ventricle (LV) were assessed via echocardiography. Additionally, the blood pressure and heart rate were measured. On day 21, rats were sacrificed and the hearts were isolated for further histopathological analyses (H/E and Picrosirius red staining). The blood samples were collected to determine oxidative stress parameters. The experimental autoimmune myocarditis group characteristically showed greater LV wall thickness and lower ejection fraction (50.33 ± 7.94% vs. 84.81 ± 7.74%) and fractional shortening compared to CTRL (p < 0.05). Melissa officinalis extracts significantly improved echocardiographic parameters (EF in Melissa officinalis extracts 200 81.44 ± 5.51%) and also reduced inflammatory infiltrate (by 88.46%; p < 0.001) and collagen content (by 76.39%; p < 0.001) in the heart tissues, especially in the MOE200 group compared to the experimental autoimmune myocarditis group. In addition, MOEs induced a significant decrease of prooxidants production (O2 -, H2O2, and TBARS) and improved antioxidant defense system via increase in GSH, SOD, and CAT compared to experimental autoimmune myocarditis, with medium and high dose being more effective than low dose (p < 0.05). The present study suggests that ethanolic Melissa officinalis extracts, especially in a 200 mg/kg dose, improve cardiac function and myocardial architecture, possibly via oxidative stress mitigation, thus preventing heart remodeling, development of dilated cardiomyopathy, and subsequent heart failure connected with experimental autoimmune myocarditis. Melissa officinalis extracts might be considered as a potentially helpful adjuvant therapy in patients with autoimmune myocarditis.
A 2021 review "Melissa officinalis L. as a Nutritional Strategy for Cardioprotection" published in Front Physiol. by Nevena Draginic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Marijana Andjic, Jovana Jeremic, Ivan Srejovic, Marina Rankovic, Marina Tomovic, Tamara Nikolic Turnic, Andrey Svistunov, Sergey Bolevich, Isidora Milosavljevic, aimed to provide a summary on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities in the cardiovascular system and cardiotoxicity of Melissa officinalis, with the special emphasis on the protective mechanisms in different cardiovascular pathologies. Active components are mainly located in the leaves or essential oil and include volatile compounds, terpenoid (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes), and polyphenolic compounds (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercitrin, rhamnocitrin, luteolin). For centuries, Melissa officinalis has been traditionally used as a remedy for memory, cognition, anxiety, depression, and heart palpitations. Up until now, several beneficial cardiovascular effects of Melissa officinalis, in the form of extracts (aqueous, alcoholic, and hydroalcoholic), essential oil, and isolated compounds, have been confirmed in preclinical animal studies, such as antiarrhythmogenic, negative chronotropic and dromotropic, hypotensive, vasorelaxant, and infarct size-reducing effects. Nonetheless, Melissa officinalis effects on heart palpitations are the only ones confirmed in human subjects. The main mechanisms proposed for the cardiovascular effects of this plant are antioxidant free radical-scavenging properties of Melissa officinalis polyphenols, amelioration of oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory effects, activation of M2 and antagonism of β1 receptors in the heart, blockage of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, prevention of fibrotic changes, etc. Additionally, the main active ingredient of Melissa officinalis-rosmarinic acid, per se, has shown substantial cardiovascular effects. Because of the vastness of encouraging data from animal studies, this plant, as well as the main ingredient rosmarinic acid, should be considered and investigated further as a tool for cardioprotection and adjuvant therapy in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension):
Melissa oil has the power to lower blood pressure levels because of its hypotensive, antihyperlipidemic, antiarrhythmic, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective properties.
A 2021 double-blind crossover randomized controlled clinical trial "Effect of Melissa officinalis on systolic and diastolic blood pressures in essential hypertension" published in Phytother Res. by Zahra Shekarriz, Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Maryam Nabati, Bizhan Shabankhani, Seyde Sedighe Yousefi aimed at evaluating the effects of Melissa officinalis on systolic and diastolic blood pressures in hypertensive patients. We conducted a double-blind, controlled, randomized crossover clinical trial on 49 patients who received either Melissa officinalis capsules (400 mg/d; n = 23) or the placebo (n = 26) three times per day for a 4-week period. After a 2-week washout period, the Melissa officinalis group received placebo and the other group received Melissa officinalis for another 4-week period. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured once at baseline and then every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The statistical analysis of the obtained data revealed that the chronology of the consumption of Melissa officinalis and placebo had no effect on the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in these two studied groups. Moreover, it was found that systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly decreased after the consumption of M. officinalis, compared to placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in group A at the beginning of the study were 152.30 ± 5.312 mmHg and 95.52 ± 1.988 mmHg, respectively, and, after the first phase (drug use), reached 129.88 ± 9.009 mmHg and 80.13 ± 5.488 mmHg, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in group B at the beginning of the study was 152.26 ± 5.640 mmHg and 94.44 ± 2.607 mmHg, respectively, and after the second phase (drug use), reached 131.77 ± 8.091 mmHg and 81.46 ± 7.426 mmHg, (p = .005), respectively. Also, no significant side effects were observed during the study. According to the results, Melissa officinalis can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the patients with essential hypertension.
An animal study, conducted in 2016, found that Melissa oil reduces the heart rate of injured rats and increases the heart’s resistance to injury.
Another 2015 animal study published in Research in Cardiovascular Medicine found that Melissa essential oil is associated with significant electrocardiogram alternations in rats. The electrocardiogram is a test that’s used to check for problems with the electrical activity of your heart.
The benefits of Lemon Balm tea, after a month of drinking it twice per day, were confirmed. The participants showed significant increase in antioxidant capacity and a significant decrease in triglycerides, cholesterol, and aspartate transaminase.
A study, conducted in 2009, found that Melissa oil contains phenolic alkaloids that are among the properties that can inhibit cholesterol synthesis and lead to lower total cholesterol levels, total lipid levels and reduced lipid peroxidation levels in liver tissue.
When used aromatically (that means you breathe it in) Melissa essential oil has been shown to lower triglycerides which could impact a variety of other health conditions.
A 2012 study published in The Journal of Nutrition suggests that ingesting Melissa oil could have beneficial metabolic effects. When used on mice, Melissa oil slowed fatty acid synthesis (a process that creates fatty buildups in the body), which reduced triglyceride levels.
Chronic Stable Angina (CSA):
A 2018 randomized controlled trial "The effects of Melissa officinalis supplementation on depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep disorder in patients with chronic stable angina" published in Clin Nutr ESPEN by Habib Haybar, Ahmad Zare Javid, Mohammad Hosein Haghighizadeh, Einollah Valizadeh, Seyede Marjan Mohaghegh, Assieh Mohammadzadeh, 80 patients with CSA were divided randomly into two groups (taking 3 g Melissa officinalis supplement or placebo daily for 8 weeks). The shortened 21-item version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale test and Pittsburgh sleep quality index were done before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, the intervention group receiving Melissa officinalis capsules had a significant reduction in scores of depression, anxiety, stress, and total sleep disturbance, compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). The results showed that 8-week supplementation with 3 g Melissa officinalis can decrease depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep disorder in patients with chronic stable angina.
Rapid Heartbeats (Palpitations):
Traditional Iranian Medicine has used it as a therapy for some time to treat heart palpitations, and science seems to back up this use. It may have a positive impact on the mechanics and electrical impulses of the heart, giving it power to help regulate heart arrhythmias, aka irregular heartbeat.
Use caution if you plan to try Lemon Balm for any kind of heart rhythm issue, but studies have shown that Lemon Balm can help reduce episodes of palpitations in some people.
In human and animal studies, taken for 14 days, an oral Lemon Balm extract reduced the frequency of heart beating in a trial of 55 people with palpitations. Lemon Balm protected against irregular heartbeats by inhibiting sodium and potassium ion channels, which slows down the heart rate. To sum up, research suggests that Lemon Balm may help with rapid heartbeats. However, the evidence is limited and further research is warranted.
Lemon Balm hosts a plethora of disinfecting aromatics that exhibit antimicrobial activity against many pathogens including bacteria and viruses. There’s some evidence that Lemon Balm products have antibacterial qualities that may help naturally fight infectious bacteria. Lemon Balm oil specifically shows a high level of antibacterial activity against candida. This is a common yeast infection that causes a number of candida symptoms, including exhaustion, brain fog, digestive problems and a weakened immune system. Lemon Balm has also been shown to be effective against flu, warts and mumps.
A 2008 study showed that Melissa oil exhibited a higher degree of antibacterial activity than did Lavender oil against Gram-positive bacterial strains, including candida.
The widespread use of antimicrobial agents causes resistant bacterial strains, which can seriously compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment thanks to this antibiotic resistance. Melissa oil has been evaluated by researchers for its ability to stop bacterial infections. The most important identified compounds in melissa oil that are well-known for their antimicrobial effects are citral, citronellal and trans-caryophyllene.
Research suggests that the use of herbal medicines might be a precautionary measure to prevent the development of resistance to synthetic antibiotics that are associated with therapeutic failures.
Antimicrobial (Listeria monocytogenes):
The burden of foodborne illness has a negative effect on public health, but also in countries' economy. Melissa officinalis is an aromatic plant known for its biological properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial effects.
A 2023 study "Melissa officinalis essential oil as an antimicrobial agent against Listeria monocytogenes in watermelon juice" published in Food Microbiol., by Filomena Carvalho, Alexandra T Coimbra, Lúcia Silva, Ana P Duarte, Susana Ferreira, highlighted M. officinalis essential oil's antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes, presenting a bactericidal action and being able to inhibit some virulence attributes, such as biofilm formation. The pre-exposure of the bacterium to subinhibitory levels of essential oil (0.125 μL/mL) did not induce high tolerance to stresses (such as high temperature, low pH, osmotic stress and desiccation) or cross-resistance with antibiotics, while not modifying the invasion ability to Caco-2 cells. When applied in food model media (lettuce, chicken and milk) and watermelon juice, the essential oil showed to have antimicrobial activity in a lettuce leaf model medium, further diminishing L. monocytogenes contamination and inhibiting the natural microbiota present in watermelon juice. M. officinalis essential oil shows potential to be used as control of L. monocytogenes in watermelon juice, while increasing the food's microbial shelf life.
Antigungal (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis):
Candidiasis is a common oral and vaginal infection. Some papers have presented that the essential oils of Lamiaceae plants can have antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the activity of 7 essential oils of the Lamiaceae family with known phytochemical compositions against Candida fungi. Forty-four strains belonging to six species were tested: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. During this investigation, the following methods were used: determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), biofilm inhibition studies, and in silicotoxicity tests.
In a 2023 study "Anti-Candida and Antibiofilm Activity of Selected Lamiaceae Essential Oils" published in Front Biosci (Landmark Ed.), by Tomasz M Karpiński, Marcin Ożarowski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Hubert Wolski, Essential oils of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) and Oregano (Origanum vulgare) showed the best anti-Candida activity, with MIC values below 3.125 mg/mL. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas), Peppermint (Mentha × piperita), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oils were also very active (0.39 to 6.25 or 12.5 mg/mL). Sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil presented the lowest activity, with MIC values ranging from 3.125 to 100 mg/mL. In an antibiofilm study using MIC values, oregano and thyme essential oils showed the greatest effect, followed by lavender, mint, and rosemary oils. The weakest antibiofilm activity was observed with the lemon balm and sage oils. In silico toxicity research suggests that most of main compounds of Lamiaceae essential oils probably do not exhibit carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or cytotoxicity. The obtained results showed that Lamiaceae essential oils have anti-Candida and antibiofilm activity. Further research is required to confirm the safety and efficacy of essential oils in the topical treatment of candidiasis.
The use of synthetic drugs has increased in recent years; however, herbal medicine is yet more trusted among a huge population worldwide; This could be due to minimal side effects, affordable prices, and traditional beliefs. Lemongrass (Melissa officinalis) has been widely used for reducing stress and anxiety, increasing appetite and sleep, reducing pain, healing wounds, and treating poisonous insect bites and bee stings for a long time.
A 2023 literature review "Antiviral Potential of Melissa officinalis L." published in Nutr Metab Insights, by Amirhossein Behzadi, Sadegh Imani, Niloofar Deravi, Zahra Mohammad Taheri, Fatemeh Mohammadian, Zahra Moraveji, Sepideh Shavysi, Motahareh Mostafaloo, Fateme Soleimani Hadidi, Sepehr Nanbakhsh, Sepehr Olangian-Tehrani, Mohammad Hesam Marabi, Parisa Behshood, Mohadeseh Poudineh, Ali Kheirandish, Kimia Keylani, Pooya Behfarnia, has shown that this plant can also fight viruses including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through various mechanisms such as inhibiting HSV-1 from binding to host cell, inhibiting HSV-1 replication during the post-adsorption or inhibiting main protease and spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, furthermore, be effective in treating related diseases. This Review investigated the antiviral properties of Melissa officinalis and its effect on viral diseases. More in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to determine Melissa officinaliss underlying mechanism, and more randomized controlled trials should be done to identify its effect in humans. Also, due to the usefulness and lack of side effects, it can be used more as a complementary medicine.
Sometimes there are red rashes on the skin around the lips. It also causes itching and mild swelling, which is called cold sore. Cold sores caused by the herpes virus can also turn into mouth sores if not cured in time. You can use Lemon Balm to get rid of it. It has antiviral properties, which help in relieving the cold sore caused by the herpes virus.
Melissa is often the herb of choice for treating cold sores, as it’s effective at fighting viruses in the herpes virus family. It can be used to inhibit the spread of viral infections, which can be especially helpful for people who have developed a resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. You can even apply Lemon Balm topically at the first sign of a cold sore.
The Roman poet Virgil referred to the benefits of Lemon Balm in his "Georgics", written around 30 BCE, highlighting its effectiveness when used to heal wounds, sores, as well as bee and wasp stings. Nowadays, its antiviral properties are used to relieve cold sores caused by herpes simplex infections. Over the past 50 years, many studies have corroborated that Lemon Balm can destroy the virus and inhibit its replication.
In 1999, a clinical trial from The Cooperative Clinical Drug Research and Development GmbH, Germany, was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of applying Lemon Balm cream to herpes simplex cold sores. Lemon Balm's benefits as a topical treatment were validated in just two days. It showed a reduction in the healing period, preventing the spread of the infection and alleviating typical symptoms of herpes, such as itching, tingling, burning, swelling, tightness, and redness. Participants in this study applied either a Lemon Balm or placebo cream on the affected area four times per day for five days. The researchers also suggested that using Lemon Balm cream may help prolong the intervals between cold sore outbreaks. Further studies are needed to expand on these findings.
In another study in 1994 on 115 patients, a proprietary preparation of Lemon Balm extract in a lip balm showed efficacy in treating cold sores associated with the herpes simplex virus. Research has shown that the plant contains polyphenols, it can help significantly in the treatment of cold sores and combat the herpes simplex virus, shingles as well as other viral afflictions. Studies have shown a significant reduction in the duration and severity of herpes. Researchers also noted a "tremendous reduction" in the frequency of recurrence.
Apply a Lemon Balm cream to the affected area several times per day. Be sure to patch test the cream on the inside of your forearm before applying it to the cold sore. If you don’t experience any irritation or inflammation within 24 hours, it should be safe to use.
Most of the current evidence is limited to lab test-tube studies in which Lemon Balm appears to kill a broad range of common viruses such as herpes simplex virus type 1. HSV-1 is associated with cold sores and some cases of herpes. More randomized controlled trials are needed with humans to support the use of Lemon Balm for treating cold sores.
In recent years Lemon Balm has been researched extensively for its antiviral properties, especially in relation to herpes simplex 1 and 2. This is the virus that causes genital sores. Lemon Balm can both lessen the severity and speed the healing of an acute attack and, when taken regularly, can prevent future outbreaks.
When applied to genital sores caused by the herpes simplex virus, creams or ointments containing Lemon Balm have speeded healing. The infections did not spread as much and individuals using topical Lemon Balm also reported more relief from symptoms such as itching and redness. At least part of this effect is due to antiviral properties of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, which are contained in Lemon Balm.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV):
Herpes simplex is a common viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes. The lesions caused by this infection are often painful, burning, or pruritic, and tend to recur in most patients. Short-term treatment with acyclovir can accelerate the healing of an acute outbreak, and continuous acyclovir therapy is often prescribed for people with frequent recurrences. While this drug can reduce the recurrence rate by 60-90%, it can also cause a wide array of side effects, including renal failure, hepatitis, and anaphylaxis. Safe and effective alternatives are therefore needed.
Lemon Balm fights the herpes virus, even though there’s no way to ever get the herpes virus out of your body, you can focus on preventing outbreaks and that means keeping the virus under control. For cold sore sufferers, Lemon Balm reduced outbreaks, duration and pain/itching. Plus there’s no viral resistance to the herb over time so it can be used repeatedly. The viruses that cause herpes type 1 and type 2 (mouth and genital herpes) are destroyed by a complex of substances it secretes. Higher concentrations of melissa essential oil nearly abolished herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 completely when it was tested on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay.
Essential oils are complex mixtures of strongly active compounds, very volatile and sensitive to light, oxygen, moisture and temperature. Loading inside nanocarriers can be a strategy to increase their stability and successfully use them in therapy. Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of Lemon Balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined.
Lemon Balm uses also extend into topical application, due in part to their antiviral qualities. Specifically, when applied directly to the skin, it is a useful herbal remedy to help treat the herpes virus. When using Lemon Balm extract in cream form, research shows that the intervals between herpes breakouts become longer, the healing period shortens and the symptoms, such as itching and burning, seem to decrease. Interestingly, because of the way that Lemon Balm works to achieve this, studies point to no risk of a resistance to the herpes virus forming after repeated uses. The same results seem to exist when using Lemon Balm essential oil, too.
According to various sources, it seems Lemon Balm’s effects on the herpes simplex virus are related to its antioxidant compounds. These include tannins and polyphenols. There are no well-known side effects when using this substance, either topically or orally.
A German study comparing a cream containing Lemon Balm extract with a placebo found those who used the Lemon Balm cream had a significantly improved healing time. By day five, 50% more were symptom free than in the placebo group. To be effective, treatment must begin early. Researchers suggest that Melissa oil serves as a suitable topical treatment for getting rid of herpes because it has antiviral effects and is able to penetrate the skin due to its lipophilic nature.
A 2020 study "Glycerosome of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil for Effective Anti-HSV Type 1" published in Molecules by Giulia Vanti, Sotirios G Ntallis, Christos A Panagiotidis, Virginia Dourdouni, Christina Patsoura, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Diamanto Lazari, Anna Rita Bilia, a commercial Melissa essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, loaded inside glycerosomes Melissa essential oil-GS and evaluated for its anti-herpetic activity against HSV type 1. Melissa essential oil-GS analyses were prepared by the thin layer evaporation method and they were characterized by light scattering techniques, determining average diameter, polydispersity index and ζ-potential. By transmission electron microscopy, Melissa essential oil-GS appeared as small nano-sized vesicles with a spherical shape. Melissa essential oil encapsulation efficiency inside glycerosomes, in terms of citral and β-caryophyllene, was found to be ca. 63% and 76% respectively, and Melissa essential oil release from glycerosomes, performed by dialysis bag method, resulted in less than 10% within 24h. In addition, Melissa essential oil-GS had high chemical and physical stability during 4 months of storage. Finally, Melissa essential oil-GS were very active in inhibiting HSV type 1 infection of mammalian cells in vitro, without producing cytotoxic effects. Thus, Melissa essential oil-GS could be a promising tool in order to provide a suitable anti-herpetic formulation.
According to a 2014 study published in Phytotherapy Research, Lemon Balm extract was able to prevent 80% to 96% of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains from infecting cells. The study found that the antiviral properties inhibited the spreading of herpes simplex virus type 1 into the healthy cells of the body. Lemon Balm extract in cream form is said to help in faster healing and the symptoms start decreasing when used repeatedly. Even Lemon Balm essential oil is effective in treating cold sores.
A 2012 study "Melissa officinalis extract inhibits attachment of herpes simplex virus in vitro" published in Chemotherapy by Akram Astani, Jürgen Reichling, Paul Schnitzler, extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since the herpes simplex virus might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. When drugs were added to HSV-1-infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed as determined by plaque reduction assay and analysis of expression of viral protein ICP0. However, the Melissa extract demonstrated a high virucidal activity against HSV-1, even at very low concentrations of 1.5 μg/ml, whereas similar results for phenolic compounds were only achieved at 100 times higher concentrations. Besides the virucidal activity, the Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that rosmarinic acid was the main contributor to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. However, the selectivity index of Melissa extract of 875 against HSV is superior to the selectivity indices of single constituents. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity, is virucidal and affects HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro.
Another 2008 study "Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses" published in Phytomedicine by P Schnitzler, A Schuhmacher, A Astani, Jürgen Reichling, The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of Lemon Balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus Lemon Balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of Lemon Balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.
A 2006 review "Natural remedies for Herpes simplex" published in Alternative Medicine Review by Alan R Gaby, gived evidence that certain dietary modifications and natural substances may be useful for treating active Herpes simplex lesions or preventing recurrences. Treatments discussed include lysine, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin E, adenosine monophosphate, and Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis).
Researchers suggest that Melissa oil serves as a suitable topical treatment for getting rid of herpes because it has antiviral effects and is able to penetrate the skin due to its lipophilic nature. The second the twinge occurs that indicates herpes blister is about to break out is when to begin applying Lemon Balm oil or salve.
While there is no permanent cure for herpes, treatment methods generally involve finding ways to decrease the frequency and duration of outbreaks. To date, most researchers have studied the efficacy of Lemon Balm on herpes labialis.
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 - Corona Virus):
The recent outbreak of Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19), which has rapidly spread around the world in about three months with tens of thousands of deaths recorded so far is a global concern. An urgent need for potential therapeutic intervention is of necessity. Mpro is an attractive druggable target for the development of anti-COVID-19 drug development.
A 2021 study "Identification of Main Protease of Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) Inhibitors from Melissa officinalis" published in Curr Drug Discov Technol. by Olusola O Elekofehinti, Opeyemi Iwaloye, Courage D Famusiwa, Olanrewaju Akinseye, Joao B T Rocha, compounds previously characterized by Melissa officinalis were queried against the main protease of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using a computational approach. Melitric acid A and salvanolic acid A had higher affinity than lopinavir and ivermectin using both AutodockVina and XP docking algorithms. The computational approach was employed in the generation of the QSAR model using automated QSAR, and in the docking of ligands from Melissa officinalis with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. The best model obtained was KPLS_Radial_ 28 (R2 = 0.8548 and Q2=0.6474, which was used in predicting the bioactivity of the lead compounds. Molecular mechanics based MM-GBSA confirmed salvanolic acid A as the compound with the highest free energy and predicted bioactivity of 4.777, it interacted with His-41 of the catalytic dyad (Cys145-His41) of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), as this may hinder the cutting of inactive viral protein into active ones capable of replication. Salvanolic acid A can be further evaluated as a potential Mpro inhibitor.
Lemon Balm is what's known as a "carminative herb", meaning it can relieve stagnant digestion, ease abdominal cramping, and promote the overall digestive process. The volatile oils in Lemon Balm contain chemicals known as “terpenes” that relax muscles and relieve symptoms such as excess gas. As an aromatic and carminative herb it can relieve stagnant digestion, ease abdominal cramping, and promote the digestive process in general.
Because of its antioxidant activity, this extract has a potentially protective effect on the gastrointestinal system. One way it can help soothe digestive issues is by preventing gastric ulcers, although this has not been studied at length yet. Lemon Balm contains both choloretics and colagogues, which may also help with liver and gall bladder problems. Bile is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder and then released into the small intestine to digest fats. A choloretic stimulates production of bile whilst a colagogue enhances the expulsion of bile from the gall bladder. The primary Lemon Balm constituents in these categories are; caffeic acid, eugenol, chlorogenic acid and P-coumaric acid, which enhance the content of digestive juices thus improving the digestion of food.
For digestive relief, Lemon Balm is best consumed as a tea taken immediately after meals. Alternatively, Melissa essential oil can be massaged into the abdomen to stimulate the digestive process. If the oil is "food grade", it can be taken internally where it can help to maintain the proper flow of gastric juices and bile into the stomach.
There is one caution for those considering using Lemon Balm. If you are currently taking thyroid medication, it can interfere with the effects of the medication that you are taking, and so regular use of Lemon Balm is not recommended for those with thyroid conditions. Herbal remedies are amazing, but like anything else, they will not be right for every person, and you may experience an allergic reaction when taking any new herb. The good news is that you can simply discontinue using that herb and any negative symptom should disappear within 24-48 hours.
This powerful herb is traditionally known for the ability to reduce gas, bloating, and indigestion. These are some of the amazing benefits of Lemon Balm and a great reason to consider learning more about it and whether or not it is right for you.
To make a stomach soothing tea, fill a jar with fresh leaves. Pour simmering hot water into the jar then cover the top with a saucer so that none of the vapors escape. Let steep until cool enough to drink. Sweeten to taste.
If you experience frequent abdominal pain and discomfort, Lemon Balm may have a positive effect on your digestion. Lemon Balm may relieve a variety of the less serious conditions that affect the gastrointestinal tract.
According to one review of studies, some ailments people use it to treat include: stomach acid, bloating, colic, indigestion, nausea.
Chronic Indigestion (Functional Dyspepsia):
A small study from 2010 assessed the effects of a cold dessert containing Lemon Balm on functional dyspepsia. The study looked at 30 people with functional dyspepsia, a condition that can cause an upset stomach. Participants ate a sorbet, with or without the herb, after a meal. they had also combined with another herb (Artichoke, or Cynara scolymus). Although both types of desserts lessened the symptoms and their intensity, the dessert containing Lemon Balm intensified this effect. Participants who ate the dessert with the herbs experienced less stomach upset than those who did not. More research is needed.
Just add 1 teaspoon of Lemon Balm powder to a bowl of ice cream or smoothie.
Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders (GI):
A 2019 study on rats demonstrated that Lemon Balm decreased the intestinal transit time, the time it takes food to travel from the mouth through the gastrointestinal tract. Further research is needed to conclude how effective Lemon Balm is for the GI.
A 2005 review assessing the results of several studies on Lemon Balm found the herb to be useful in treating gastrointestinal symptoms such as this. Although this is a promising development, it’s important to recognize the study limitations.
For nervous gastritis, mix 50 g of Lemon Balm leaves with 50 g of Hawthorn flower, 50 g of Elderflower, 50 g of Jasmine herb, 50 g of Anise, 50 g of Calamus rhizomes and 50 g of Rose fruit. 2 teaspoons of the mixture pour 200 ml of boiling water. Infuse, covered, for 15 minutes. Drink 1 glass 3 times a day.
Nausea and Vomit:
Given its potential impact on your digestive system, Lemon Balm may also help relieve feelings of nausea. Many of the studies looked at Lemon Balm used in conjunction with other herbs. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of Lemon Balm when used alone.
Drink a cup of Lemon Balm tea at the first sign of nausea. 1-2 drops of Melissa essential oil should be added in the herbal tea to lessen nausea and alleviate indigestion.
There is also some evidence that Lemon Balm products, as well as Peppermint and Angelica root, may be useful in creating herbal remedies for constipation. For example, Lemon Balm tea benefits seem to include fighting abdominal pain and discomfort after eating, constipation and bloating. This may in part be due to the tea’s calming effects on the nervous system.
Cold and Flu:
Lemon Balm has great anti-viral properties and is great to drink as a tea or take as a tincture when you are hit with a cold or the flu. Lemon Balm salves and ointments have shown to speed healing in cold sores as well.
Lemon Balm contains natural anti-histamine properties which can help to reduce the symptoms of seasonal allergies.
Lemon Balm lowers an overheated body temperature, so it helps bring down fever or cool you off on a hot summer day. Being an antibacterial, Melissa essential oil fights against bacterial or microbial infections in the body, including those that cause fever. Again, since it has sudorific properties, it helps reduce body temperature and removes the toxins produced during fever, through the process of sweating.
Take Lemon Balm leaves, and sometimes a few Rose petals and/or Ginger, put them in a jar of freshly drawn spring water, and sit it in the sum for as long as we can wait. This makes a very delicious and refreshing beverage.
Lemon Balm helps to retain the flexibility of your skin. Also, it has been considered helpful in reducing the damage done to the skin due to the sun’s ultraviolet rays. In Lemon Balm present rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid, caffeic acid and luteolin glucuronide make it beneficial for the skin. You can also use it as a skin toner.
Melissa essential oil should be added to the moisturizer or a spray bottle with water and spray on the face which helps to rejuvenates the skin.
The small amount of Melissa essential oil should be dabbed to the breakouts or minor irritations on the skin and lips which helps to ease the area.
Melissa oil is used for naturally treating eczema, acne and minor wounds, as it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. In studies that involve topical use of Melissa oil, healing times were found to be statistically better in the groups treated with Lemon Balm oil. It’s gentle enough to apply directly to the skin and helps clear up skin conditions that are caused by bacteria or fungus.
To Hair rinse, pour 25 g of Lemon Balm with 1 liter of boiling water. Leave to infuse, covered, for 20 minutes. Then cool the extract to the desired temperature and use it for the last rinse of hair after washing. Recommended in seborrhea, excessive greasy hair and inflammation of the scalp.
Infant colic is a common condition that occurs in the first four months of life. Colic is excessive irritability, fussing, or crying in otherwise healthy infants.
Lemon Balm significantly decreased average daily crying time after 28 days in 200 colicky infants and reduced colic episodes through its calming effects and by relaxing the gut. A single clinical trial cannot be considered sufficient evidence to claim that Lemon Balm improves infant colic. Additional clinical trials are needed to confirm the results of this study.
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):
There’s some evidence this herb helps improve hyperactivity, concentration problems and impulsiveness in elementary school children. Taken internally in food products, it also seemed to enhance mood and/or cognitive performance. Helps manage ADHD in children. Perhaps thanks to its calming effect, Lemon Balm reduces hyperactivity and impulsiveness and improves focus for some school children.
According to a multi-center study, Lemon Balm with valerian may help treat sleeping problems and restlessness in children. The study included over 918 children younger than 12 years old who experienced restlessness and dyssomnia (a collection of sleep disorders). They received a combined valerian and Lemon Balm preparation. It was conducted and found that more than 80% saw improvements in their problems sleeping when taking the supplements. In addition, 70% of the children saw improvements in restlessness. Finally, none of the children experienced adverse effects from the medication.
Note that this studiy, as well as other studies in the literature, used a combination of Lemon Balm with Valerian (another herbal supplement). Therefore, we don't whether Lemon Balm would have this effect by itself. This is an important factor to remember when looking at the research conclusions. Evidence shows children sleep more peacefully throughout the night with Lemon Balm. People should always speak to a doctor before giving a child any type of supplement.
For calming for children and babies, mix 50 g of Lemon Balm leaves with 50 g of Chamomile flower and 50 g of Linden flower. Pour 2 teaspoons of the mixture into 200 ml of boiling water. Brew, covered, for 20 minutes. Strain. Administer several times a day in the following doses: infants 10-15 ml, children 3-5 years old 30-50 ml, older children 75-100 ml.
Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea):
Menstrual cramps, known as dysmenorrhea, can be extremely painful for some women.
A study in 2017 showed that consuming Lemon Balm extract may help reduce moderate to severe dysmenorrhea. The researchers noted that this effect may be related to the antispasmodic effects of this herb.
For painful intercourse for women, mix 50 g of Lemon Balm leaves with 50 g of Walnut leaves, 50 g of Calendula flower, 50 g of Lavender flower, 50 g of Sage leaves, 50 g of Yarrow herb, 50 g of St. John's wort, 50 g of Burdock root and 50 g of Valerian root. . Pour 1 heaped tablespoon of the mixture into 200 ml of boiling water, and leave it to infuse for 20 minutes. Strain. Drink half a glass before lunch and another half before dinner.
Premenstrual Symptoms (PMS):
A 2015 Iranian study published in Nursing and Midwifery Studies, assessed the effect of Melissa essential oil capsules on the intensity of PMS symptoms. A 100 high school girls participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The intervention group participants received a capsule with 1,200 milligrams of Melissa oil from the first to the last day of their menstrual cycles for three consecutive cycles. The second group received the placebo. The results revealed a significant reduction in PMS symptoms for the intervention group, suggesting that Melissa oil is effective in reducing PMS symptoms. The intensity of PMS symptoms was analyzed before and one, two, and three months after the trial. The group who took the Lemon Balm reported a significant reduction in symptoms. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
Take 1,200 mg of Lemon Balm daily for optimal results. This will allow the herb to get into your system long before it’s time for PMS symptoms to appear. Continued use is thought to reduce your symptoms over time is quite effective for those women who are suffering from PMS related problems.
A 2021 randomized double-blind clinical trial "The Effectiveness of Melissa Officinalis L. versus Citalopram on Quality of Life of Menopausal Women with Sleep Disorder" published in Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet by Mahboobeh Shirazi, Mohamad Naser Jalalian, Masoumeh Abed, Marjan Ghaemi, aimed to assess the effect of Melissa Officinalis L. (a combination of Lemon Balm with Fennel fruit extract) compared with citalopram and placebo on the quality of life of postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance. The present study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo clinical trial among 60 postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance who were referred to a university hospital from 2017 to 2019. The participants were randomized to receive Melissa Officinalis (500 mg daily), citalopram (30 mg) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire was self-completed by each participant at baseline and after 8 weeks of the intervention and was compared between groups. The mean for all MENQOL domain scores were significantly improved in the Melissa Officinalis group compared with citalopram and placebo (p < 0.001). The mean ± standard deviation after 8 weeks in the Melissa Officinalis, citalopram and placebo groups was 2.2 ± 0.84 versus 0.56 ± 0.58 versus 0.36 ± 0.55 in the vasomotor (p < 0.001), 1.02 ± 0.6 versus 0.28 ± 0.2 versus 0.17 ± 0.1 in the psychomotor-social (p < 0.001), 0.76 ± 0.4 versus 0.25 ± 0.1 versus 0.11 ± 0.1 in the physical and 2.3 ± 1.0 versus 0.35 ± 0.5 versus 0.41 ± 0.5 in the sexual domain, respectively. The results revealed that Melissa Officinalis may be recommended for improving the quality of life of menopausal women with sleep disturbance.
"A review of effective herbal medicines in controlling menopausal symptoms" published in Electron Physician, 2017 by Rahele Kargozar, Hoda Azizi, Roshanak Salari, Rahele Kargozar 1, Hoda Azizi 2, Roshanak Salari, showed that the medicinal plants, which include Sage herb (Salvia officinalis), Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), Valerina officinalis, Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Vitex (Vitex agnus-castus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), Ginkgo biloba, Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Hypericum perforatum, Panax ginseng, Pimpinella anisum, Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Passiflora incarnata, Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Glycine soja were effective in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome with different mechanisms. Medicinal plants can play an imperative role in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome, however, further studies are required to buttress their efficacy in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome.
An alcohol extract of Lemon Balm has been found to reduce pain by blocking the arginine-nitric oxide pathway and by increasing acetylcholine levels in mice. Lemon Balm may help ease the pain of headache, menstrual cramps and toothache. It also can be used as an insect repellant and a treatment for insect bites.
As a mild spasmodic it can help relieve tension headaches, back pain and other mild pain due to tension. Also, Lemon Balm is useful in treating headaches related to stress. The relaxing properties of the herb can help release tension, relax your muscles and open up tight blood vessels which contribute to headaches.
For this reason, it is used in many types of aromatherapy. Actually, it has analgesic and anxiolytic properties, which help in curing headache. Also, if your mood is bad, Lemon Balm helps to improve it too. You can cure your headache by drying its oil or by using its decoction.
If you experience recurrent headaches, you may find it beneficial take 300 to 600 mg of Lemon Balm up to three times per day. This will allow the herb to get into your system well before a headache develops. You can take a higher dose if you feel a headache developing.
This essential oil sedates and soothes and is good for calming inflammation, anxiety, nervousness, trauma, and shock. It promotes sleep, relaxes the body, mind, and soul while bringing feelings of peace and contentment. In the past, it was used to help soldiers relax and drive away from the fatigue and stress of combat. Research has shown that Melissa oil can be used to treat various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.
A study shows that Lemon Balm reduced swelling caused by injury and inflammation in mice. Lemon Balm also reduced the levels of the inflammatory proteins TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6.
Melissa officinalis L., traditionally referred to as lemon balm, is one of the lemon-scent aromatic herbs widely used in traditional medicine due to its calming, sedative, and anti-arrhythmic effects. Furthermore, several studies have linked its therapeutic potential with its antioxidant properties.
A 2022 comparative study "Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Melissa officinalis Extracts" published in Iran Journal Pharm Res., by Nevena Draginic, Marijana Andjic, Jovana Jeremic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Aleksandar Kocovic, Marina Tomovic, Biljana Bozin, Nebojsa Kladar, Sergey Bolevich, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Isidora Milosavljevic, aimed to evaluate and compare the content of active components, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential of three different Melissa officinalis extracts (Melissa officinalis Essential oils), ethanolic macerate (E1), aqueous (E2), and ethanolic (E3), obtained under reflux and their effects on systemic redox status after acute per os administration in vivo post-carrageenan application. The HPLC analysis revealed that the most abundant constituent in all the three extracts was rosmarinic acid (RA), with higher content in E1 and E3 than in E2 (P < 0.05). The highest flavonoid content was found in the aqueous extract, especially quercetin (P < 0.05). For the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, dark agouti rats were used and divided into the groups: Control, indomethacin, E1, E2, and E3 subgrouped according to applied doses: 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. Ethanolic macerate (E1200) and aqueous (E2100) Melissa officinalis extract were shown to be anti-inflammatory agents in the carrageenan paw edema model, with the most prominent edema inhibition in the sixth hour post-carrageenan (63.89% and 69.44%, respectively, vs. 76.67% in the indomethacin group). All the three extracts reduced the production of pro-oxidants H2O2 and TBARS post-carrageenan and increased GSH levels compared to control (P < 0.05). These data imply the possible future usage of Melissa officinalis Essential oils to prevent inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases.
A 2013 study published in Advances in Pharmacological Science, investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Melissa essential oil by using experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of Melissa oil showed a significant reduction and inhibition of edema, which is swelling caused by excess fluid that is trapped in the body’s tissues. The results of this study and many like it suggest that Melissa oil can be taken internally or applied topically to reduce swelling and relieve pain due to its anti-inflammatory activity.
Reduces Chronic Inflammation:
However, it is possible to regulate it naturally, using substances such as Lemon Balm that keep it in check. Lemon Balm may also protect against neurodegenerative disorders caused by overexposure to manganese, according to some research. In addition to providing antioxidant support, it has the potential to act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Reducing chronic inflammation helps protect against disease and relieve pain.
Spasm is an excessive contraction of the body that can occur within the respiratory, muscular, nervous, and digestive systems. This can lead to severe coughs, muscular cramps, convulsions, shortness of breath, and severe abdominal pains. Spasms should be taken very seriously, since in extreme cases they may be lethal. The essential oil of Melissa, being an effective sedative and relaxant, can give fast relief from spasms in all parts of the body.
Thyroid conditions affect more than 12% of the population of the United States, and one of the two common thyroid conditions, hyperthyroidism, can benefit from Lemon Balm. Lemon Balm prevents the thyroid from growing. It acts like thyroid inhibitors in the body. Lemon Balm is used in Europe for treating thyroid problems and has shown an ability to regulate thyroid hormone production.
Research suggests that the flavonoids, phenolic acids and other compounds found in this versatile herb appear to be responsible for Lemon Balm's thyroid-regulating actions. They also suggests that these extracts stop the components that over-activate the thyroid from binding with the thyroid receptor, specifically in patients with Grave’s disease. Keep in mind that it can also affect thyroid-related medications. Therefore, in thyroid condition, take it only by asking the doctor.
Test tube studies have found that Lemon Balm blocks the attachment of antibodies to the thyroid cells that cause Grave's disease. The brain's signal to the thyroid (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) is also blocked from further stimulating the excessively active thyroid gland in this disease.
According to research conducted in the laboratory, dry extract of Lemon Balm balances the thyroid hormone. In addition, it also prevents thyroid hormones from becoming over-stimulated.
Grave's Disease (Hyperthyroidism):
Graves’ disease is where the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid. This causes an overproduction of thyroid hormones, known as hyperthyroidism. Lemon Balm may block some of the activity of thyroid hormone in the body. Therefore, it has been used in the past to treat Grave's disease, an auto-immune condition in which the thyroid gland produces excess thyroid hormone.
Although laboratory and animal studies show that Lemon Balm may help decrease thyroid in the body, no human studies have yet been conducted for this possible use.
A study in 2021 discussed how two individuals with Graves’ disease consumed bugleweed and Lemon Balm. Over time, both individuals had normal blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. However, further study of the anti-thyroidal effects of Lemon Balm in humans is required to evaluate it as a therapy in Graves’ disease.
Individuals with Graves’ disease should discuss the use of Lemon Balm as a therapeutic agent with their doctor before they start regularly consuming it.
A 2022 study "Light emitting diodes improved the metabolism of rosmarinic acid and amino acids at the transcriptional level in two genotypes of Melissa officinalis L" published in Funct Plant Biol., by Tayebeh Ahmadi, Leila Shabani, Mohammad R Sabzalian, used different LEDs to evaluate their effect on metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming of two genotypes (Ilam and Isfahan) of lemon balm grown under narrow-band LED lighting. Lemon balm plants were grown in four incubators equipped with artificial lighting and subjected to four LED lamps [White, Blue, Red, and mixed RB (Red+Blue) (70%:30%)] and in greenhouse conditions for 7weeks. The results showed significant increases in leaf number, pigment and soluble sugar contents, secondary metabolites, and calcium, magnesium, potassium and amino acid contents achieved in growth under mixed RB LEDs. As observed for the content of total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, and amino acids, the expression of genes involved in their production, including TAT , RAS , and DAHPS were also enhanced due to the mixed RB LED lighting. The best condition for both the plant growth and expression of genes was under the mixture of Red+Blue LED lamps. These observations indicate that the increase in secondary metabolites under mixed Red+Blue lights may be due to the increase in primary metabolites synthesis and the increased expression of genes that play an essential role in the production of secondary metabolites.
Nowadays many people are troubled by the problem of increasing weight. If you also fall in this category, you can use Lemon Balm tea. Actually, Lemon Balm contains flavonoids, which help to control weight. Because it has anti-inflammatory effects, can help you cope with stress, improves digestion and supports metabolic health, it may be useful for maintaining a healthy weight. It help with weight loss might be a potential secondary effect.
A 2008 study "Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice" published in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 115, Issue 2, by Jinmi Lee, Kyungsil Chae et al., about mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi was shown to regulate body weight, adipose tissue mass, lipid metabolism, in part, through changes in the expression of hepatic PPAR-alpha target genes.
Boosts Immune System:
Lemon Balm can also help increase your immunity level. Actually, it has many properties like anti-bacterial, antifungal and anti-parasitic. Therefore, it protects you from all diseases caused by bacteria. Also, its anti-microbial property prevents germs from growing. These all properties can boost your immunity.
If 1-2 drops of Melissa essential oil is placed under the tongue then it helps to enhance immunity.
"A Comprehensive Review of Herbal Supplements Used for Persistent Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease" published in Integr Med (Encinitas) 2023, by Allison Thompson, Lauren M Hynicka, Kalpana D Shere-Wolfe in University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD, examines the evidence for the antimicrobial activity, safety, and drug-drug interactions of 18 herbal supplements that patients commonly use for treatment of persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. The research team performed a narrative review by searching the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Natural Medicines databases, and NCCIH website. The search used the keywords for 18 herbal compounds: Andrographis (Andrographis paniculate), Astragalus (Astragalus propinquus), Berberine, Cat's Claw bark (Uncaria tomentosa), Cordyceps (Cordyceps sinensis), Cryptolepis (Cryptolepis sanguinolenta), Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis), Garlic (Allium sativum), Japanese Knotwood (Polygonum cuspidatum), Reishi Mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum), Sarsaparilla (Smilax medica), Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus), Sweet Wormwood (Artemisia annua), Teasle root (Dipsacus fullonum), Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), oil of Oregano (Origanum vulgare), Peppermint (Mentha x piperita), and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris). The team also searched for terms related to protocols, including Dr. Rawls' protocol and the Buhner protocol. Seven of the 18 herbs reviewed had evidence for in-vitro activity against Borrelia burgdorferi. These compounds included: Cat's Claw, Cryptolepis, Chinese Skullcap, Japanese Knotweed, Sweet Wormwood, Thyme, and oil of Oregano. With the exception of oil of Oregano these compounds also have anti-inflammatory activity. In vivo data and clinical trials are lacking. Clinicians should be cautious as many of the identified compounds have drug interactions and additive effects that could lead to increased risks for bleeding, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. Many of the herbs that alternative and integrative practitioners use to treat Lyme disease have anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to patients' perceptions of symptomatic improvement. Some herbs have limited demonstrated anti-borrelial activity in vitro, but in-vivo data and clinical trial data is lacking. Further research is required to determine the efficacy, safety and appropriate use of these herbs for this patient population.
Diabetes is a widespread problem in Western health. While it’s very common for traditional practitioners to prescribe a number of medications with dangerous side effects to treat it, it’s actually possible to reverse diabetes naturally. Using Lemon Balm extract may be one effective way to achieve this. Lemon Balm works as an anti-diabetic. Its extract helps to improve the lipid profile and reduce the glycemic index i.e. glucose level. Apart from this, Lemon Balm oil has also been found helpful to reduce blood glucose levels of type-2 diabetes patients.
Researchers have tested both Lemon Balm essential oil and extract for their effect on high blood sugar. Both produce similar results by reducing blood sugar levels and oxidative stress related to diabetes. Studies suggest that Melissa oil is an efficient hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic agent, probably due to enhanced glucose uptake and metabolism in the liver, along with adipose tissue and the inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
In a clinical trial on 62 people with type 2 diabetes, an oral Lemon Balm supplement improved blood sugar control (by increasing insulin sensitivity). It also increased the levels of cholesterol bound to HDL, suggesting it helped prevent artery clogging.
In another trial on 70 diabetics, the same supplement was safe and improved the levels of fats and proteins that transport them in the blood, possibly reducing the risk of heart disease. Lemon Balm helped with type 2 diabetes by lowering blood sugar and fat levels in mice.
Although promising, the evidence is insufficient to support the benefits of Lemon Balm in diabetics. More clinical trials on larger populations are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
Many herbs that provide antioxidants also help promote balanced blood sugar levels. Some research suggests that Lemon Balm may encourage normal blood sugar levels and reduce oxidative stress related to diabetes. Treats diabetes, primarily for type 2 diabetes, studies have shown that Lemon Balm extract or oil is beneficial in the reduction of blood sugar levels. It is not a replacement for insulin.
Researchers at The Free University of Berlin impressed by the convincing data from their studies stated, "Ethanolic Lemon Balm extract can potentially be used to prevent or concomitantly treat type 2 diabetes". Taking Lemon Balm along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed. Results of this preclinical trial in type 2 diabetes showed a significant reduction in blood glucose, as well as an improved glucose tolerance and significantly higher serum insulin levels. In spite of the extensive scientific research, there's much about Lemon Balm health benefits that remains unknown. However, the extended popularity of this herb through history is a reliable testimony of its anxiolytic, sedative, and antiviral benefits. Recent findings suggest that this herb has an amazing, untapped potential, and more benefits of Lemon Balm are yet to be corroborated by further research.
A 2010 study published in The British Journal of Nutrition found that when mice were administered Melissa essential oil for 6 weeks, they showed significantly reduced blood glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance and significantly higher serum insulin levels compared with the control group, all of which can reduce diabetes symptoms.
Lemon Balm extract has shown protective effects on the liver, reducing oxidative degradation in the liver tissue and increasing glutathione, an important antioxidant.
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD):
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is caused by inflammation, high blood sugar, and fat. In mice, Lemon Balm helped treat fatty liver disease by activating enzymes that break down fatty acids. Lemon balm also reduces the activity of white blood cells and inflammatory cytokines in the liver.
A 2023 phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study "Assess the Efficacy and Safety of ALS-L1023 in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease" published in Pharmaceuticals (Basel), by Gi-Ae Kim, Hyun Chin Cho, Soung Won Jeong, Bo-Kyeong Kang, Mimi Kim, Seungwon Jung, Jungwook Hwang, Eileen L Yoon, Dae Won Jun, shown that the herbal extract, ALS-L1023, from Melissa officinalis reduces visceral fat and hepatic steatosis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of ALS-L1023 as the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We conducted a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2a study in patients with NAFLD (MRI-proton density fat fraction [MRI-PDFF] ≥ 8% and liver fibrosis ≥ 2.5 kPa on MR elastography [MRE]) in Korea. Patients were randomly assigned to 1800 mg ALS-L1023 (n = 19), 1200 mg ALS-L1023 (n = 21), or placebo (n = 17) groups. Efficacy endpoints included changes in liver fat on MRI-PDFF, liver stiffness on MRE, and liver enzymes. For the full analysis set, a relative hepatic fat reduction from baseline was significant in the 1800 mg ALS-L1023 group (-15.0%, p = 0.03). There was a significant reduction in liver stiffness from baseline in the 1200 mg ALS-L1023 group (-10.7%, p = 0.03). Serum alanine aminotransferase decreased by -12.4% in the 1800 mg ALS-L1023 group, -29.8% in the 1200 mg ALS-L1023 group, and -4.9% in the placebo group. ALS-L1023 was well tolerated and there were no differences in the incidence of adverse events among the study groups. ALS-L1023 could reduce hepatic fat content in patients with NAFLD.
Hepatotoxicity remains amongst the restricting factors of Methotrexate (MTX)-associated cancer therapy, especially in high doses of chemo-drugs or prolonged treatment. Due to the known protective effects of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis), the aqueous extract of this plant was evaluated to ameliorate MTX-associated hepatotoxicity in rats.
In a 2023 study "Melissa Officinalis L. aqueous extract pretreatment decreases methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity at lower dose and increases 99mTc-phytate liver uptake, as a probe of liver toxicity assessment, in rats" published in Ann Nucl Med., by Somayeh Shahani, Nasrin Mehraban, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Seyed Mohammad Abedi, Zohreh Noaparast, Salam Mohammadinia, adult female Wistar rats were received or not M. officinalis aqueous extract at doses of 100 mg/kg (for 14 and 24 consecutive days) and 2 g/kg (for 14 consecutive days) by gavage technique. MTX (20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected on the 10th- and 20th-day post-M. officinalis treatment. 24 h after the last day of treatment, 99mTc-phytate was intravenously injected through the tail of rats. Animals were killed at 20 min after radiocolloid injection, and vital tissues including the liver and spleen were isolated, weighed, and their radioactivity was counted. As well, 99mTc-phytate scintigraphy and histopathology of the liver were performed for higher accuracy. A significant increase in liver radioactivity was detected in M. officinalis+MTX receiving groups compared with the MTX rats which were more robust at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 14 days. Also, a significant reduction in liver radioactivity was evident with M. officinalis extract at a dose of 2 g/kg for 14 days in comparison with the control group, this reduction was not significant at the lower dose of 100 mg/kg. Gamma scintigraphy and histopathological examinations confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of M. officinalis vs MTX-induced liver injury in rats. In conclusion, we highlighted the liver uptake of 99mTc-phytate as a valuable method for assessment of liver toxicity and addressed that M. officinalis pretreatment (100 mg/kg for 14 days) ameliorates the MTX-associated hepatotoxicity in rats; however, M. officinalis itself induces liver toxicity at higher doses.
In a 2022 study "ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis Alleviates Liver Fibrosis in a Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model" published in Life (Basel), by Eun Jeoung Lee, Yun Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Eileen Laurel Yoon, Sung Ryol Lee, Dae Won Jun, ALS-L1023 is an ingredient extracted from Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm), which is known as a natural medicine that suppresses angiogenesis. Herein, we aimed to determine whether ALS-L1023 could alleviate liver fibrosis in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model. C57BL/6 wild-type male mice (age, 6 weeks old) were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHFD) for 10 weeks to induce NAFLD. For the next 10 weeks, two groups of mice received the test drug along with CDHFD. Two doses (a low dose, 800 mg/kg/day; and a high dose, 1200 mg/kg/day) of ALS-L1023 were selected and mixed with feed for administration. Obeticholic acid (OCA; 10 mg/kg/day) was used as the positive control. Biochemical analysis revealed that the ALS-L1023 low-dose group had significantly decreased alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase. The area of fibrosis significantly decreased due to the administration of ALS-L1023, and the anti-fibrotic effect of ALS-L1023 was greater than that of OCA. RNA sequencing revealed that the responder group had lower expression of genes related to the hedgehog-signaling pathway than the non-responder group. ALS-L1023 may exert anti-fibrotic effects in the NAFLD model, suggesting that it may provide potential benefits for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
Muscle Pain and Spasms:
Lemon Balm is effective in reducing the muscle pain and aches that accompany flu. Its antispasmodic action helps reduce muscular spasms. Using Lemon Balm leads to sweating when you have a fever, which brings some relief. With sweat, toxins in the body also get discarded. One of its components, eugenol, help in pain reduction.
Some studies indicate that Lemon Balm is effective in helping relax smooth muscles due to its antispasmodic effects.
In a review of studies, researchers found that Lemon Balm, in sufficient concentrations, helped to relax smooth muscle tissue in an animal model. However, they found that a concentration of 30% was not enough to exhibit smooth muscle relaxation.
Lemon Balm’s pain-relieving properties may make it an ideal choice for relieving toothache pain. In addition to drawing on its relaxing properties, this home remedy is thought to target inflammation in the body. More research is needed to confirm these findings.
Use a cotton swab to apply Lemon Balm oil to the affected area as needed. Be sure to select an oil that has already been diluted by a carrier oil, such as Jojoba. If you use pure Lemon Balm oil, you should dilute it. Essential oils should not be applied directly to the skin until they are diluted in a carrier oil.
To relief toothache, put some leaves in a glass with water and rinse this mixture after a rest time.
Lemon Balm has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The properties of this Lemon Balm are capable of fighting many types of viruses and bacteria, so it can also be used to relieve oral infections. You can rinse with Lemon Balm to fight bacteria that grow in the mouth. If you are suffering from gingival pain or swelling due to mouth infection, then the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties present in it can give you relief. You can also apply its paste on the infection area.
Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT):
It also decreased the activity of the enzyme human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Telomeres are added on the ends of chromosomes by telomerases, but as aging occurs, telomerase activity decreases. hTERT is overactive in cancer cells and necessary for tumor growth.
Tumor - Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM):
A 2014 study published in Cancer Investigation, found that Melissa oil may be of potential interest for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which are tumors that arise from the supportive tissue of the brain. The study investigated the activity of Melissa essential oil and its major component citral in GBM cell lines. Both Melissa oil and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells with their antioxidant effects, showcasing its potential as a natural cancer treatment.
However, a 2014 study found that Lemon Balm essential oil caused apoptosis (spontaneous cell death) in these cancer cells and stopped the expression of a protein known as multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). This is especially important, considering that MRP1 is partly responsible for the drug resistance cancers develop to traditional treatment methods, such as chemotherapy.
Another 2004 study found that Melissa essential oil has potential as an anti-tumor agent, as evidenced by a reduction of human cancer cell lines when evaluated in an in vitro study.
Colon Cancer (Colorectal):
Melissa officinalis, known as Lemon Balm, is a popular ingredient blended in herbal tea. In recent decades, the bioactivities of Melissa officinalis have been studied in sub-health and pathological status, highlighting Melissa officinalis possesses multiple pharmacological effects.
A 2022 study "Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Melissa officinalis Extract Targets Mitochondrial Respiration in Colon Cancer Cells" published in Molecules, by Tzu-Ting Kuo, Li-Chun Lin, Hsin-Yi Chang, Pei-Jung Chiang, Hsin-Yi Wu, Tai-Yuan Chen, Shih-Min Hsia, Tsui-Chin Huang, showed that hot water Melissa officinalis extract exhibited anticancer activity in colorectal cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying Melissa officinalis-induced cell death remain elusive. To elucidate the anticancer regulation of Melissa officinalis extract in colon cancer, a data-driven analysis by proteomics approaches and bioinformatics analysis was applied. An isobaric tandem mass tags-based quantitative proteome analysis using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry was performed to acquire proteome-wide expression data. The over-representation analysis and functional class scoring method were implemented to interpret the Melissa officinalis-induced biological regulations. In total, 3465 quantifiable proteoforms were identified from 24,348 peptides, with 67 upregulated and 54 downregulated proteins in the Melissa officinalis-treated group. Mechanistically, Melissa officinalis impeded mitochondrial respiratory electron transport by triggering a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress response. Melissa officinalis hindered the mitochondrial membrane potential by reducing the protein expression in the electron transport chain, specifically the complex I and II, which could be restored by ROS scavenger. The findings comprehensively elucidate how Melissa officinalis hot water extract activates antitumor effects in colorectal cancer colorectal cancer cells.
Colon cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Lifestyle-related factors, such as diet, are associated with the development of colon cancer. Cumulating evidence indicates noticeable chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals on colon cancer, suggesting that drinking herbal tea potentially reduces the risk of distal colon cancer via its antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic activities. It also prevented the growth of colon cancer cells by stopping the cell cycle and induced cellular self-destruction.
A 2020 study "Melissa officinalis Extract Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells" published in ACS Omega by Tzu-Ting Kuo, Hsin-Yi Chang, Tai-Yuan Chen, Bai-Chia Liu, Hsin-Yi Chen, Yuan-Chin Hsiung, Shih-Min Hsia, Chun-Ju Chang, Tsui-Chin Huang, examine the antitumor effects of nine components frequently found in herbal tea and uncover the underlying molecular mechanism. Among them, the hot water extract of Melissa officinalis exhibited the highest anticancer activity on colorectal cancer cells. We revealed that Melissa officinalis reduced cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death, and inhibited cell migration ability by modulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. To examine the metabolite composition in the Melissa officinalis hot water extract, we applied mass spectrometry-based analysis and identified 67 compounds. Among them, the phenolic compounds, including lignans, phenylpropanoids, and polyketides, are widely found in natural products and possess various bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, and anticancer effects. The results indicate that herbal tea consumption benefits colorectal cancer prevention and management.
Lemon Balm induced the self-destruction of MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) and reduced the size of breast tumors in rats.
In cell-based studies, Lemon Balm killed breast cancer cells and blocked their multiplication. It probably did so by decreasing antigen KI-67 (a protein that is associated with cell growth and reproduction).
Nanotechnology has helped a lot in diagnosing and treating multiple illnesses, specifically cancer, and increasing the development of targeted drug delivery methods. Nanocomposites are materials with at least one component smaller than 100 nm. Therefore, this study aims to assess the anticancer effects of silver-graphene nanocomposite on MCF-7.
In a 2023 study "Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, graphene, and silver-graphene nanocomposite using Melissa officinalis ethanolic extract: Anticancer effect on MCF-7 cell line" published in Iran Journal Basic Med Sci., by Farzaneh Motafeghi, Mahyar Gerami, Parham Mortazavi, Babak Khayambashi, Nasrin Ghassemi-Barghi, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, the rate of inhibition of cancer cell growth and production of reactive oxygen radicals, malondialdehyde, and glutathione stores in MCF7 cells were investigated. Cancer cells were exposed to nano particles for 48 hr. Silver nanoparticles and graphene both reduced the growth rate of MCF-7. Subsequently, by treating the cells with silver-graphene nanocomposite, the rate of inhibition of cell growth at the highest concentration was 84.60%. Nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of cancer cells through the oxidative stress pathway by increasing the amount of intracellular ROS, followed by increasing malondialdehyde and decreasing glutathione stores, so that at the highest combined concentration of nanoparticles, the amounts of LPO and ROS increased up to 70% and 74 %, and glutathione reserves decreased by 16%. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with silver or graphene nanoparticles and combination treatment with these two substances against cisplatin have sound effects, and by affecting oxidative stress factors, such as increased ROS and subsequent increase in lipid membrane damage, inhibit cell growth and proliferation. According to the mathematical model, silver graphene nanocomposite> silver nanoparticles> graphene has the best effect in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells, respectively.
Perhaps most notably in this particular benefit of Lemon Balm is its potential impact against a specific kind of cancer known as glioblastoma multiforme. This fast-spreading cancer usually begins in the brain and has no known effective treatments.
In a cell-based study, Lemon Balm killed brain cancer cells. Citral in Lemon Balm may activate cancer cell self-destruction (through caspase-3) and increases cancer’s sensitivity to chemotherapy by inhibiting the drug-resistant gene MRP1.
Lemon Balm prevented the growth of prostate cancers in cell models by inhibiting the growth of blood vessels that feed the tumors (VEGF-A).
Lemon Balm stopped the expansion of leukemia cancer cells and activated cellular self-destruction (Fas, Bax, and Bcl-2).
Other studies have found Lemon Balm products to have apoptotic effects on other cancer cell lines, including a type of cancer affecting the organ lining separating the organ from the rest of the body.
It’s still in the animal and cell stage and further clinical studies have yet to determine if its compounds are useful in cancer therapies. Do not under any circumstances attempt to replace conventional cancer therapies with Lemon Balm or any other supplements. If you want to use it as a supportive measure, talk to your doctor to avoid any unexpected interactions.
Herbal infusions are highly popular beverages consumed daily due to their health benefits and antioxidant properties. However, the presence of plant toxins, such as tropane alkaloids, constitutes a recent health concern for herbal infusions.
A 2023 study "The Bright and Dark Sides of Herbal Infusions: Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity and Determination of Tropane Alkaloids" published in Toxins (Basel), by Ana Rita Soares Mateus, Carmen Crisafulli, Matilde Vilhena, Sílvia Cruz Barros, Angelina Pena, Ana Sanches Silva, presents an optimized and validated methodology based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction procedure followed by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS) for the determination of tropane alkaloids (atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, and homatropine) in herbal infusions, in accordance with criteria established by Commission Recommendation EU No. 2015/976. One of the seventeen samples was contaminated with atropine, exceeding the current European regulation regarding tropane alkaloids. In addition, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of common herbal infusions available on Portuguese markets, indicating the high antioxidant capacity of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), and Peppermint (Mentha x piperita).
In recent decades, there has been growing interest in the fortification of dairy products with antioxidants and phenolics derived from plant byproducts and herbs.
A 2023 study "Development of Dairy Products Fortified with Plant Extracts: Antioxidant and Phenolic Content Characterization" published in Antioxidants (Basel) by Aikaterini Kandyliari, Panagiota Potsaki, Panoraia Bousdouni, Chrysoula Kaloteraki, Martha Christofilea, Kalliopi Almpounioti, Andreani Moutsou, Chistodoulos K Fasoulis, Leandros V Polychronis, Vasileios K Gkalpinos, Andreas G Tzakos, Antonios E Koutelidakis, focused on the analysis of dairy products, including kefir, cream cheese, yogurt, and vegan yogurt, enhanced with aqueous extracts of plant byproducts (Citrus aurantium peel, Citrus limon peel and Rosa canina seed) and herbs (Sideritis spp., Hypericum perforatum, Origanum dictamnus, Mentha pulegium L., Melissa oficinallis, Mentha spicata L. and Lavandula angustifolia) to characterize their antioxidant content, phenolic profile, and organoleptic characteristics. Antioxidant and phenolic content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and presented values up to 46.61 ± 7.22 mmol Fe2+/L and 82.97 ± 4.29 mg gallic acid (GAE)/g, respectively for the aqueous extracts, as well as up to 0.68 ± 0.06 mmol Fe2+/L and 2.82 ± 0.36 mg GAE/g for the fortified dairy products. The bioavailability of antioxidants and phenolics in fortified foods was determined after in vitro digestion and ranged between 4 and 68%. The phytochemical profile of the aqueous extracts was determined by mass spectrometry, and 162 phytochemicals were determined, from which 128 belong to the polyphenol family including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Furthermore, most of the identified compounds have been recorded to possess enhanced antioxidant capacity in correlation to the in vitro findings. Finally, organoleptic evaluation showed an overall acceptability around 3.0 ± 1.0 on a 5-point scale. In conclusion, the studied plants and herbal extracts can be used for the fortification of a variety of dairy products with potential positive effects on human health.
In another 2023 study "Electrospun PLA-Based Biomaterials Loaded with Melissa officinalis Extract with Strong Antioxidant Activity" published in Polymers (Basel), by Nikoleta Stoyanova, Mariya Spasova, Nevena Manolova, Iliya Rashkov, Mariana Kamenova-Nacheva, Plamena Staleva, Maya Tavlinova-Kirilova, the plant extract Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) was successfully loaded in polymer fibrous materials on the basis of a biodegradable polyester-poly(L-lactide) (PLA) and biocompatible polyether-polyethylene glycol (PEG) by applying the electrospinning method. The optimal process conditions for the preparation of hybrid fibrous materials were found. The extract concentration was varied-0, 5 or 10 wt% in respect of the polymer weight, in order to study its influence on the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of the obtained electrospun materials. All the prepared fibrous mats were composed of defect-free fibers. The mean fiber diameters of the PLA, PLA/M. officinalis (5 wt%) and PLA/M. officinalis (10 wt%) were 1370 ± 220 nm, 1398 ± 233 nm and 1506 ± 242 nm, respectively. The incorporation of the M. officinalis into the fibers resulted in slight increase of the fiber diameters and in increase of the water contact angle values to 133°. The presence of the polyether in the fabricated fibrous material assisted the wetting of the materials imparting them with hydrophilicity (the value of the water contact angle become 0°). Extract-containing fibrous materials displayed strong antioxidant activity as determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate free radical method. The DPPH solution color changed to yellow and the absorbance of the DPPH radical dropped by 88.7% and 91% after being in contact with PLA/M. officinalis and PLA/PEG/M. officinalis mats, respectively. These features revealed the M. officinalis-containing fibrous biomaterials promising candidates for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biomedical use.
The extract has significant antioxidant activity. Studies suggest its antioxidant properties could be relevant for the management of oxidative stress, of particular importance for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s. Such diseases are incurable, resulting in progressive degeneration and/or death of neuron cells.
A 2020 study "Does Melissa officinalis consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?" published in Caspian J Intern Med by Sedigheh Bakhtiari, Zahra Yadegari, Puriya Ehyaei, Narges Gholizadeh, was to investigate the effects of Melissa officinalis tea on the total antioxidant capacity of saliva among smokers. 24 smokers were selected by convenience sampling. Demographic information and duration of smoking were recorded at the beginning of study. Two cups of Melissa officinalis tea were given to the participants with specific instruction for 30 days. The unstimulated saliva was collected on first day, 15th and 30th days. Then, total antioxidant capacity was measured by a special kit. Statistical analysis was conducted by repeated measure ANOVA test. The mean values of total antioxidant capacity of saliva were significantly higher in days 15 and 30 from the baseline. (p<0.0001, P=0.006). In day 30, the mean value of antioxidant was not significantly different from day 15. (P=0.271). Melissa officinalis tea consumption increases salivary antioxidants level in smokers.
Lemon Balm helps to fight free radical damage in ways that are proving to be invaluable in natural healing. It contains flavonoids that have strong antioxidant properties. With chronic exposure to environmental and food toxins, consuming high quality, food-based antioxidants are vital for maintaining your health. The antioxidants go after free radicals which damage you at a cellular level. When combined with acupuncture, eugenol, one of the powerful antioxidants in Lemon Balm, helped test subjects recover memory-related functions. This herb can help fight free radical damage in ways that may prove to be remarkable in natural medicine.
A 2022 study "Short-Term Administration of Lemon Balm Extract Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: Focus on Oxidative Stress" published in Pharmaceuticals (Basel), by Nevena Draginic, Isidora Milosavljevic, Marijana Andjic, Jovana Jeremic, Marina Nikolic, Jasmina Sretenovic, Aleksandar Kocovic, Ivan Srejovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Sergey Bolevich, Stefani Bolevich, Svetlana Curcic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of ethanolic Melissa officinalis L. extract in the rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into a CTRL non-treated control group with myocardial I/R injury and three experimental groups of rats treated with 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg of ME for 7 days per os. Afterward, hearts were isolated, and cardiodynamic function was assessed via the Langendorff model of global 20 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. Oxidative stress parameters were determined spectrophotometrically from the samples of coronary venous effluent (O2-, H2O2, TBARS, and NO2-,) and heart tissue homogenate (TBARS, NO2-, SOD, and CAT). H/E and Picrosirius red staining were used to examine cardiac architecture and cardiac collagen content. ME improved cardiodynamic parameters and achieved to preserve cardiac architecture after I/R injury and to decrease fibrosis, especially in the ME200 group compared to CTRL. ME200 and ME100 markedly decreased prooxidants TBARS, O2-, and H2O2 while increasing NO2-. Hereby, we confirmed the Melissa officinalis L. extract`s ability to save the heart from I/R induced damage, even after short-term preconditioning in terms of preserving cardiodynamic alterations, cardiac architecture, fibrosis, and suppressing oxidative stress, especially in dose of 200 mg/kg.
Studies show that Lemon Balm reduces inflammation in mice caused by injury by reducing inflammatory proteins TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL and by lowering oxidative stress.
Results of biological investigations showed that rosmarinic acid in Lemon Balm, depending on the concentration, reduced the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human keratinocyte cells and enhanced cell viability under oxidative stress.
A 2017 review article Melissa officinalis L: "A Review Study With an Antioxidant Prospective" published in Journal Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine by Sepide Miraj, Rafieian-Kopaei, Sara Kiani, was aimed not only to introduce Melissa officinalis (its growth condition, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages) but also to overview its antioxidant properties in detail. This review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases up to 2016. The search terms used were "Melissa officinalis L", "antioxidant properties, oxidative stress", "oxidative damage", "ROS". Articles whose full texts were not available were excluded from the study. In this study, firstly, traditional usage of this herb was reviewed, including antimicrobial activity (antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, etc), antispasmodic, and insomnia properties. Then, its antioxidant properties were overviewed. Various studies have shown that Melissa officinalis L possesses high amount of antioxidant activity through its chemical compounds including high amount of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid, phenolic contents. Many studies confirmed the antioxidative effects of Melissa officinalis; thus, its effect in preventing and treating oxidative stress-related diseases might be reliable.
Radiation is used in cancer and some other diseases and health problems. It can cause your problems as well as other health problems. In such a situation, if you want to protect yourself from radiation therapy or any other type of radiation damage, then you can use Lemon Balm. Actually, it helps prevent damage to DNA caused by radiation. Also reduces oxidative stress.
In one study looking at how the antioxidants in Lemon Balm affect oxidative stress caused by low levels of radiation, Lemon Balm had remarkable results, including a significant improvement in blood levels of other antioxidant cells.
Another study that looked at supplementing the diet of medical professionals consistently exposed to low levels of radiation with Lemon Balm showed that it may be an effective way to protect them against unhealthy levels of oxidative stress. The study also showed Lemon Balm could naturally regulate a very important substance called superoxide dismutase. This enzyme, known in short as SOD, is vital to understand in terms of oxidative stress because the naturally occurring SOD can cause a number of different types of cell damage.
Insect Bites and Stings:
Traditionally, fresh leaves of Lemon Balm were placed on insect bites to help with the swelling and it was also used on bug bites and wounds in salves, ointments, and poultices to help speed healing. Some people report success crushing Lemon Balm leaves and rubbing them on the skin as a DIY bug repellent. Lemon Balm is also supposed to help with the itch from bugbites, so if it fails as a repellent, use it on the bite.
Moisten cosmetic clay with Lemon Balm tea to dab on blemishes and bug bites as needed.
Repels Insects and Bugs:
Majority of people choose OTC anti-insect spray and repellent products to destroy insects from households. However, most such insect repellents contain strong chemicals and allergens that can be problematic for users, particularly those with allergies and respiratory issues. You can use Lemon Balm to drive away various insects from the home. You may also spray Lemon Balm tincture in the garden and on the indoor plants. It contains a good amount of Citronella, which repels insects efficiently. You will be able to keep your home free of insects and save money in the process too.
It can be used as a repellent to ward off mosquitoes. For this, the leaves should be kneaded and applied on the skin. The mixture of 10 drops of Melissa essential oil and 5 drops of Basil should be added to the witch hazel in a spray bottle. It should shake well and spray on to eliminate the bugs.
How to Use Lemon Balm:
Lemon Balm can be used in various ways:
- Herbal Tea: A standard of infusion of the leaves, which means steep them in warm water. This is a relatively mild herb and can be enjoyed for its flavor or used as a medicine.
- Tincture: 1:5 40%, which means soak 1 gram in each 5 ml of 40% alcohol for two weeks. Dosage for this method would generally be teaspoonful as needed up to 6 days. Or just do it by the folkloric method by placing some fresh Lemon Balm in a jar and covering with your favorite 80 proof liquor. The advantage of an alcohol extract is long shelf life and that the principles get into the bloodstream in two minutes. In other words, it’s fast acting.
- Vapor: Fresh or dried leaves deliver vapor to the bloodstream in 8 seconds without introducing free radicals or toxic compounds found in the smoke of burning plant material.
- Glycerite: Fresh Lemon Balm infused in glycerine (use vegetable glycerine) is delightful in a spritzer with carbonated water or taken neat.
- Powder: Dried herb can be ground to a powder and placed in capsules. A 00 capsule will generally hold 500 mg. Since 8 to 10 grams/day are recommended you’ll be swallowing 16-20 caps/day (which is why teas are traditional for mild herbs).
This healthy tea is derived from the leaves of the Lemon Balm plant, scientifically known as Melissa officianalis, which is a member of the mint family. It is widely available and inexpensive, and can also be grown rather easily in a home garden. Praised for its relaxing and sedative qualities, Lemon Balm tea has been a part of traditional healing practices for centuries. The wide range of health benefits is largely the result of the active compounds found in Lemon Balm, including tannins, flavonoids, rosmarinic acid, citronellal, eugenol, and other polyphenolic compounds, as well as copper, manganese, zinc and various essential vitamins.
Some of the most notable benefits of Lemon Balm tea include soothing the digestive tracts, treating sleep disorders, stimulating cognitive disorders, boosting the immune system, detoxifying the body, breaking fevers, eliminating anxiety and soothing menstrual symptoms, among others. In terms of side effects, drinking Lemon Balm tea has rarely been reported to have negative effects, although occasional nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and dizziness can occur. However, severe toxicity of Lemon Balm tea has never been reported.
Recipes for Calming Herbal Tea:
Cold Infusion of Lemon Balm: It’s easy to flavor water with aromatics from healing plants, and Lemon Balm is one of the best options for infusing cold or room temperature water, thanks to the leaf’s strong citrus flavor. For this cold infusion, is using of fresh herbs recommended. To make four cups of cold infused water, you will need six to 10 sprigs of fresh Lemon Balm. Gently rinse your herbs. This type of infusion is intended to be enjoyed fresh, but any leftovers can be stored in the refrigerator for one more night:
- Slap the herbs against a palm or on the countertop to release their aromatics.
- Place in a 32-ounce jar or container with a lid.
- Pour in four cups of natural spring water and close the container.
- Place in the fridge, and infuse for at least four hours or up to overnight.
- Some people like to do a solar infusion throughout the day and then place their infusion in the refrigerator to steep overnight instead.
- Strain before enjoying, or leave the leaves in if you like. If desired, top with a fresh Lemon Balm sprig before serving.
Warm Infusion of Lemon Balm: Below is a simple guide that provides recommended measurements when using fresh or dried Lemon Balm to benefit fully from the healing properties of this aromatic herb. You can double or triple the ingredients to make additional cups of tea. If you want to sweeten your infusion, you can add your sweetener of choice to taste. To make one cup of warm Lemon Balm tea you will need two to three tablespoons of the dried herb, or four to six grams fresh (about four to six sprigs). Drink this beverage warm to benefit from the herb’s healing properties:
- Fill a kettle or pot up with water for however many cups you will be infusing.
- Turn on the flame and bring the water to a boil.
- While the water is heating up, measure out the dried Lemon Balm. If you’re using fresh sprigs, give them a gentle rinse before infusing them.
- Place your herbs in a heat-safe container with a lid.
- Pour the boiling water over them and close the container.
- Allow your tea to infuse for 10 to 15 minutes.
- Uncover and add your choice of sweetener to taste.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is commonly consumed as an herbal tea for its antioxidant health benefits. Young seedlings known as microgreens are popular for their distinct flavors and can contain higher mineral content on a dry weight basis compared to their adult counterparts. However, the use of microgreens for herbal teas has not been previously investigated.
In a 2023 study "Harvest Stage and Brewing Conditions Impact Mineral Content, Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Herbal Tea" published in Plant Foods Hum Nutr., by Rachel G Newman, Youyoun Moon, Janet C Tou, Terence McManus, Nicole L Waterland, Lemon Balm was grown to adult and microgreen harvest stages and prepared as herbal teas by brewing with boiled (100 °C) water for 5 minutes and room temperature water (22 °C) for 2 hours. The effects of harvest time and brewing method on the mineral content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of Lemon Balm herbal teas were assessed. Results showed that adult Lemon Balm tea contained higher total phenolics, total flavonoids, rosmarinic acid, and antioxidant capacity than microgreen teas, with hot preparations containing the highest amounts (p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, microgreen Lemon Balm teas contained higher amounts of minerals (p ≤ 0.05), including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc. In general, brewing conditions did not impact the content of most minerals. Overall, the results support the potential of using dried microgreens as herbal teas. Microgreen Lemon Balm teas prepared hot and cold offer antioxidant compounds and are richer sources of minerals than adult teas. The ease of growth for microgreens offers consumers the opportunity for home preparation of a novel herbal tea beverage.
A 2016 study investigated the benefits of Lemon Balm tea made from Lemon Balm extract. The researchers concluded that the hot water extract of Lemon Balm leaf may provide health benefits to glycation-associated tissue damage in blood vessels and skin of healthy adults. Glycation-associated damage links closely to the onset of various diseases and aging phenomena. There may be some therapeutic uses for Lemon Balm, but the efficacy may change when a person consumes this as a tea made with dried Lemon Balm. Additional studies are needed to better understand the potential benefits of Lemon Balm tea.
Native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean, and Asia, melissa is an aromatic perennial herb in the mint family. Also known as Lemon Balm, the use of this herb extends back at least 2,000 years to Ancient Greece and Rome, where it was referred to colloquially as "honey-leaf" and "elixir of life". Melissa plant is native to the Mediterranean region and has been popularly referred to as the bee plant. Melissa essential oil has a tart, lemony aroma with herbaceous green undertones. Melissa Essential oil is known as the Common Oil and Sweet Oil. Due to the soothing properties of Melissa essential oil, it is also used in the balms. Melissa essential oil is extracted by steam distillation of fresh buds, leaves, and twigs of melissa or Melissa officinalis, as it is scientifically known. There is a good reason why this essential oil has earned the reputation and a globally known name of Lemon Balm oil. This is because this oil is extensively used in nearly all sorts of balms due to its soothing properties while having a sweet, pleasant aroma. It is also known as sweet oil and common oil.
With a sweet Lemon fragrance, the Melissa plant, also known as Melissa officinalis or Lemon Balm, is the herbaceous origin of Melissa essential oil. Melissa essential oil contains strong soothing properties. When used aromatically or topically, it can help promote feelings of relaxation and can assist in calming tension and nerves. Melissa oil is also valued for its fresh, sweet, and citrus-like aroma. In the kitchen, Melissa oil can be used to flavor a variety of different foods and drinks such as teas, ice cream, and some fish dishes. Melissa essential oil is a wonderful aromatherapy oil to promote emotional well-being, uplift and improve mood and help you drift off into a deep relaxing sleep. A couple of dabs of diluted Melissa essential oil to the back of the ears or neck can help to overcome vertigo, dizziness, nervousness, anxiety, nausea and vomiting. There is some anecdotal evidence that it may be useful to treat cold sores, helping them to heal up much faster. This could be due to the potent antiviral and antimicrobial properties of this versatile oil. Taking Melissa oil internally may help support a healthy immune system. Additionally, Melissa is commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products because of its skin-benefitting properties. However, that is not the sole cause of this plant’s popularity. It is famous particularly for its soothing, memory boosting, and anti-depressant powers.
The oil is extracted from the fresh leaves, buds and twigs through the process of steam distillation. The main components of Melissa essential oil are citronellal, germacrene, geranyl acetate, octatone, beta bourbonene, cis hexenol, octenol, alpha humulene, delta candinene, nerol, trans ocimene, carophyllene, geranial, cis ocimene, linalool, methyl hepenone, octanol, copaene, neral, gamma cadinene and geraniol. It is also called Lemon Balm. Melissa essential oil possess antidepressant, nervine, sedative, stomachic, carminative, febrifuge, sudorific, cordial, emmenagogue, antispasmodic, antibacterial, diaphoretic, hypotensive and tonic properties.
- Allergies: Several ounces of water should be added 1 drop of Lavender, 1 drop of Melissa and 1 drop of Peppermint. It should be swallowed after swishing around in the mouth. This formula could be applied to the bottom of the feet as well.
- Anxiety: A drop of Melissa oil should be placed and rubbed between the hands. Nose and mouth should be cup by the hand and breathe for 30 seconds or more.
- Bacterial Infections: Massage the Melissa oil on the foot reflex points or 1 drop should be applied over the infected area.
- Bronchitis: 1 drop of Melissa oil should be massed on the chest and throat for three times in a day. Or massage on the reflex points of the feet.
- Calming: Rub the Melissa oil by placing it on a palm and breathe up to 30 seconds or more by making a cup over the nose and mouth.
- Cold: 1-2 drops of Melissa oil should be massaged on the feet or over the symptomatic area.
- Cold Sores: A small amount of Melissa oil should be dabbed to the area and it should be repeated for several times in a day. / Apply 2-3 diluted drops of Melissa topically to the area of concern.
- Coughs: 1 drop of Melissa oil should be massaged to the chest and throat for 3 times in a day or the reflex points of the feet should be massaged.
- Dementia: Diffuse Melissa essential oil daily or inhale it directly from the bottle. / A drop of Melissa oil should be rubbed by placing it between the palms, breathe for 30 seconds by making a cup over the nose and mouth.
- Depression: A drop of Melissa essential oil should be placed to the palms and rub them between the hands. Hands should be cup over the mouth and nose and breathe for 30 seconds or more. It should be done daily.
- Eczema: 1 drop of Melissa oil should be diluted with 3-4 drops of carrier oil. A small amount of this diluted oil should be applied to the affected area for 1-3 times in a day.
- Emotional Support: 1 drop of Melissa oil should be massaged over the heart and solar plexus so that it helps to relieve anxiety.
- Enhance Immunity: If 1-2 drops of Melissa essential oil is placed under the tongue then it helps to enhance immunity.
- Energy: 1 drop of Melissa essential oil should be either diffused or inhaled from the hands. Or the mixture of 4 drops of Wild Orange, 2 drops of Melissa oil and 1 tablespoon of carrier oil should be rubbed to the bottom of the feet.
- Flu: 1-2 drops of Melissa essential oil should be massaged to the reflex points of the feet or over the symptomatic area.
- Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease: 1 drop of Melissa oil should be diluted with 3-4 drops of carrier oil and massage it over symptomatic area in a small amount or the reflex points of the feet.
- Headaches and Migraine: Apply the mixture of 1 teaspoon of carrier oil and 2 drops of Melissa oil to the temples, forehead and neck.
- Herpes: The doctor of the Technical University of Munich reports that the use of Melissa oil helps to reprieve Herpes Simplex lesions. A small amount of Melissa oil should be placed three times a day directly to an outbreak. / Apply 2-3 diluted drops of Melissa topically to the area of concern.
- Hopelessness: 1 drop of Melissa oil should be massaged over the heart, solar plexus or heart. It should be diffused all over the day.
- Hypertension: Inhale Melissa oil directly for 3 or more times a day from the bottle or Melissa oil should be used over symptomatic area. / Apply topically to the chest or back of the neck, or take one to two drops internally.
- Hypoglycemia: Take a few drops internally to promote healthy glucose levels.
To fight feelings of depression and anxiety, diffuse or apply melissa essential oil topically to the wrists, back of the neck and ears.
- Indigestion: Massage with the mixture of 4 drops of grapefruit, 4 drops of Melissa, 1 tablespoon carrier oil and 2 drops of peppermint to the abdomen.
- Insect Repellents: The mixture of 10 drops of Melissa essential oil and 5 drops of Basil should be added to the witch hazel in a spray bottle. It should shake well and spray on to eliminate the bugs.
- Nausea: In theherbal tea, 1-2 drops of Melissa essential oil should be added to lessen nausea and alleviate indigestion.
- Nervousness: Apply 2-3 drops topically to the back of the neck or ears to alleviate nervousness, nausea, vomiting and dizziness. Melissa oil can also be taken internally by adding one drop to water or tea.
- Overwhelm: Massage with the 1 drop of Melissa oil over the heart, solar plexus and brow or inhale from the bottle directly.
- PMS: Massage the Melissa oil onto the bottom of the feet or abdomen. The mixture of 4 drops Fennel, 4 drops Bergamot, 1 tablespoon carrier oil and 3 drops of Melissa oil should be added to the warm/hot bath.
- Skin Aging: Should be added to the moisturizer or a spray bottle with water and spray on the face which helps to refresh the mind and rejuvenates the skin.
- Skin Issues: Apply the single drop of Melissa oil to the issue for 1-3 times in a day. / Small amount should be dabbed to the breakouts or minor irritations on the skin and lips which helps to ease the area. / Use 5 drops per ounce of carrier oil, especially for use on the face. Alternatively, you can add five drops to a moisturizer or a spray bottle with water and spritz it on your face.
- Stomach Issues: Melissa helps to ease stomach, also strengthens and tones it. It also treats the scratches, wounds and ulcers in the stomach. It also prevents from the infections and maintains the appropriate flow of gastric juices. Massage the abdomen with a drop of Melissa oil using clockwise strokes 1-3 times in a day.
- Stress: A drop of Melissa oil should be placed on the palm and rub between the hands. Breathe for 30 seconds or more by making a cup over a nose. It should be done daily as required. / Should be rubbed on the shoulders, forehead or chest or it should be diffused at night to lower the stress and enhances the emotional well-being.
- Vertigo: The small amount should be applied to the forehead or inhale from the bottle directly.
- Viral Infections: The infected area should be applied a drop of Melissa essential oil or the feet should be massaged for 3 times in a day.
- Warts: 1 drop of Melissa oil should be applied to the wart directly for 1-2 times in a day until it reduces.
Medical Uses of Lemon Balm:
- The leaves of Lemon Balm are used in Iranian folk medicine for their digestive, carminative, antispasmodic, sedative, analgesic, tonic, and diuretic properties, as well as for functional gastrointestinal disorders.
- Lemon Balm leaves have been prescribed for internal (as tea) or external (essential oil) application for the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, liver, and bile in Traditional Australian medicine.
- Lemon Balm has antiviral properties and is often recommended for treating cold sores. It may help with other viruses as well.
- Lemon Balm essential oil is very popular in aromatherapy.
- Crushed leaves, when rubbed on the skin, are used as a mosquito repellent.
- Lemon Balm reduced thyroid function by preventing thyroid-stimulating hormone from binding to its receptor.
- Lemon Balm treats melancholy, finding yourself in life situations you are not ready to accept.
- Lemon Balm is being studied as a treatment for type 2 diabetes.
- Lemon Balm is used medicinally as an herbal tea, or in extract form.
- Lemon Balm might also have benefits for heart health.
- Lemon Balm is a commonly grown household remedy with a long tradition as a tonic remedy that increases the spirits and lifts the heart.
- Lemon balm may help with indigestion and nausea.
- Lemon balm may relieve menstrual cramps and headaches.
- Extracts of Lemon Balm stops the components that over-activate the thyroid from binding with the thyroid receptor, specifically in patients with Grave’s disease.
- It can help significantly in the treatment of cold sores.
- Leaves and young flowering shoots are antibacterial, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, sedative, and tonic.
- Lemon Balm is improved cognitive function.
- It also acts to prevent thyroid activity.
- An infusion of the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers and colds; indigestion associated with nervous tension, excitability and digestive upsets in children, hyperthyroidism, depression, mild insomnia, headaches etc.
- Externally, it is used to treat herpes, sores, gout, insect bites and as an insect repellent.
- The essential oil contains citral and citronella, which act to calm the central nervous system and are strongly antispasmodic.
- The plant also contains polyphenols; in particular these combat the herpes simplex virus which produces cold sores.
- It is used to relax and rejuvenate, especially in cases of depression and nervous tension.
- Herbal medicine, approve Melissa officinalis for nervousness and insomnia.
- Some people find Lemon Balm helps ease stress and anxiety.
- Lemon Balm is effective at protecting the liver from some of the negative effects of an unhealthy diet.
- It is effective in treating brain disorders like insanity, sleeplessness, stress, ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease, depression and anxiety.
- It cures cold sores i.e. oral herpes and mumps rapidly, which are an outcome of viral infections.
- It is a good herbal remedy for skin complaints like sunburns, shingles i.e. rashes and eczema.
- It is potent in overcoming chronic fatigue syndrome.
- It relaxes muscular pain and gout.
- It counteracts dysmenorrhea i.e. painful menses.
- It cures genital herpes.
- It is a powerful antidote for insect bites.
- Lemon Balm essential oil has many medicinal uses as well, and has been studied for alleviating dementia symptoms, skin conditions, and more.
- Lemon Balm can help soothe digestive issues by preventing gastric ulcers.
- Rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid in Lemon Balm protected skin cells against damage caused by UV radiation.
- Effectively reduced PMS symptoms in high school-aged women.
- With colicky infants, Lemon Balm significantly decreased average daily crying time after 28 days and reduced colic episodes through its calming effects and by relaxing the gut.
Edible Uses of Lemon Balm:
- Lemon Balm adds a lovely lemony seasoning for all kinds of food and drinks.
- Lemon Balm is often used as a flavoring in ice cream and herbal teas, both hot and iced, often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint.
- It is also often paired with fruit dishes or candies.
- It can be used in fish dishes and is the key component in Lemon Balm pesto.
- It might be a better, healthier preservative than butylated hydroxy anisole in sausages.
- Leaves are used mainly as a flavoring in salads and cooked foods.
- Lemon-flavored tea can be made from the fresh or dried leaves.
- A bunch of the leaves can be added to china tea, much improving the flavor, the leaves are also added to fruit cups etc.
- They are used as a flavoring in various alcoholic beverages including Chartreuse and Benedictine.
Other Uses of Lemon Balm:
- Growing plant is said to repel flies and ants.
- It is also rubbed on the skin as a repellent.
- It is an effective insect repellent, including against mosquitoes.
- Lemon Balm can be used as a natural room freshener.
- The mixture of fresh Lemon Balm leaves lightly boiled in water can be sprayed in rooms to spread light mint-type aroma.
- The amazing yet delicate aroma is literally intoxicating.
- Whole plant is very pleasantly aromatic; the aroma lasting for a long time after the plant has been harvested. It is therefore a very useful ingredient in pot-pourri.
- Thrown in your trash can to help with odor. You can even capitalize on its scent and antiviral properties and use it to infuse vinegar for your homemade cleaners.
- One of the emerging Lemon Balm benefits is its use in Phytoremediation, the use of plants to reduce pollution in the air, soil or water.
- As a garden perrenial, Lemon Balm benefits us with its beauty and aroma.
- Adorning the Garden and Pollinating Trees. No matter how big or small a garden you have, using Lemon Balm to decorate it will be helpful. The sweet aroma will keep the garden fragrant, more so when the flowers bloom. It also attracts bees, and hence, having the plant in the garden can in a way help pollinate others trees.
- Lemon Balm can also be used as an easy scent for your home, whether in a bouquet, dried in Pot-Pourri.
- Acrophobia: Put dried Lemon Balm leaves in one cup of very hot water for 30 minutes. Strain it and drink twice daily.
- Aging: Prepare Lemon Balm for tea by boiling the fresh leaves with a cup of water in a pan. Drink this tea twice daily to avoid aging. It aids to reduce wrinkles.
- Altitude Sickness: Chew the fresh leaves in Altitude Sickness.
- Amnesia: Prepare a decoction of fresh leaves of Lemon Balm in a cup of water. Drink this decoction for once a day to boost your memory. Lemon Balm tea can effectively enhance your memory powder.
- Anxiety: Prepare an infusion of dried herb or 4-6 fresh leaves. Drink twice a day. OR Prepare a tincture. Drink 3 times a day.
- Arrhythmia: Prepare a tea of fresh leaves of Lemon Balm. Drink 3-4 cups a day.
- Avian Flu: Take 1 tsp each of dried Forsythia suspense flowers, Japanese Honeysuckle flowers, Lemon Balm leaves. Mix them well and add all the dried herbs in one cup of water. Boil it for 10 minutes. Drink twice daily.
- Bad Breathe: Chew the leaves and stem of Lemon Balm.
- Bulimia: Put the dried leaves of Lemon Balm in a jar. Add hot water to it. Leave it for half to one hour. Drink a glass once a day.
- Depression: Infuse one tbsp each of Chamomile, Lemon Balm and Lavender flowers in a cup of hot water for 5 minutes. Add Ginger and Liquorice for taste. Drink before retiring or a sound sleep. (You can add 8-10 drops of skullcap tincture for better results).
- Diabetes: Boil fresh leaves of Lemon Balm in 200 ml of water. Strain it off and allow it to get cool. Drink this decoction daily. It also helps to reduce the high Cholesterol level of the patient.
- Difficult Menses: Make a decoction of Lemon Balm leaf. Drink it warm twice a day to get rid of menses. Lemon Balm provides relief from menstrual cramps and promotes sleep during the menses.
- Dyspnea: Take few leaves of Lemon Balm. Add Hyssop and pennyroyal in equal amount. Prepare a decoction. Have one cup once a day.
- Fever: Make a decoction of Lemon Balm leaves. Take twice a day.
- Gastroparesis: Drink Lemon Balm tea after taking meal twice a day. / Make an infusion of leaves. Drink half cup thrice a day. / Take equal amount of Wild candytuft, Angelica root, Milk Thistle fruit, Caraway fruit, liquorice root, Peppermint, Chamomile flower, Chelidonium majus and Lemon Balm leaves. Grind them together. Take one tsp powder with lukewarm water once a day or prepare a decoction of above herbs. Drink half cup twice a day.
- Grief: Prepare a tea of Lemon Balm. Have it twice a day.
- High Triglycerides: Boil few Lemon Balm leaves in 100 ml of water in a bowl for 10 minutes. Strain it off. Drink it warm. Consume it daily to get the best results.
- Hyperthyroidism: A decoction prepared with the fresh leaves of Lemon Balm effectively reduces the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Consume this decoction daily.
- Indigestion: Take crushed caraway, Lemon Balm and fennel seed in equal parts. Infuse one tsp of this herbal blend in a cup of water for 10 minutes. Drink one cup after dinner. (You can also add Valerian for a sound sleep).
- Insomnia: Boil few fresh leaves of Lemon Balm in 100 ml of water. Boil it for 5 minutes. Strain it off. Drink this warm decoction regular to induce the quality of sleep.
- Menstrual Disorders: Add infusion of the Lemon Balm leaves to bath water. It promotes the onset of Menstruation.
- Nervous Disorder: Take 5 dried leaves of Lemon Balm. Boil it in water for 5 to 10 minutes. Drink this tea 2 times a day. It relaxes the nervous tensions.
- Oral Herpes: Make leaf decoction of Lemon Balm. Have it 3 to 4 times a day. OR Apply Lemon Balm oil over affected area. / Grind some fresh leaves of Lemon Balm to extract out the juice. Drink this juice once a day to cure affected sores. It also helps in to alleviate skin infections.
- Palpitation: Add fresh leaves of Lemon Balm into a pan containing 100 ml of water. Boil the leaves for 5 minutes. Strain off the mixture. Drink it daily. This tea provides relax to the cardiac muscles.
- Pyelonephritis: Prepare a tea of Lemon Balm. Have one cup once a day.
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Drink Lemon Balm tea 2 to 3 times a day.
- Stress: Make a decoction of Lemon Balm leaves. Drink a cup of this decoction once a day to get rid from stress and tensions.
- Thyroid Problems: Daily consumption of Lemon Balm tea can reduce the hormonal levels of thyroid. Just boil the fresh leaves of Lemon Balm with a cup of water in a pan. Strain it off. Drink it warm daily. It is efficient in regulating the functions of thyroid glands.
- Viral Infections: Take Lemon Balm leaf tea every day; it also adds a good taste to your tea.
The antibacterial property in the Melissa oil helps to alleviate the bacterial infection in the intestine, colon, kidneys and urinary tract.
It acts as an antidepressant by uplifting the mood. It eliminates the sadness and stimulates the hope and joy. Due to this it is called the “Nectar of life” or “Elixir of life”.
The spasms in the muscular, respiratory, digestive and nervous system causes the muscular cramps, shortness of breath, severe coughs, convulsions and severe abdominal pains. Melissa essential oil possesses relaxant and sedative properties which alleviates the spasms in the body parts.
It helps to eliminate the gases build up in the intestines by lowering the abdominal muscles tension and also alleviates cramping and bloating.
It provides the warmth to the cardiovascular system and respiratory system. This property helps to eliminate the colds.
Diaphoretic and Sudorific helps to enhance the perspiration and sweating. The sweat helps to remove the toxins and also cleanse the skin pores. It helps the skin to breathe. The perspiration helps to cool the overheated body.
Melissa Essential Oil treats the problems related to Post menstrual syndrome and menstruation such as irregular menses, extreme fatigue and pain during the periods, annoyance, obstructed menses, untimely menopause and depression after menopause.
Melissa Essential Oil possesses the antibacterial properties which eliminates the microbial or bacterial infections. The presence of sudorific properties helps to lower the body temperature and also eliminates the toxins through the sweating which is produced during the fever.
The patients of heart attack and brain hemorrhage is benefited by Melissa essential oil whenever the blood pressure increases. It assists in maintaining the normal blood pressure.
It assists in the function of nervous system by enhancing its health and avoiding the nervous disorders. Melissa Essential oil helps to treat the problems such as nervousness, vertigo and convulsions.
Melissa essential oil helps to soothe inflammation, nervousness, shock, anxiety and trauma. It also enhances sound sleep. It helps to relax the mind, body and soul as it provides the contentment and peace. It was used to eliminate the stress and fatigue of combat in the past.
Melissa Essential Oil tones, soothes and strengthens the stomach. It also helps in the smooth function of the stomach. It also cures ulcers, scratches and wounds, convenient flow of bile and gastric juices into the stomach and also prevents from infections.
Melissa Essential Oil helps to enhance the immunity and strength. It provides all round benefits to the body health.