Health Benefits and Uses of Kasturi Manjal (Wild Turmeric)

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Kasturi Manjal - Wild Turmeric (Cucuma aromatica)

Kasturi Manjal, scientifically called as Cucuma aromatica, also known as Wild Turmeric is widespread in eastern Himalayan regions and Western Ghats of India and is one among the 70-100 members of Zingiberaceae family of plants and genus Curcuma. The most commonly found species are Curcuma longa Linn., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma amada Roxb., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. found in various regions of the world. Curcuma aromatica is only second to Curcuma longa as the crucial species of the family. It is the second most popular Curcuma species next to common Turmeric and is widely found all over India. This species was found in the eastern Himalayas and inhabits warm forest areas. Grows fast and vigorously during the summer monsoon months. Wild Turmeric is cultivated most extensively in India, Bangladesh, China, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Philippines. It has been grown in most tropical regions in Africa, America, and Pacific Ocean Islands. Curcuma aromatica is known by different vernacular names in India including “Vanaharidra” in Ayurveda, "Aromatic Turmeric" or "Wild Turmeric" in English, "Kasturi Pasupu" in Telugu, "Kasthuri Manjal (கஸ்தூரி மஞ்சள்)" in Tamil, "Kasturi Haldi" or "Jangli Haldi" in Hindi, "Kasthoori Manjal" in Malayalam, "Ran Halad" in Marathi, "Kasthuri Arishina" in Kannada, "Shati" in Bengali, "Zedoari" in Gujarati and "Yu Jin" in Chinese.

Curcuma aromatica is an annual, erect herb with a characteristic light yellow aromatic rhizome and camphoraceous smell, as the name suggests "aromatica". Wild Tumeric is an aromatic and pretty Ginger with stout underground rhizomes. Foliage dies down in late in autumn and the rhizomes remain dormant in winter. The inflorescence appears in early spring from the base of the rhizome. During monsoon, the inflorescence appears and the plant grows rapidly. Kasturi turmeric grows in abundance in western ghats and whenever we go trekking into the forest, The plant develops clumps of erect, unbranched leaf stems that on full growth can reach a height of about 1 m from the stout, underground rhizome and with enlarged colored bracts tipped with pink. The stalk grows to about 8 to 10 inches tall, and is crowned with enlarged colored bracts tipped with pink. Leaves appear after the flowers. When in full growth the plants can reach a height of about 3 ft tall. Leaves are broad and very decorative, elliptic, 3-4 ft long, and 20 cm wide, leaf-stalk being as long as the blade. Good for cut-flower use with a vase life of about 10 days for a fresh stem. This species is found in the eastern Himalayas and inhabits warm forest areas. Grows fast and vigorously during the summer monsoon months. Rhizomes used to a limited extent in villages for flavouring curries.

Each Turmeric has their own uses and health benefits but when it comes to external applications, Wild Turmeric is the king. Kasturi Turmeric is mostly found in South Asia and has long been used as a natural beauty product. However, the applications of Kasturi Turmeric is mostly limited to external purposes. Furthermore, it cannot be used in cooking as a spice like regular Turmeric. Unlike conventional Turmeric, Kasturi Manjal does not leave a yellowish mark on the skin, hence it is often considered to be the superior form of the spice for topical use. The rhizomes, which are a pale yellow or cream in color, have a powerful, unique scent. The pleasant perfume of Wild Turmeric may permeate a room even if just a tiny bit of the spice is present. Some of the most prolific producers of Kasturi Turmeric in India are the states of West Bengal and Kerala. The oil and extract of Curcuma aromatica also serve as an important bioresource of antioxidants for using in the food industries. Moreover, it is a promising herb in the cosmetic industry with years of traditional practice updated with anti- melanogenic,anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging profile added with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity.

Health Benefits of Kasturi Manjal

Wild Turmeric is commonly used as a coloring and flavoring agent, as well as in many traditional medicines in Southeast Asian countries. The plant is distributed wild throughout India and mainly cultivated in Kerala and West Bengal. Curcuma aromatica is well known for their therapeutic potential. Therapeutically, it possesses a strong antimicrobial effect and has been used since ancient times as a remedy against various microbial infections. It has been in traditional use as an aromatic medicinal cosmetic and is also a promising drug for therapeutic purpose. Kasturi Manjal's antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antiaging agent and anti-melanogenic qualities provide it several uses in skin and facial care. It is used in indigenous medicine for external applications on skin diseases, sprain, bruise, and is utilised for its cosmetic characteristics due to its ability to improve skin tone and texture, in snake poison and also to enhance complexion has shown that ointment of white soft paraffin containing 1% of powdered Curcuma aromatica rhizome promotes wound contraction and epithelialisation. It was also reported that the dried rhizome of Curcuma aromatic ethanol extract significantly (p<0.001) improved wound contraction in rat excision wound model. For the last few decades, research works have been done to establish the pharmacological potential of Wild Turmeric and its extracts. Wild Turmeric has long been used to treat a broad range of skin conditions, including but not limited to: acne, acne scars, eczema, hyperpigmentation, dark circles, pimples, skin whitening (lightens spots and scars), luminous skin and unwanted hair removal and fairness. It keeps the skin soft and smooth. It is used extensively even for babies too. Kasturi Manjal is an excellent addition to your beauty routine because it can be used on every skin type, including sensitive skin, oily skin, dry skin, tanned skin, and even the skin of newborn newborns without fear of irritation. against liver diseases. Natural Ayurvedic beauty products have been utilised for generations in India, and one such gem from nature is the plant Kasturi Manjal, which is known for making the skin glow.

Curcuma aromatica is one of them called "yujin" by the Chinese, after its affect on stagnation ("yu" means "stagnation" and "jin" refers to the golden color and to its ability to treat the lungs, the organ system associated with the metal element, for which gold is a symbol). It can be concluded that Curcuma aromatica is a medicinal plant with a wide range of biological activities which can be used for conditions like diabetes, tumor and cancerous growth. It is recognized as a medical herb with strong antibiotic properties. Increasingly, its values to prevent and cure cancer are recognized. It contains aromatic volatile oils that help to remove excessive lipids from the blood, reduce aggregation of platelets (sticking of the blood cells to form masses), and reduce inflammation. Villagers in the northeastern part of India are using aqueous extracts and paste (with milk) of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes and leaves for the treatment of indigestion, rheumatism, wound healing, and dysentery and also in the prevention of helminth infections. In addition, the herb's oily components enhance fibrinolysis (the process that breaks down fibrous proteins, such as those that protect tumors from the immune system), and promote secretion of bile, which helps to clear congestion of the liver, promote digestion of fats, and aid intestinal peristalsis (intestinal movements that help evacuation). Thus, these essential oils help to get rid of many types of accumulation. The volatile oil extracted from Wild Turmeric has mosquito repellent properties and greatly reduces mosquito bites.

The rhizome of Curcuma aromatica has been reported to be rich in medically essential phytochemicals, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, curcuminoids, tannins, and terpenoids. As this plant has considerable therapeutic potential, the extraction and characterization of the essential bioactive compounds with vital medicinal properties may provide opportunities relating to pharmaceutical applications. Kasthuri Manjal is bestowed with a treasure trove of bioactive plant compounds such as curcumin, zederone, curdione, neocurdione, curcumol, tetramethyl pyrazine, 1,2 hexadecane diol, noeprocurcumenol and 9-oxo-neoprocurcumenol. It also contains volatile oils like ar-curcumene, xanthorrhoea, germacrene, camphor, curzerenone, 7-methanoazulene, 1,8-cineole and linalool.

Pediatric Health Issues:

Skin Care for Babies and Removes Unwanted Hair:

Babies have perfect skin. But some babies may be born with a dark body and facial hair. They also may lack the richness and shine which can be added along with dull skin tones and darker complexion. Their skin is so tender that no chemicals are supposed to be applied on their skin. This is a major problem as the baby skin will readily react with the harmful agents and may lead to many fatal reactions. On the contrary, Kasthuri Manjal is extremely safe for baby’s skin. Not only in adults, but Kasthuri Manjal can also be used in small babies for hair removal practices without harming their skin at all.

Rub their delicate baby’s skin with the diluted paste of milk and Kasthuri Manjal to get rid of that unwanted body hair and to get lighter skin. Regular practices have proven that babies are left with a smooth and hairless body. To add on to it, Kasthuri Manjal baths are also very much beneficial for babies as it possesses anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and thus help the baby to prevent any skin related issues like allergies or redness.

Kasthuri Manjal Powder can be purchased from any Ayurvedic drugstore. Do remember not to confuse between the kitchen Turmeric and Kasthuri Manjal. Do a patch test on you baby's skin before trying this incredible herb as it is not necessary that it may suit every skin type.

Glowing Skin for Girl Babies:

If a women gets pregnant let's start preparing for the babies arrival months before delivery. One of the main things you can do is make bath powder. Start to preparing Nalangu Powder, called Nalangu Maavu, a bath powder during the last trimester. It is a powder made with Kasthuri Manjal and other herbs that keep the babies skin blemish free. Don’t use Kasthuri Manjal for boy babies, only use it for girl babies as it reduces the hair growth on their skin along with keeping the skin blemish free and glowing.

Hepatoma:

β-elemene, a natural sesquiterpene extracted from the essential oils of Curcuma aromatica Salisb, has been shown to be effective against a wide range of tumors.

In a 2013 study "Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of β-elemene on human hepatoma HepG2 cells" published in Cancer Cell Int. by Zhi-Jun Dai, Wei Tang, Wang-Feng Lu, Jie Gao, Hua-Feng Kang, Xiao-Bin Ma, Wei-Li Min, Xi-Jing Wang, Wen-Ying Wu, the antitumor effect of β-elemene on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, and the mechanism involved have been investigated. MTT assay was used to determine the growth inhibition of hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro. Apoptosis of HepG2 cells were demonstrated by fluorescence microscope with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution of HepG2 cells. The mRNA and protein expression of Fas and FasL were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. MTT results showed that β-elemene could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Our results showed β-elemene had positive effect on apoptosis through fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry assay. Furthermore, β-elemene could induce the cell cycle arrest of the HepG2 cells in the G2/M phase. Fas and FasL expression were obviously increased after β-elemene treatment in both mRNA and protein level. The present study indicates that β-elemene can effectively inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in hepatoma HepG2 cells, and the apoptosis induction is related with up-regulating of Fas/FasL expression.

A 2011 study "Curcumin induces apoptosis involving bax/bcl-2 in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells" published in Asian Pac Journal Cancer Prev. by Jun Yu, Xiaoming Zhou, Xiaosong He, Meihong Dai, Qin Zhang, has been shown to inhibit proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of curcumin inducing apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were examined. We find that curcumin inhibits the growth of SMMC-7721 cells significantly in a concentration-depenent manner, with typical apoptotic morphological changes of cellular nuclei. Annexin-V/PI double staining detected by flow cytometry and expression of the relative apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) revealed a strong apoptosis-inducing competent of curcumin in SMMC-7721 cells. Curcumin increased the expression of bax protein while decreasing that of bc1-2 protein significantly. The results suggest that curcumin induction of apoptosis involves modulation of bax/bcl-2 in SMMC-7721 cells and provide a molecular basis for the development of naturally compounds as novel anticancer agents for human hepatomas.

Another 2000 study "Inhibitory effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on proliferation of hepatoma in mice" published in World Journal Gastroenterol. by Wan-Yin Wu, Qin Xu, Ling-Chun Shi, Wei-Bin Zhang, reveal the inhibitory effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on cell proliferation of hepatoma in mice. Two tumor inhibitory experiments of Curcuma aromatica oil on hepatoma in mice were conducted. The inhibitory effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on proliferation of hepatoma in mice were evaluated by DNA image cytometry and immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The tumor inhibitory rates of Curcuma aromatica oil were 52% and 51% in two experiments, respectively. Compared with those of the saline-treated control groups, both differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). In the group of mice treated with Curcuma aromatica oil, the cellular nuclear DNA OD value (249±70), areas (623 & mgr ; m± 228 & mgr ; m2) and DNA (2.38 ± 0.67) index of hepatic carcinomas were significantly lower than those of the control group (430 ± 160, 1073 & mgr ; m± 101 & mgr ; m2 and 4.48 ± 0.71). Curcuma aromatica oil also could increase diploidy cell rates (29.00% ± 9.34% vs 2.97% ± 5.69%, P<0.01) and decrease pentaploidy cell exceeding rate (30.04% ± 15.10% vs 70.89% ± 14.94%, P<0.01). In the group of mice treated with Curcuma aromatica oil, the labeling indexes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA-LI) were 30% ± 4%, which were significantly lower than 40% ± 6% of the control group (P<0.01). The inhibition of Curcuma aromatica oil on the growth of hepatoma in mice might be associated with its depression on cellular proliferative activity.

Antioxidants:

Skin is extremely delicate part of the body. With pollutants and unhealthy lifestyle lot of free radical development in the skin which in turn cause many skin issues. Kasthuri Manjal is known to be an amazing antioxidant. Antioxidants take care of the skin by preventing the excess production of free radicals. These radical if not removed can damage the skin cells, cause rapid skin-aging, and loosen up the tightened and toned skin.

Antioxidant activity An antioxidant is a molecule that scavenges and neutralizes free radicals by donating an electron, thus reducing the damaging power of free radicals in a 1995 study by Halliwell. Methanol and aqueous extracts of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes have been proven to have comparable potency to L-ascorbic acid, a well-known antioxidant with IC50 less than 60 µg/ml. The activity was associated with the presence of antioxidant compounds such as 1,8-cineole, germacrone, xanthorrhizol, and β-sesquiphellandrene.

In a 2022 study "Antioxidant effects of diarylheptanoids from two Curcuma species" published in Nat Prod Res. by Chonglian Chen, Weifeng Dai, Lianli Zhang, Dong Wang, Xia Jiang, Mi Zhang, 5 linear diarylheptanoids (1-5), including a new one (1), were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang, while four linear diarylheptanoids (6-9) and four cyclic diarylheptanoids (10-13) were isolated from the roots of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Using the model of H2O2-induced PC12 cells, the antioxidant effects of these thirteen diarylheptanoids from these two Traditional Chinese Medicines from Curcuma genus of Zingiberaceae family were investigated. As result, they produced different efficiency on damaged cell viability, ROS, LDH, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, which were the six indexes related to oxidative stress. Further, the correlation between these six bio-indexes and 53 selected molecular descriptors of diarylheptanoids was determined by PLS regression analysis.

In another 2022 study "Antioxidation abilities of sesquiterpenoids from Curcuma aromatica in vitro" published in Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. by Weifeng Dai, Dong Wang, Chonglian Chen, Mi Zhang, 21 sesquiterpenoids with different skeleton types were isolated from the radix of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., a Traditional Chinese Medicine used for treating depression and qi and blood stasis. Curcuma aromatica enhanced PC12 cell viability upon damage by H2O2. The aim of this study was to elucidate the antioxidation capability of these sesquiterpenoids using a model of H2O2-induced PC12 cells and analyze the correlation between the structure and bio-activity. PC12 cells were simultaneously treated with 400 μM H2O2 and sesquiterpenoid compounds or vitamin E (used as a positive control) for 24 h. The activities of GSH-Px, LDH, CAT, and SOD were detected by ELISA kits. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the cells was determined by the fluorescence probe DCFH-DA. [Ca2+]i was detected based on the Fluo 2-AM fluorescence labeling assay. The structures of sesquiterpenoids were featured with 41 selected molecular descriptors, and the relationship between active parameters and structural features was determined by the partial least squares (PLS) analysis. 21 sesquiterpenoids from the radix of Curcuma aromatica all increased the activities of GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD, and decreased the LDH leakage, and levels of ROS level and [Ca2+]i to different degrees. Some relationships were observed between the molecular descriptors featured by the sesquiterpenoids and GSH-Px, CAT, SOD, LDH, ROS, and [Ca2+]i by PLS analysis. 21 sesquiterpenoids showed different antioxidation abilities as measured by a model of H2O2-induced PC12 cells. Five molecular descriptors were positively correlated with GSH-Px, CAT, SOD, and were negatively correlated with LDH and [Ca2+]i.

In another 2017 study by Xiang et al., showed the antioxidative activity of the essential oils of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes from 12 different locations in China using the 2,2diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The results again proved the antioxidative potency of Curcuma aromatica with IC50 ranging from 1.57 to 21.36 µg/ml, which was indeed better than the control, Trolox C (IC50 8.82 µg/ml).

In a 2010 study "Essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of Curcuma aromatica Salisb" published in Food Chem Toxicol. by Sharif M Al-Reza, Atiqur Rahman, M A Sattar, M Oliur Rahman, Hasan M Fida, was analysed by GC-MS. Twenty-three compounds representing 94.29% of the total oil were identified. The antioxidant activities of the oil and various extracts of Curcuma aromatica were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical-scavenging assays. The oil and methanol extract showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC50=14.45 and 16.58 microg/ml, respectively), which were higher than butylated hydroxyanisole (IC50=18.27 microg/ml). The extracts also exhibited remarkable superoxide radical-scavenging activities (IC50=22.6-45.27 microg/ml) and the activity in the methanol extract was superior to all other extracts (IC50=22.6 microg/ml). Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined and its content in ethyl acetate extract was the highest as compared to other extracts. The results indicate that the oil and extracts of Curcuma aromatica could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in the food industries.

In another 2010 study "Curcumin inhibits TNFα-induced lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression and suppresses the inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by an antioxidant mechanism" published in Journal Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. by Hye-Sook Lee, Min-Ja Lee, Hyuck Kim, Sung-Kyu Choi, Jai-Eun Kim, Hyung-In Moon, Won-Hwan Park, the antioxidative activities of 70% ethanol extract from Curcuma aromatica Salisb. and curcumin were studied. The Curcuma aromatica extracts and curcumin were both found to have a potent scavenging activity against the reactive species tested, as well as an inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), adhesion molecules, inhibitory kappa Balpha (IkappaBalpha) and nuclear factor kappa Balpha (NFkappa Balpha) were measured. In HUVECs stimulated with TNFα, curcumin significantly suppressed expression of the intracellular ROS, LOX-1 and adhesion molecules, degradation of IkappaBalpha and translocation of NFkappa Balphawhile inducing production of nitric oxide by phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p<0.05). In conclusion, Curcuma aromatica and curcumin may modulate lipoprotein composition and attenuate oxidative stress by elevated antioxidant processes.

Similarly in a 2010 study by Al-Reza et al., showed the chemical composition and antioxidative activity of both essential oil and organic extracts of Curcuma aromatica leaves. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by DPPH and superoxide radical-scavenging assays. The essential oil extract showed potent antioxidative activity (IC50 = 14.45 µg/ml), followed by the methanol extract (IC50 16.58 µg/ml), and both possessed better activity than the reference compound, butylated hydroxyanisole with an IC50 value of 18.27 µg/ml.

Free Radicals:

In a 1997 study "Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use: anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity" published in Int Journal Cosmet Sci. by B J Kim, J H Kim, H P Kim, M Y Heo, methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant.

Premature Aging:

If curcumin can truly help forestall coronary illness, malignancy, and Alzheimer’s, it would have clear advantages for life span. Therefore, Wild Turmeric have exceptionally famous as an enemy of maturing supplements. In any case, that oxidation and aggravation accept to assume a part in maturing, curcumin may have impacts that go far past forestalling sickness. Because of its numerous positive wellbeing impacts, like the possibility to forestall coronary illness, Alzheimer’s, and malignancy, curcumin may help life span.

Tumors & Cancers:

Anticancer activity Cancer is a disease characterized by an uncontrollable growth of cells in the human body, forming tumors of malignant cells. Cancer is a major public health problem and the second leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. The current regimen, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, is often expensive and associated with severe side effects. Hence, the focus has shifted to identifying new, safe, and cost-effective alternative treatment against cancer, preferably from natural sources. Bioactive compounds, including 1,8-cineole, ar-curcumene, ar-turmerone, β-elemene, camphor, curcumol, curdione, germacrone, linalool, xanthorrhizol, and zingiberene, from the essential oil of Curcuma aromatica have been proven to possess anticancer properties. A storehouse of antioxidants Kasturi Manjal helps combat off free radicals from damaging healthy cells and averts the risk of chronic ailments. While anti-cancer traits of this aromatic rhizome are best known to lessen the growth and formation of tumour cells and avert the risk of developing certain types of cancer.

β-elemine from Curcuma aromatica for cervical carcinoma, irisquinone from the seeds of Iris palasii for radiosensitizing effect in Tianjin city are also used for treatment of different kinds of cancer patients. Beijing; β-elemine from Curcuma aromatica for cervical carcinoma, irisquinone from the seeds of Iris palasii for radiosensitizing effect in Tianjin city are also used for treatment of different kinds of cancer patients. Detailed investigations are still warranted. used in Tradicional Cinese Medicine (TCM). Two major theories utilized for diagnosis and treatment in Traditional Thai Medicine (TTM) are the Four Element Theory and the Herbal Flavor Theory. A TTM "Poh-Pu" remedy has been effectively utilized in Thailand for cancer therapy for centuries.

A 2022 study "Ethnopharmacological nexus between the Traditional Thai Medicine (TTM) theory and biologically based cancer treatment" published in Journal Ethnopharmacol. by Ponlawat Maki, Arunporn Itharat, Pakakrong Thongdeeying, Thammarat Tuy-On, Pranporn Kuropakornpong, Weerachai Pipatrattanaseree, Chatchai Mingmalairak, Neal M Davies, investigate anti-inflammatory activity and liver cancer cytotoxicity of Poh-Pu remedy. To determine relationships between the TTM Herbal Flavor theory and the Four Element theory and total flavonoid content and biological activities of Poh-Pu Remedy plant extracts. Each plant ingredient was macerated with 95% ethanol. The extracts were investigated for cytotoxic activity against liver cancer using a sulforhodamine B assay, and anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inhibition of nitric oxide production. The total flavonoid content was determined by an aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. The relationships between the TTM theories, total flavonoid content, and biological activities were evaluated by correlation and cluster analysis. Mammea siamensis exerted potent cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines with an IC50 of 3.15 ± 0.16 μg/mL and low cytotoxicity to the non-cancerous cells (HaCat) with an IC50 33.39 ± 0.40 μg/mL (Selective index (SI) = 10.6). Tiliacora triandra was selectively cytotoxic to cholangiocarcinama (KKU-M156) cells with an IC50 of 12.65 ± 0.92 μg/mL (SI = 6.4). Curcuma comosa was the most potent anti-inflammatory inhibitor of nitric oxide production with an IC50 of 2.75 ± 0.34 μg/mL. Campomanesia aromatica exhibited the highest total flavonoid content of 259.7 ± 3.21 mg quercetin equivalent/g. Pungent plants were most prevalent in the TTM remedy. Pungent, fragrant, bitter and nauseating plants utilized in TTM cancer remedy were successfully investigated and identified several lead plants and components with cytotoxic and antiinflammatory activity that require further study. The TTM wind element theory appeared to be aligned with cancer-related activity. Biological activity results of taste from herbs related with The TTM Herbal Flavor theory. The extra-oral locations of flavor receptors are a promising target for biological activity of TTM which require further scrutiny and identified several lead plants and components with cytotoxic and antiinflammatory activities that also require further study.

A 2022 study "A Novel Chinese Herbal and Corresponding Chemical Formula for Cancer Treatment by Targeting Tumor Maintenance, Progression, and Metastasis" published in Front Pharmacol. by Ying-Chyi Song, Der-Yen Lee, Pei-Yen Yeh, characterized a so-called "heirloom recipe" Chinese herbal formula (temporarily named Formula X) that contains five Chinese medical botanical drugs, Huang-Lian (Coptis chinensis Franch. [Ranunculaceae]), Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi [Lamiaceae]), Bai-Wei (Vincetoxicum atratum (Bunge) C. Morren and Decne. [Apocynaceae]), E-Zhu (Curcuma aromatica Salisb. [Zingiberaceae]) and Bai-Zhu (Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. [Asteraceae]). Formula X inhibited the growth of various cancer cells and decreased the expression levels of a panel of proteins, including CD133, Myc, PD-L1, and Slug, in cancer cells. We further found that the inhibition of growth and protein expression were exerted by Huang-Lian, Huang-Qin, and Bai-Wei (formula HHB), which exhibited the same biological effects as those of Formula X. Furthermore, we selected three active chemicals, berberine, baicalin, and saponin from Huang-Lian, Huang-Qin, and Bai-Wei, respectively, to produce a chemical formulation (formula BBS), which exhibited similar effects on cell growth and protein expression as those induced by formula HHB. Both the formulae HHB and BBS suppressed tumor growth in an animal study. Moreover, they decreased the protein levels of Myc and PD-L1 in tumor cells in vivo. In summary, we established a novel Chinese herbal formula and a chemical formula that targeted three important processes, tumor maintenance (tumor stem cells), progression, and metastasis, and that influenced the response of tumors to host immunosuppression, for the potentially effective treatment of cancer patients.

A 2020 comparative study "Anticancer potential of AgNPs synthesized using Acinetobacter sp. and Curcuma aromatica against HeLa cell lines" published in Journal Trace Elem Med Biol. by Shradhda B Nadhe, Madhumita S Tawre, Sonia Agrawal, Balu A Chopade, Dhiman Sarkar, Karishma Pardesi, aimed to compare the potential anticancer activity of two biogenic silver nanoparticles (bAgNPs and pAgNPs) against human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). bAgNPs were synthesized using Acinetobacter sp. whereas pAgNPs were synthesized using aqueous root extract of Curcuma aromatica. Effect of these nanoparticles on HeLa cells viability was studied using MTT assay and colony formation assay. Anticancer potential was determined using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry studies. Bio-compatibility studies were performed against peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Both the nanoparticles showed 50% viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) when used at high concentration (200 μg/mL). IC50 for bAgNPs and pAgNPs against HeLa cells were 17.4 and 14 μg/mL respectively. Colony formation ability of Hela cells was reduced on treatment with both nanoparticles. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining demonstrated that bAgNPs were cytostatic whereas pAgNPs were apoptotic. JC-1 dye staining revealed that the mitochondrial membrane potential was affected on treatment with pAgNPs while it remained unchanged on bAgNPs treatment. Flow cytometry confirmed cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells on treatment with nanoparticles further leading to apoptosis in case of pAgNPs. About 77 and 58% HeLa cells were found in subG1 phase on treatment with bAgNPs and pAgNPs respectively. bAgNPs showed cytostatic effect on HeLa cells arresting the cell growth in subG1 phase, whereas, pAgNPs triggered death of HeLa cells through mitochondrial membrane potential impairment and apoptosis. Overall, bAgNPs and pAgNPs could be safe and showed potential to be used as anticancer nano-antibiotics against human cervical cancer cells.

A 2018 study by Xiang et al., showed cytotoxic activities of essential oils extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica by colorimetric MTT [3 - (4,5-dimethyl - 2-thiazolyl) - 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay against prostate cancer cells line [lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP)] and human hepatoma cells line (HepG2). The essential oils showed significantly higher anticancer activity against LNCaP (IC50 of 1.14 ± 0.02 µg/ml) than the HepG2 (IC50 of 168.94 ± 1.93 µg/ ml). 

A 2009 study "Chemoprotective effects of Curcuma aromatica on esophageal carcinogenesis" published in Ann Surg Oncol. by Yan Li, John M Wo, Qiaohong Liu, Xiaokun Li, Robert C G Martin about Curcuma aromatica, an herbal medicine, has been shown to display anti-carcinogenic properties in a wide variety of cell lines and animals. This study was designed to investigate the ability of Curcuma aromatica oil for the prevention of BE and EAC, possibly through its ability to preserve MnSOD function. EDA was performed on rats and Curcuma aromatica oil was administered by i.p. injection. Histological changes and oxidative damage were determined after EDA of 1, 3, and 6 months. MnSOD protein level and MnSOD enzymatic activity were evaluated.

In a 1999 study "Preliminary study on the antitumor immuno-protective mechanism of beta-elemene" published in Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. by W Wu, K Liu, X Tang, the antitumor effects and their molecular mechanism of beta-elemene, which is one of the effective monomers of Oleum Curcuma aromatica, a Chinese anticancer medicament. The expression of membrane protein HSP70 on H22 cells treated with beta-elemene or mitomycin C(MMC) was analysed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometric techniques and the antitumor effects of the treated H22 cells was examined in C57BL/6 mice. The expression rate or intensity of membrane protein HSP70 of H22 cells treated with beta-elemene, and those treated with MMC was both significantly higher than that of the untreated H22 cells (P<0.001). Increase in HSP70 expression was most marked when H22 cells were treated with beta-elemene and MMC in combination, with an expression rate of 95.1%. Heat shock treatment of the H22 cells combined with other stress-inducing factors could further increase the HSP70 expression intensity. Specific antitumor immunity could be elicited in C57BL/6 mice immunized with beta-elemene-treated H22 cells, and the effect could be partially blocked by anti-HSP70 mAb. In mice immunized with beta-elemene-treated H22 cells, tumor developed in 3 of 11 mice, while in the immunized mice given anti-HSP70 mAb, 5 out of 10 mice developed tumor, and all of the control mice developed tumor. The average tumor weight (g) on day 28 after challenge with untreated H22 cells was 0.17 ± 0.33, 0.66 ± 0.77 and 1.11 ± 0.58 in the three groups of mice, respectively. Beta-elemene increases tumor cell immunogenicity by inducing, at least in part, elevated expression of heat shock protein 70 on tumor cell surface.

Malignancy (Malignant Tumor):

Malignancy is a horrible infection described by uncontrolled cell development. There is a wide range of types of malignancy, which share a few things practically speaking. Some of them give off an impression of existence influenced by curcumin supplements. Curcumin has been concentrated as a gainful spice in disease therapy and has been found to influence malignancy development, improvement, and spread at the atomic level.

Studies have shown that it can add to the passing of dangerous cells and lessen angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels in tumors) and metastasis (spread of malignant growth). Different examinations show that curcumin can diminish the advancement of threatening cells in the exploration office and ruin the improvement of tumors in guinea pigs. Whether or not high-partition curcumin (in a perfect world with an ingestion enhancer like piperine) can help treat infection in individuals actually can’t be appropriately focused. Notwithstanding, there is proof that it might keep malignancy from happening in any case, particularly diseases of the stomach-related framework like a colorectal disease.

In a 30-day concentrate in 44 men with sores in the colon that occasionally turn dangerous, 4 grams of curcumin each day diminished the number of sores by 40%. Possibly curcumin will be utilized alongside regular disease treatment one day. It’s too soon to say without a doubt. However, it looks encouraging and is, as a rule, seriously contemplated. Wild Turmeric prompts a few variations on the sub-atomic level that may help anticipate and even treat negative growth.

Colon Cancer - Colorectal Cancer:

Cancer is a deadly disease responsible for worldwide mortality; usually, middle- and low-income countries have been more affected by cancer and are responsible for 70% of deaths. The present study was performed with the aim to design silver nanoparticles using three species of Curcuma, i.e., Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma caesia.

In a 2022 study "Design and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles of Different Species of Curcuma in the Treatment of Cancer Using Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HT-29)" published in Journal Gastrointest Cancer by Akanksha Jain, Parag Jain, Pranay Soni, Akhilesh Tiwari, Sandip Prasad Tiwari, the rhizomes of different plants were extracted with ethanol. The rhizome extracts were used to prepare silver nanoparticles. It was optimized at different pH, silver ion concentrations, and concentrations of plant extracts. The anticancer activity of prepared nanoparticles of Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma caesia was evaluated on a human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The percentage yield of Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma caesia was 11.34 g, 15.45 g, and 12.67 g, respectively. The results exhibited that the prepared nanoparticles were smooth and spherical. All the nanoparticles of rhizome extracts rescued the viability of HT-29 cells in a different extent. HT-29 cells were sensitive to prepared nanoparticles that induce more cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Thus, the prepared silver nanoparticle of Curcuma species through green synthesis may help treat cancer with low toxicity.

One of the most challenging aspects of colon cancer prognosis and treatment is liver-tropic metastasis. Astragalus mongholicus Bunge-Curcuma aromatica Salisb. is a typical medication combination for the therapy of many malignancies. Our previous studies found that Curcuma aromatica intervention inhibits liver metastasis of colon cancer (LMCC). Nevertheless, the comprehensive anti-metastasis mechanisms of AC have not been uncovered. In bioinformatics analysis, RNA-seq data of colon cancer and LMCC patients were collected from TCGA and GEO databases, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The biological processes and signaling pathways involved in DEGs were enriched by GO and KEGG. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was established and visualized using the Cytocape software, followed by screening Hub genes in the PPI network using Degree value as the criterion. Subsequently, the expression and survival relevance of Hub gene in COAD patients were verified. In the experimental study, the effects of Curcuma aromatica on the inhibition of colon cancer growth and liver metastasis were comprehensively evaluated by cellular and animal models. Finally, based on the results of bioinformatics analysis, the possible mechanisms of Curcuma aromatica inhibition of colon cancer EMT and liver metastasis were explored by in vivo and in vitro pharmacological experiments.

In a 2022 study "Astragalus mongholicus Bunge and Curcuma aromatica Salisb. inhibits liver metastasis of colon cancer by regulating EMT via the CXCL8/CXCR2 axis and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway" published in Chin Med. by Fuyan Liu, Yan Liang, Ruolan Sun, Weicheng Yang, Zhongqing Liang, Junfei Gu, Fan Zhao, Decai Tang, was obtained 2386 DEGs relevant to LMCC from the COAD (colon adenocarcinoma) and GSE38174 datasets. Results of GO gene function and KEGG signaling pathway enrichment analysis suggested that cellular EMT (Epithelial-mesenchymal transition) biological processes, Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways might be closely related to LMCC mechanism. We then screened for CXCL8, the core hub gene with the highest centrality within the PPI network of DEGs, and discovered that CXCL8 expression was negatively correlated with the prognosis of COAD patients. In vitro and in vivo experimental evidence presented that AC significantly inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and suppressed tumor growth and liver metastasis in colon cancer orthotopic transplantation mice models. Concomitantly, Curcuma aromatica significantly reduced CXCL8 expression levels in cell supernatants and serum. Moreover, Curcuma aromatica reduced the expression and transcription of genes related to the PI3K/AKT pathway while suppressing the EMT process in colon cancer cells and model mice. In summary, our research predicted the potential targets and pathways of LMCC, and experimentally demonstrated that AC might inhibit the growth and liver metastasis in colon cancer by regulating EMT via the CXCL8/CXCR2 axis and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which may facilitate the discovery of mechanisms and new therapeutic strategies for LMCC.

Another 2022 study "Astragalus mongholicus Bunge-Curcuma aromatica Salisb. suppresses growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells by inhibiting M2 macrophage polarization via a Sp1/ZFAS1/miR-153-3p/CCR5 regulatory axis" published in Cell Biol Toxicol. by Junfei Gu, Ruolan Sun, Decai Tang, Fuyan Liu, Xiangwei Chang, Qiaohan Wang, sets out to investigate the physiological mechanisms by which Astragalus mongholicus Bunge-Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (ARCR) regulates CRC growth and metastasis, and the role in which M2 macrophage polarization plays in this process. An orthotopic-transplant model of CRC was established to evaluate the influence of ARCR on the polarization of M2 macrophage and the growth and metastasis of tumors. Next, the binding affinity among Sp1, ZFAS1, miR-153-5p, and CCR5 was identified using multiple assays. Finally, after co-culture of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) with CRC cell line CT26.WT, the cell proliferative, invasive, and migrated abilities were assessed in gain- or loss-of-function experiments. ARCR inhibited the infiltration of M2 macrophages into tumor microenvironment to suppress the CRC growth and metastasis in vivo. Additionally, ARCR inhibited the transcription of ZFAS1 by reducing Sp1 expression to repress M2 macrophage polarization. Moreover, ZFAS1 competitively binds to miR-153-3p to upregulate the CCR5 expression. Finally, ARCR suppressed the polarization of M2 macrophages to inhibit the tumor growth and tumor metastasis in CRC by mediating the Sp1/ZFAS1/miR-153-3p/CCR5 regulatory axis. Collectively, ARCR appears to suppress the CRC cell growth and metastasis by suppressing M2 macrophage polarization via Sp1/ZFAS1/miR-153-3p/CCR5 regulatory axis. 1. ARCR suppress the CRC cell growth and metastasis 2. ZFAS1 promotes CCR5 expression by competitively binding to miR-153-3p. 3. Sp1 promotes M2 macrophage polarization by activating ZFAS1 via miR-153-3p/CCR5. 4. The study unveiled a protective target against CRC.

Altered gut microbiota and a damaged colon mucosal barrier have been implicated in the development of colon cancer. Astragalus mongholicus Bunge-Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (ACE) is a common herbal drug pair that widely used clinically to treat cancer. However, whether the anti-cancer effect of Curcuma aromatica is related to gut microbiota remains unclear yet.

A 2021 study "Standardized Astragalus Mongholicus Bunge- Curcuma Aromatica Salisb. Extract Efficiently Suppresses Colon Cancer Progression Through Gut Microbiota Modification in CT26-Bearing Mice" published in Front Pharmacol. by Junfei Gu, Ruolan Sun, Qiaohan Wang, Fuyan Liu, Decai Tang, Xiangwei Chang, standardized Curcuma aromatica and investigated the effects of ACE on tumour suppression and analyze the related mechanisms on gut microbiota in CT26 colon cancer-bearing mice in the present study. Firstly, four flavonoids (calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, formononetin) and three astragalosides (astragaloside A, astragaloside II, astragaloside I) riched in Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, three curcumins (bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, curcumin) and four essential oils (curdione, curzerene, germacrone and β-elemene) from Curcuma aromatica Salisb., in concentrations from 0.08 to 2.07 mg/g, were examined in Curcuma aromatica. Then the results in vivo studies indicated that Curcuma aromatica inhibited solid tumours, liver and spleen metastases of colon cancer while simultaneously reducing pathological tissue damage. Additionally, Curcuma aromatica regulated gut microbiota dysbiosis and the short chain fatty acid content in the gut, repaired intestinal barrier damage. Curcuma aromatica treatment suppressed the overgrowth of conditional pathogenic gut bacteria, including Escherichia-Shigella, Streptococcus and Enterococcus, while the probiotic gut microbiota like Lactobacillus, Roseburia, Prevotellaceae UCG-001 and Mucispirillum were increased. More interestingly, the content level of SCFAs such as propionic acid and butyric acid was increased after Curcuma aromatica administration, which further mediates intestinal SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling pathway to repair the integrity of the intestinal barrier, decrease Cyclin D1 and C-myc expressions, eventually suppress the tumor the growth and metastasis of colon cancer. To sum up, the present study demonstrated that Curcuma aromatica could efficiently suppress colon cancer progression through gut microbiota modification, which may provide a new explanation of the mechanism of Curcuma aromatica against colon cancer.

Curcuma aromatica is a common Chinese herb for treating diseases with blood stasis and has been regarded as an anticancer herb in modern clinical practice. However, the anticancer effects and related molecular mechanisms of Curcuma aromatica remain unclear.

A 2011 study "Aqueous extract of Curcuma aromatica induces apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human colon carcinoma LS-174-T cells independent of p53" published in Cancer Biother Radiopharm. by Bing Hu, Ke-Ping Shen, Hong-Mei An, Yang Wu, Qin Du, human colon carcinoma LS-174-T cell line with wild-type p53 was used as a model cell to evaluate the anticancer effects of aqueous extract of Curcuma aromatica (AECA). AECA inhibits LS-174-T cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner. AECA treatment induces apoptosis accompanied by caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation in LS-174-T cells. Moreover, blocking the activities of these caspases with a specific inhibitor significantly protected LS-174-T cells from AECA-induced apoptosis. AECA treatment also induces G2/M phase arrest in LS-174-T cells. Expression of p53 was unchanged after AECA treatment; specific silence of p53 did not influence AECA-induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest. Further, the expression of cyclin B1 and CDK1 was reduced by AECA. This study suggests that AECA might be effective as an antiproliferative herb for colon carcinoma, the antitumor activity of AECA may involve both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis, and AECA induces G2/M phase arrest via downregulation of cyclin B1 and CDK1 and without the participation of p53.

Liver Cancer - Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC):

Hepatocellular carcinoma remains one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum are one of the commonly used paired-herbs for liver cancer treatment. Curcumin and resveratrol are the major anticancer constituents of Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum, respectively. Curcumin and resveratrol have been found to exhibit a synergistic anticancer effect in colon cancer. However, the combined effect of curcumin and resveratrol against hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown.

In a study, the infusion of essential oils via the hepatic artery exhibited rapid therapeutic effects in patients with primary liver cancer and transplanted hepatoma rat model, respectively. The essential oils were also reported to have a protective effect against intestinal metaplasia and esophagoduodenal anastomosis in a rat model. On the other hand, it wa investigated the inhibitory effect of curdione isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica on CYP3A4 using 1α,25 - (OH)(2)-D(3)-treated Caco-2 clone cells. The results revealed that curdione showed the best inhibitory activity with IC50 of 3.9 μg/ml after 72 hours of treatment with no cytotoxic effect. Hence, it was concluded that the inhibitory activity of curdione accelerates the degradation of CYP3A4. The molecular mechanisms of apoptotic activity of curcumin isolated from Curcuma aromatica were examined on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. The curcumin significantly inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells in a concentrationdependent manner and also induced apoptosis by modulation of apoptotic proteins (bax/bcl-2) in SMMC-7721 cells.

A 2013 study "Synergistic anticancer effects of curcumin and resveratrol in Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma cells" published in Oncol Rep. by Qin Du, Bing Hu, Hong-Mei An, Ke-Ping Shen, Ling Xu, Shan Deng, Meng-Meng Wei, evaluated the combined effects of curcumin and resveratrol in hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells. The results showed that curcumin and resveratrol significantly inhibited the proliferation of Hepa1-6 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol elicited a synergistic antiproliferative effect in Hepa1-6 cells. The apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells induced by the combination treatment with curcumin and resveratrol was accompanied by caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation, which was completely abrogated by a pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Combination of curcumin and resveratrol upregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in Hepa1-6 cells. The ROS scavenger, NAC, partially attenuated the apoptosis and caspase activation induced by the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol. In addition, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol downregulated XIAP and survivin expression. These data suggest that the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer. The present study also provides new insights into the effective mechanism of paired-herbs in traditional Chinese medicine.

A similar 2013 study by Dai et al., investigated the antiproliferative mechanism of the apoptotic effect of β-elemene isolated from Curcuma aromatica on a HepG2 which revealed that β-elemene effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis in hepatoma HepG2 cells was by the upregulation of Fas/FasL expression. 

A 2004 study "Safety of Curcuma aromatica oil gelatin microspheres administered via hepatic artery" published in World Journal Gastroenterol. by Shi-Gui Deng, Zhi-Feng Wu, Wei-Ying Li, Zhi-Gang Yang, Gang Chang, Fan-Zhe Meng, Li-Li Mo, evaluate the safety of Curcuma aromatica oil gelatin microspheres (CAO-GMS) infused via hepatic artery against primary liver cancer. The safety of CAO-GMS was evaluated in view of its acute toxicity in rats, long-term toxicity in Beagle dogs and general pharmacology in rats and mongrel dogs. The 50% lethal dose LD50 of CAO-GMS infused via the hepatic artery was 17.19 mg/kg, and the serum biochemical indices of dying rats after the administration changed markedly while those of survived rats did not. Subsequent pathological examination of the tissues from the dead rats indicated improper embolism. Similar edema and small necrotic foci in the hepatic lobule were found in the hepatic tissue of rats receiving 10 and 5 mg/kg CAO-GMS and GMS 60 d after the last administration, while not in the rats of the blank control group, indicating that microspheres infused via the hepatic artery may induce irreversible liver damage dose-dependently. General pharmacological study showed that the activities (posture and gait), respiration frequency, blood pressure or heart rate of the dogs were not affected by CAO-GMS, nor were salivation, tremor or pupil changes of the rats observed or their balancing ability compromised, suggesting CAO-GMS infused via the hepatic artery did not significantly affect the nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. CAO-GMS embolization administered via the hepatic artery is safe but undesired embolization induced by vascular variation should be given due attention in its clinical application. Individualized embolization dosage and super-selective catheterization technique are recommended to avoid undesired embolism and reduce complications.

Lung Cancer:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) significantly improve the outcome of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations, however, most TKI-treated patients will develop resistance to TKIs. β-elemene, extracted from Curcuma aromatica Salisb., has been widely used to treat various malignant tumors, including TKI-resistant NSCLC, but, the effects and the molecular mechanisms remain unclear.

In a 2021 study "β-elemene enhances the antitumor activity of erlotinib by inducing apoptosis through AMPK and MAPK pathways in TKI-resistant H1975 lung cancer cells" published in Journal Cancer by Jue Wang, Cong Xu, Ying Chen, Le Shao, Ting Li, Xingxing Fan, Lili Yu, Ruonan Zhang, Bi Chen, Hongwei Chen, Xinbing Sui, Elaine Lai-Han Leung, Qibiao Wu, the NCI-H1975 cell line harboring double mutations L858R/T790M was treated with varying concentrations of β-elemene and/or erlotinib. The effects of β-elemene on cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and the expression of relevant proteins of NCI-H1975 cells were evaluated. The results revealed that β‑elemene significantly inhibited the growth, colony formation capacity, wound healing ability of NCI-H1975 cells, and improved the sensitivity of NCI-H1975 cells to erlotinib. Compared with erlotinib alone, β-elemene plus erlotinib significantly promoted the apoptosis of NCI-H1975 cells, accompanied by the down-regulated expression of P-mTOR, P-EGFR, CHOP proteins and up-regulated expression of P-AMPKα and Bax proteins. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that β-elemene suppresses the proliferation and migration of TKI-resistant H1975 cells, and enhances the antitumor activity of erlotinib by inducing apoptosis through AMPK and MAPK pathways in TKI-resistant H1975 lung cancer cells, indicating that β-elemene is a promising anti-cancer therapeutic candidate for TKI-resistant NSCLC.

In a 2011 study "Synergistic antitumor effect of β-elemene and etoposide is mediated via induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells" published in Mol Med Rep. by Fan Zhang, Ling Xu, Xiujuan Qu, Mingfang Zhao, Bo Jin, Jian Kang, Yunpeng Liu, Xuejun Hu, β-Elemene, an anticancer agent, was isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine plant, curcuma aromatica. In this study, we investigated the synergistic antitumor effect of β-elemene and etoposide phosphate (VP-16) in A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. The cells were treated with β-elemene (20 or 50 µg/ml), VP-16 (15 µg/ml) or the combination of both for 24 h. Compared to the treatment with β-elemene or VP-16 alone, an increased antitumor activity was observed with the combination of both, which was mediated by the cleavage of PARP, the up-regulation of Bax, p53 and p21, and the suppression of cyclin D1. These results suggest that the combination of β-elemene and VP-16 may be a promising therapeutic option for lung cancer.

Bladder Cancer:

Human bladder cancer is one of the most aggressive tumours known and has shown resistance to traditional chemotherapy, which depends heavily on DNA-damaging drugs. β-elemene is one of the least cytotoxic antitumor agents that are extracted from Curcuma aromatica salisb and it exhibits antitumor effects in many carcinomas. β-elemene has attracted the attention of clinicians and scientists worldwide due to its few side effects and limited effect on the bone marrow. However, the antitumor mechanism of β-elemene remains largely unstudied.

In a 2018 study "β-elemene induced anticancer effect in bladder cancer through upregulation of PTEN and suppression of AKT phosphorylation" published in Oncol Lett. by Bo Cai, Limin Ma, Shaojun Nong, You Wu, Xin Guo, Jinxian Pu, the expression of the AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) signaling pathway in bladder cancer and normal bladder tissue was investigated, and the influence of β-elemene on bladder cancer cells and the mechanisms involved were assessed. The results showed that phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) was downregulated and phosphorylated-AKT (pAKT) was overexpressed in human bladder cancer. β-elemene significantly suppressed the viability of bladder cancer cells, while leaving normal bladder cells unaffected. In addition, there was an increased number of apoptotic bladder cancer cells following β-elemene treatment, and a significant reduction in cell invasion and migration. Subsequent western blot analyses revealed that bladder cancer cells treated with β-elemene had increased PTEN expression and decreased expression of pAKT. Taken together, these results suggest that β-elemene has an antitumor effect in bladder cancer cells through the upregulation of PTEN and suppression of AKT phosphorylation.

Skin Cancer (Melanoma):

Anti-neoplastic is an agent which will prevent the growth of malignant cells in your body and your skin. Kasthuri Manjal is known to be a prodigious anti-neoplastic agent, i.e. it prevents the formation of skin cancer-causing cells. Thus, Wild Turmeric helps your skin against the deadly skin cancer.

Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is suggested to contribute to melanogenesis through promoting cellular oxidative stress and impairing antioxidant defenses. An overproduction of melanin can be associated with melanoma skin cancer and hyperpigmentation. Therefore, developing effective antimelanogenic agents is of importance. Alpinia galanga (AG) and Curcuma aromatica (CA) are traditional medicinal plants widely used for skin problems.

A 2010 study "Modulation of antioxidant defense by Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica extracts correlates with their inhibition of UVA-induced melanogenesis" published in Cell Biol Toxicol. by Uraiwan Panich, Kamolratana Kongtaphan, Tassanee Onkoksoong, Kannika Jaemsak, Rattana Phadungrakwittaya, Athiwat Thaworn, Pravit Akarasereenont, Adisak Wongkajornsilp, investigated the antimelanogenic effects of AG and Curcuma aromatica extracts (3.8-30 microg/ml) by assessing tyrosinase activity, tyrosinase mRNA levels, and melanin content in human melanoma cells (G361) exposed to UVA. The roles in protecting against melanogenesis were examined by evaluating their inhibitory effects on UVA-induced cellular oxidative stress and modulation of antioxidant defenses including antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and intracellular glutathione (GSH). In addition, possible active compounds accountable for biological activities of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric analysis. Our study demonstrated that UVA (8 J/cm2) induced both tyrosinase activity and mRNA levels and UVA (16 J/cm2)-mediated melanin production were suppressed by the Alpinia galanga or Curcuma aromatica extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations. Both extracts were able to protect against UVA-induced cellular oxidant formation and depletion of CAT and GPx activities and GSH content in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TLC-densitometric analysis detected the presence of eugenol and curcuminoids in Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica, respectively. This is the first report representing promising findings on Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica extract-derived antityrosinase properties correlated with their antioxidant potential. Inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defenses might be the mechanisms by which the extracts yield the protective effects on UVA-dependent melanogenesis.

Pain & Inflammation:

Analgesic Activity:

The use of analgesic drugs, such as opiates and NSAIDs, for pain relief has been stagnated as these drugs are reported to have adverse side effects, including addiction and gastrointestinal disorders. In an effort to find natural alternatives to these drugs, several plants, including Curcuma aromatica, have been studied and have showed potent analgesic activity.

In a 2013 study, Pranav Kumar et al., showed the analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes by Eddy’s hot plate (55°C) method in rats to induce pain due to heat. The extract was administered orally at a concentration of 300 and 500 µg/kg and showed prolonged pain latency compared to the diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg).

In another 2007 study by Huang et al., a reduced number of writhes by mice were observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test after the administration of aqueous extract of the rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica. The analgesic activity of Curcuma aromatica was attributed to the presence of 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, camphene, and camphor.

Reduces Inflammation:

Anti-inflammatory activity Inflammation has been described as a transitory biological tissue response to dangerous stimuli, for example, wounds, exogenic, and endogenic antigens, meant to clear or remove the stimulus and repair the wounded tissue that ultimately leads to tissue regeneration and normal homeostasis. Even though inflammation is an affirmative body defense mechanism, dysregulated and chronic inflammatory reactions have been well documented as underlying causes of many systemic diseases, including diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and pain, thus contributing to the increased cost of healthcare to the society. However, an undeniable fact is that most of the conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, and immunosuppressant drugs used to treat all kinds of inflammatory conditions are linked with unfavorable side effects, such as headache, ulceration, gastric irritation, perforation, hemolytic anemia, hyperglycemia, and many more. Considering these drawbacks associated with these drugs, an alternative source especially from medicinal plants that are usually considered safe is incessantly being investigated for probable anti-inflammatory activity.

The extracts of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes were also reported to have a promising anti-inflammatory effect similar to prednisolone when tested on the inflamed paw of mice induced by carrageenan. It is not surprising though that the extracts and essential oil of Curcuma aromatica have a more anti-inflammatory effect than conventional drugs, as they contain and may have a synergistic effect of different potent anti-inflammatory compounds, such as ar-turmerone, borneol, curcumin, curdione, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and xanthorrhizol.

In a 2020 study "In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Four Curcuma Species and the Isolation of Compounds from Curcuma aromatica Rhizome" published in Biomolecules by Aknarin Pintatum, Wisanu Maneerat, Emilie Logie, Emmy Tuenter, Maria E Sakavitsi, Luc Pieters, Wim Vanden Berghe, Tawanun Sripisut, Suwanna Deachathai, Surat Laphookhieo, the genus Curcuma is part of the Zingiberaceae family, and many Curcuma species have been used as traditional medicine and cosmetics in Thailand. To find new cosmeceutical ingredients, the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of four Curcuma species as well as the isolation of compounds from the most active crude extract (Curcuma aromatica) were investigated. The crude extract of Curcuma aromatica showed 2,2 - diphenyl - 1  picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 102.3 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect of Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma comosa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma longa extracts assessed with the 3 - [4,5 - dimethylthiazol - 2 - yl] - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at 200 μg/mL were 12.1 2.9, 14.4 4.1, 28.6 4.1, and 46.9 8.6, respectively. Curcuma aeruginosa and Curcuma comosa presented apoptosis cells (57.7 3.1% and 32.6 2.2%, respectively) using the CytoTox-ONE™ assay. Different crude extracts or phytochemicals purified from Curcuma aromatica were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. The crude extract of Curcuma aromatica showed the highest potential to inhibit NF-κB activity, followed by Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma comosa, and Curcuma longa, respectively. Among the various purified phytochemicals curcumin, germacrone, curdione, zederone, and curcumenol significantly inhibited NF-κB activation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. Of all compounds, curcumin was the most potent anti-inflammatory.

A 2017 study by Xiang et al.,showed the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes obtained from 12 different locations in China. In their study, ear edema was induced by 12 - O - tetradecanolphorbol - 13 - acetate in mice. Different groups of mice received different essential oil treatments, and ibuprofen was used as a positive control. Generally, all the essential oils showed anti-inflammatory activity on a dose-dependent fashion from 20.56 to 61.34% and surprisingly superior to ibuprofen (17.84% - 54.57%), which is known for its anti-inflammatory effect. The histological and immunohistochemical analysis further showed tissue relief from inflammation after treatment with both essential oils. Cytokine analysis showed a significant decrease in the expression of COX2 and TNF-α in the essential oil-treated groups compared to the untreated group. However, the difference was not significant compared to the ibuprofen-treated group.

A 2006 study "Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Six Curcuma Rhizomes: A Possible Curcuminoid-independent Pathway Mediated by Curcuma phaeocaulis Extract" published in Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine by Chihiro Tohda, Natsuki Nakayama, Fumiyuki Hatanaka, Katsuko Komatsu, aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of 6 species of Curcuma drugs using adjuvant arthritis model mice. When orally administered 1 day before the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling and the serum haptoglobin concentration in adjuvant arthritis mice. Also when orally administered 1 day after the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling. Other Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma wenyujin, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aromatica) had no significant inhibitory effects on adjuvant-induced paw swelling. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity was significantly inhibited by the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Curcuminoids' (curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin) were rich in Curcuma longa, but less in Curcuma phaeocaulis and Curcuma aromatica, not in Curcuma wenyujin, Curcuma kwangsiensis and Curcuma zedoaria, suggesting that curcuminoids' contents do not relate to inhibition of arthritis swelling. Therefore, Curcuma phaeocaulis may be a useful drug among Curcuma species for acute inflammation, and the active constituents of Curcuma phaeocaulis are not curcuminoids.

Neurological Health & Nerve Diseases:

Neuroprotective:

Curcuminoids are characteristic constituents in Curcuma, displaying obviously neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. As one of the Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) from Curcuma, the radix of Curcuma aromatica is also rich in those chemicals, but its neuroprotective activity and mechanism remain unknown. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of extracts from the radix of Curcuma aromatica (ECAs) on H2O2-damaged PC12 cells.

In a 2018 study "Neuroprotective Effects of Extracts from the Radix Curcuma aromatica on H2O2-induced Damage in PC12 Cells" published in Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. by Juxiang Liu, Lianli Zhang, Dan Liu, Baocai Li, Mi Zhang, the model of oxidative stress damage was established by treatment of 400 µM H2O2 on PC12 to induce cell damage. After the treatment of ECWs for 24 h, the cell viability, LDH, SOD, CAT and GSH were measured to evaluate the neuroprotection of ECAs on that model. The potential action mechanism was studied by measurement of level of ROS, cell apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), morphologic change, the intracellular Ca2+ content (F340/F380) and the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3. Additionally, the constituents from tested extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS method. Compared with a positive control, Vitamin E, 10 µg/ml of 95% EtOH extract (HCECA) and 75% EtOH extract (MCECA) can markedly increase the rate of cell survival and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD, CAT, increase the levels of GSH, decrease LDH release and the level of ROS, attenuate the intracellular Ca2+ overloading, reduce the cell apoptotic rate and stabilize MMP, down-regulate Bcl-2 expression, up-regulate Bax and caspase-3 expression, and improve the change of cell morphology. The chemical analysis showed that diarylheptanoids and sesquiterpenoids are the major chemicals in tested extracts and the former were richer in HCECA and MCECA than others. These findings indicated that the effects of HCECA and MCECA on inhibiting the cells damage induced by H2O2 in PC12 are better than other extracts from the radix of Curcuma aromatica, and the active constituents with neuroprotective effects consisting in those two active extracts are diarylheptanoids.

Suyu-Jiaonang (SYJN) is a Chinese herbal formula that contains four herbs: Bupleurum chinense DC, Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Perilla frutescens (Linn.) Britt., and Acorus tatarinowii Schott. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have revealed an antidepressant-like effect of the formula in various mouse models of behavioral despair.

In a 2010 comparative study "Herbal formula SYJN increases neurotrophin-3 and nerve growth factor expression in brain regions of rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress" published in Journal Ethnopharmacol. by Qing-Qiu Mao, Xiao-Ming Zhong, Zhao-Yi Li, Chun-Rong Feng, Ai-Juan Pan, Zhen Huang, rats were subjected to an experimental setting of CUS. The mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like action of SYJN was examined by measuring protein and mRNA expression of NT-3 and NGF in brain tissues of CUS-exposed rats. The results showed that NT-3 protein and mRNA expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CUS-treated rats. CUS treatment also significantly decreased NGF protein and mRNA expression in the frontal cortex of the animals. Daily intragastric administration of SYJN (1300 or 2600 mg/kg/day) during the 4 weeks of CUS significantly suppressed these changes induced by CUS. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like activity of SYJN is likely mediated by the increases in NT-3 and NGF expression in brain tissues.

The present study aimed to investigate whether SYJN could produce antidepressant-like effects in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression model in rats and its possible mechanism(s).

In another 2010 study "Effects of SYJN, a Chinese herbal formula, on chronic unpredictable stress-induced changes in behavior and brain BDNF in rats" published in Journal Ethnopharmacol. by Qing-Qiu Mao, Zhen Huang, Xiao-Ming Zhong, Chun-Rong Feng, Ai-Juan Pan, Zhao-Yi Li, Siu-Po Ip, Chun-Tao Che, rats were subjected to an experimental setting of CUS. The effect of SYJN treatment on CUS-induced depression was examined using behavioral tests including the sucrose consumption and open field tests. The mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like action of SYJN was examined by measuring brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA expression in brain tissues of CUS-exposed rats. Exposure to CUS for 4 weeks caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by significant decreases in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity (assessed in the open field test). In addition, it was found that BDNF protein and mRNA levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were lower in CUS-treated rats, as compared to controls. Daily intragastric administration of SYJN (1300 or 2600 mg/kg) during the 4-week period of CUS significantly suppressed behavioral changes and attenuated the CUS-induced decrease in BDNF protein and mRNA levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The results suggest that SYJN alleviates depression induced by CUS. The antidepressant-like activity of SYJN is likely mediated by the increase in BDNF expression in brain tissues.

Alzheimer’s Disease:

Alzheimer’s sickness is the most widely recognized neurodegenerative infection on the planet and a primary source of dementia. Lamentably, no proper treatment is accessible for Alzheimer’s yet. Consequently, keeping it from happening, in any case, is of most extreme significance. There might be uplifting news not too far off because curcumin appeared to cross the blood-mind obstruction. It realizes that aggravation and oxidative harm assume a part in Alzheimer’s illness, and curcumin effectively affects both. Moreover, a critical component of Alzheimer’s infection is the development of protein tangles called amyloid plaques.

Regardless Wild Turmeric can truly back off or even the opposite, the movement of Alzheimer’s infection in individuals is obscure and should be concentrated appropriately. Curcumin can cross the blood-cerebrum hindrance and has been appeared to prompt different upgrades in the obsessive cycle of Alzheimer’s infection.

Mental Health & Behavioural Conditions:

Depression:

It has shown some guarantee in treating melancholy. Melancholy likewise connects to decreased degrees of cerebrum inferred neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a contracting hippocampus, a mind territory with a job in learning and memory. Curcumin supports BDNF levels, conceivably turning around a portion of these changes. There is likewise some proof that curcumin can support the cerebrum synapses serotonin and dopamine.

In a control preliminary, 60 individuals with gloom were randomly put into three gatherings. One gathering took Prozac, another gathering one gram of curcumin, and the third gathering both Prozac and curcumin. Subsequent a month and a half, Wild Turmeric have impales promotions that were like Prozac. The gathering that took both Prozac and curcumin fared best. It indicates by this little investigation, curcumin is just about as potent as a stimulant.

Respiratory Conditions:

Cough:

Potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Kasturi manjal helps in curing cough effectively and eases sore throat.

In a 2008 study "Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes on sulfur dioxide induced cough in mice" published in Anc Sci Life. by G D Marina, T R Prashith Kekuda, S J Sudarshan, ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae) was investigated for its antitussive effect on Sulfur dioxide induced cough model in mice. The extract exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependant manner. The activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. The ethanolic extract at the dose of lOOmg. 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight, po, showed 68%, 74% and 79% of inhibition of cough with respect to control group. The acute oral toxicity study of the ethanol extract showed no adverse effect up to the maximum dose of 4 g/kg.

Boil a cup of water, add a small pinch of Kasturi Manjal powder and have this infusion twice daily to get respite from chest congestion and cough. It can be taken for treating cough very effectively.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF):

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and irreversible disease characterized by excessive fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation with limited therapeutic options. Curdione, a sesquiterpene compound extracted from the essential oil of Curcuma aromatica Salisb, has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the role of curdione in IPF is still unclear.

A 2020 study "Curdione ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by repressing TGF-β-induced fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation" published in Respir Res. by Peng Liu, Kang Miao, Lei Zhang, Yong Mou, Yongjian Xu, Weining Xiong, Jun Yu, Yi Wang, evaluated in a bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were treated with BLM on day 0 by intratracheal injection and intraperitoneal administered curdione or vehicle. In vitro study, expression of fibrotic protein was examined and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-related signaling was evaluated in human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPFs) treated with curdione following TGF-β1 stimulation. Histological and immunofluorescent examination showed that curdione alleviated BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Specifically, curdione significantly attenuated fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation in the lung in BLM induced mice. Furthermore, curdione also decreased TGF-β1 induced fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation in vitro, as evidenced by low expression of α-SMA, collagen 1 and fibronectin in a dose dependent manner. Mechanistically, curdione suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad3 following TGF-β1 treatment, thereby inhibiting fibroblast differentiation. Overall, curdione exerted therapeutic effects against pulmonary fibrosis via attenuating fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation. As curdione had been shown to be safe and well-tolerated in BLM-induced mouse model, curdione might be useful for developing novel therapeutics for IPF.

Kidney Disorders:

Kidney Protection (Nephroprotective):

The leaves of the Wild Turmeric plant, as well as the rhizomes, have therapeutic use and may help protect the kidneys. Nephroprotective effects can be found in a water extract made from the leaves.

Renal Fibrosis:

A 2014 study "Serum metabonomic analysis of protective effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal fibrosis rats" published in PLoS One by Liangcai Zhao, Haiyan Zhang, Yunjun Yang, Yongquan Zheng, Minjian Dong, Yaqiang Wang, Guanghui Bai, Xinjian Ye, Zhihan Yan, Hongchang Gao, demonstrating protective and anti-fibrosis activities in renal fibrosis patients. However, study of its mechanism of action is challenged by its multiple components and multiple targets that its active agent acts on. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics combined with clinical chemistry and histopathology examination were performed to evaluate intervening effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal interstitial fibrosis rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. The metabolite levels were compared based on integral values of serum 1H NMR spectra from rats on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the medicine administration. Time trajectory analysis demonstrated that metabolic profiles of the agent-treated rats were restored to control levels after 7 days of dosage. The results confirmed that the agent would be an effective anti-fibrosis medicine in a time-dependent manner, especially in early renal fibrosis stage. Targeted metabolite analysis showed that the medicine could lower levels of lipid, acetoacetate, glucose, phosphorylcholine/choline, trimethylamine oxide and raise levels of pyruvate, glycine in the serum of the rats. Serum clinical chemistry and kidney histopathology examination dovetailed well with the metabonomics data.

Infections:

Antibacterial (Streptococcus mutans):

A 2018 study "Biofabricated silver nanoparticles incorporated polymethyl methacrylate as a dental adhesive material with antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Streptococcus mutans" published in 3 Biotech. by Roshmi Thomas, S Snigdha, K B Bhavitha, Seethal Babu, Anjitha Ajith, E K Radhakrishnan, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) thin films incorporated with biofabricated silver nanoparticles were used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. For this, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were generated using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SJ14 culture (MAgNPs) and extract from Curcuma aromatica rhizome (CAgNPs). The AgNPs were further characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and antibiofilm activity of AgNPs against S. mutans were also assessed. Here, MAgNPs were found to have superior antimicrobial activity when compared to CAgNPs. The MAgNPs and CAgNPs also demonstrated 99% and 94% inhibition of biofilm formation of S. mutans at concentrations of 3 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL, respectively. The AgNPs were further incorporated into PMMA thin films using solvent casting method. The thin films were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Subsequently, both PMMA/MAgNPs and PMMA/CAgNPs nanocomposite thin films were subjected to antimicrobial and antibiofilm analysis. The microbicidal activity was found to be higher for the PMMA/MAgNPs thin film, which highlights the potency of microbially synthesized AgNPs as excellent agents to inhibit cariogenic bacteria from colonising dental restorative material.

Antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus) and Antifungal (Aspergillus f lavus, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum musae, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis):

In a 2013 study "Antibacterial Activity of Rhizome of Curcuma aromatica and Partial Purification of Active Compounds" published in Indian Journal Pharm Sci. by S Revathi, N S Malathy, Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains). Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 μg/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone. The phytochemical analysis identified that the antimicrobial activity was attributed to germacrone. It should be noted that germacrone has also been reported to possess other biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitussive, antitumor, and antifungal properties. On the other hand, the essential oil extracted from the fresh rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica has been shown to inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) was then isolated and found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus strains and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In another study, the essential oil of Curcuma aromatica was also reported to have higher antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae (183.18 μg/ml) than the essential oils from other Curcuma species, including Curcuma nankunshanensis, Curcuma elata, Curcuma kwangsiensis var. nanlingensis, Curcuma yunnanensis, Curcuma rubescens, and Curcuma sichuanensis. Apart from germacrone and curcumin, Curcuma aromatica is also composed of other bioactive compounds, such as ar-turmerone, camphor, curdione, linalool, and xanthorrhizol, that are reported elsewhere to have an antimicrobial effect against both fungi (Aspergillus f lavus, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum musae, Candida species) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, S. aureus, and Bacillus cereus). Perhaps these findings are not surprising, as Curcuma. aromatica often is one of the ideal plant sources for the treatment of various infectious diseases in the conventional and Ayurvedic regime.

Antimicrobial:

Microbial contamination and resistance are a few of the significant challenges in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. For instance, antimicrobial agents, including food preservatives, have been used to inhibit the growth of food-borne bacteria and prolong the shelf life of processed foods. Many plant derivatives, including those of Curcuma aromatica, have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties.

Digestive Disorders:

Gastritis:

A 2015 study "Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status" published in Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine by Woo-Young Jeon, Mee-Young Lee, In-Sik Shin, Seong Eun Jin, Hyekyung Ha, investigated the effects of Curcuma aromatica water extract in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The Curcuma aromatica water extract groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of Curcuma aromatica water extract, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. Curcuma aromatica water extract reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. Curcuma aromatica water extract reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.) and increased mucosal level of reduced glutathione content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01) and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.). Curcuma aromatica water extract increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that Curcuma aromatica water extract protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that Curcuma aromatica water extract could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

Diabetes Mellitus:

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, life-threatening systemic disease leading to multiple complications, such as blindness, kidney failure, amputations, strokes, and heart attacks. Diabetes mellitus causes oxidative destruction of cellular membranes and redox imbalance (within the cells) called oxidative stress, which leads to an increased production of free radicals and a decreased antioxidant defense mechanism in the body. Hence, it has been hypothesized that, in diabetes mellitus, free radical production increases due to the increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant production. Thus, the increased production of free radicals could be considered as one of the significant complications of diabetes mellitus. Curcuma aromatica possesses compounds such as 1,8-cineole, ar-turmerone, curcumin, curcumol, demethoxycurcumin, germacrone, and xanthorrhizol that have been well reported to have antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

A 2012 study by Srividya et al., reported that the toluene extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica significantly decreased the glucose level from 278.53 to 116.5 mg/dl, increased protein level from 3.09 to 5.78 mg/dl, decreased cholesterol level from 292.33 to 134.50 mg/dl, and reduced the triglyceride level from 85.66 to 64.16 mg/dl upon oral administration at a maximum single dose of 400 mg/kg in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Endocrine Diseases:

Weight Loss:

Wild Turmeric benefits metabolic disorders by helping stabilize metabolism and managing weight. It increases insulin sensitivity, regulates lipid metabolism, and targets fat by suppressing multiple processes responsible for the growth of adipose tissue.

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD):

Protects the Heart (Cardioprotective):

A classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Curcuma aromatica has been reported to have favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

A 2016 study "Concordance between cardio-protective effect on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial ischemia and phenolic content of different extracts of Curcuma aromatica" published in Pharm Biol. by Yan Li, Jie Feng, Yeqin Mo, Huagang Liu, Bin Yang, research the cardio-protective effect of different Curcuma aromatica hydroalcoholic extracts on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) in rats. The total phenols in different extracts were detected simultaneously. The rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica dry powder were refluxed with 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% hydroalcoholic solvents to obtain different extracts. Rats were pretreated with four Curcuma aromatica extracts (150 mg/kg/day, i.g.) for 9 days and then given ISO (30 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 2 consecutive days, respectively. Heart rate, ST-segment, T-wave and serum levels of CK-MB, LDH, TAC, SOD, NO and MDA were measured. Total phenols of the different extracts were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Pretreatment with Curcuma aromatica significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum specific cardiac injury biomarkers (CK-MB and LDH), the serum level of MDA, the ST-segment and T-wave. In addition, Curcuma aromatica increased the heart rate, as well as the levels of TAC, SOD and NO, compared to ISO-induced controls. The total phenols in the 70% extract were higher than in the other extracts reaching 5.629 ± 0.037 mg/g, crude drug. Curcuma aromatica hydroalcoholic extracts exhibited remarkable cardio-protective effects against AMI in rats. The 70% extracts showed the strongest bioactivity. These results indicate that ethanol concentration in preparation of extracts of Curcuma aromatica plays an important role in the protective effect against AMI.

Cholesterol Levels:

In a 1987 study "Lowering of serum cholesterol by Temoe Lawak Singer, a Curcuma mixture" published in Artery by A C Beynen, Temoe Lawak Singer, (RVG 08637) consists of a mixture of an extract of the roots of Curcuma aromatica rhizoma and whole roots of Curcuma amara rhizoma and Rhamni purshianae cortex; it has cholerectic and chologougic activity. The addition of Temoe Lawak Singer to a high-cholesterol diet, but not a cholesterol-free diet, was found to lower both serum and liver cholesterol in rats. When the rats were fed Temoe Lawak Singer as 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0% (w/w) of the high-cholesterol diet for 22 days, serum cholesterol concentrations were lowered by 4, 10 and 19%, respectively. The lowest dose induced a 20-% decrease in liver cholesterol, and higher doses did not cause further reduction. The fecal excretion of bile acids was decreased by 1.0% of Temoe Lawak Singer in the diet. It is suggested that Temoe Lawak Singer taken at normal doses may lower serum cholesterol in man.

Coronary Artery Diseases:

Curcuma aromatica Salisb. rhizome (CASR) has multifunctional characteristics worldwide and a long history of use as a botanical drug with. Currently, it is often used clinically to treat coronary heart disease (CHD) caused by blood stasis syndrome. However, the therapeutic mechanism of CASR in the treatment of CHD remains poorly understood.

In a 2022 study "Therapeutic mechanism of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. rhizome against coronary heart disease based on integrated network pharmacology, pharmacological evaluation and lipidomics" published in Front Pharmacol. by Chenghao Fei, De Ji, Huangjin Tong, Yu Li, Lianlin Su, Yuwen Qin, Zhenhua Bian, Wei Zhang, Chunqin Mao, Lin Li, Tulin Lu, the main chemical constituents of CASR were analyzed using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Then, its potential therapeutic mechanism against CHD was predicted. Subsequently, pharmacological evaluation was performed using CHD rat model. Finally, a lipidomics approach was applied to explore the different lipid metabolites to verify the regulation of CASR on lipid metabolism disorders in CHD. A total of 35 compounds was identified from CASR. Seventeen active components and 51 potential targets related to CHD were screened by network pharmacology, involving 13 key pathways. In vivo experiments showed that CASR could significantly improve myocardial infarction, blood stasis, and blood lipid levels and regulate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in CHD rats. Lipidomics further showed that CASR could regulate abnormal sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid, and glycerolipid metabolism in CHD rats. The therapeutic mechanism of CASR against CHD was initially elucidated and included the regulation of lipid metabolism. Its effects may be attributed to active ingredients, such as curzerene, isoprocurcumenol, and (+)-curcumenol. This study reveals the characteristics of multi-component and multi-pathway of CASR in the treatment of CHD, which provides a basis for the follow-up development and utilization of CASR.

Platelet Aggregation Inhibition:

Curdione, a sesquiterpene compound isolated from the essential oil of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. inhibits platelet aggregation, suggesting its significant anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.

A 2019 study "Curdione inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation via regulating the AMP-activated protein kinase-vinculin/talin-integrin αIIbβ3 sign pathway" published in Phytomedicine by Hui Fang, Beibei Gao, Yingli Zhao, Xing Fang, Maohong Bian, Quan Xia, hypothesized that curdione inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation via regulating the AMP-activated protein kinase-vinculin/talin-integrin αIIbβ3 signaling pathway. We performed in vitro assays to evaluate the effect of curdione on thrombin-induced expression levels of the AMPK signaling molecule and integrin αIIbβ3 signaling pathway components. Platelet proteins were extracted from washed human platelets, and the effects of curdione on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation were evaluated. The expression levels of the AMPK signaling molecule and integrin αIIbβ3 signaling pathway-related proteins were examined using western blot and RT-PCR. The binding of vinculin and talin were studied using immunoprecipitation, double immunofluorescence staining and microscale thermophoresis. Platelet aggregation analysis showed that 0.02 U/ml thrombin significantly induces platelet aggregation. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis revealed that AMPK inhibits the vinculin/talin-mediated integrin αIIbβ3 signaling pathway, and curdione downregulates the thrombin-induced expression of phosphorylated AMPK (P-AMPK) and P-integrin at both the protein and mRNA levels and downregulates vinculin and talin at the protein level. Furthermore, microscale thermophoresis experiments showed that curdione inhibits the binding of vinculin and talin. The results from the immunoprecipitation and double immunofluorescence staining were consistent with the results of the microscale thermophoresis experiments. Curdione inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation via regulating the AMP-activated protein kinase-vinculin/talin-integrin αIIbβ3 signaling pathway, which suggests its therapeutic potential in ethnomedicinal applications as an anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic compound to prevent thrombotic diseases.

In a 2008 study "Inhibitory effect of compounds from Zingiberaceae species on human platelet aggregation" published in Phytomedicine by I Jantan, S M Raweh, H M Sirat, S Jamil, Y H Mohd Yasin, J Jalil, J A Jamal, 12 compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Kaempferia rotunda Linn., Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb., Curcuma aromatica Valeton and Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Family: Zingiberaceae) and three synthesized derivatives of xanthorrhizol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid- (AA), collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Among the compounds tested, curcumin from C. aromatica, cardamonin, pinocembrine and 5,6-dehydrokawain from A. mutica and 3-deacetylcrotepoxide from K. rotunda showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by AA with IC(50) values of less than 84 microM. Curcumin was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited AA-, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 37.5, 60.9 and 45.7 microM, respectively.

Hematologic Diseases:

Purifies Blood:

Kasthuri Manjal can also be taken internally. This spice is well known for its detoxification characteristics which enable to give you pureblood by flushing all the toxins out of your body. Furthermore, it also helps your blood to boost the immunity against any foreign element. Removal of all the waste and foreign antigens from the body gives a vibrant and glowing skin.

Bone & Muscle Related Disorders:

Osteoarthritis of Knee:

Thai medicine plants used for osteoarthritis of knee (OA) treatment consist of twelve plants such as Crinumn asiaticum, Cleome viscosa, Drypetes roxburghii, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Plumbago indica, Alpinia galanga, Curcuma aromatica, Globba malaccensis, Zingiber montanum, Zingiber officinale and Zingiberzerumbet. They showedhighfrequency in osteoarthritis of knee formula.

A 2014 study "Inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production and free radical scavenging activity of Thai medicinal plants in osteoarthritic knee treatment" published in Journal Med Assoc Thai. by Areeya Anuthakoengkun, Arunporn Itharat, investigate inhibitory effect on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release from RAW264. 7 cell and free radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay of these ethanolic plant extracts. Plant materials were extracted by maceration in 95% ethanol. Anti-inflammatory activity were tested on LPS-induced NO production. Free radical scavenging activity was performed by DPPH assay. All of ethanolic extracts exhibited potent inhibitory effect on NO release. The ethanolic extract of Z. zerumbet exhibited the highest inhibitory effect followed by Z. montanum and G. malaccensis, respectively. Except A. galanga and C. viscosa, all extracts possessed more influential than indomethacin (IC50 = 20.32±3.23 μLg/ml), a positive control. The investigation on antioxidant activity suggested that the ethanolic extracts of D. roxburghii, Z. officinale, Z. montanum, C. aromatica, A. galanga, P indica, G malaccensis, P nigrum exhibited antioxidant activity. By means of D. roxburghii had the highest electron donating activity,followed by Z. officinale. Moreover both extracts were more effective than BHT apositive control (EC50 = 14.04±1.95 μg/ml). Thai medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory activity and could inhibit destruction of articular cartilage that corresponded to the traditional medicine and supported using these medicinal plants for osteoarthritis of knee treatment.

Joint Inflammation:

Joint soreness is a common problem in Western nations. There are a few distinct sorts, a large portion of which include aggravation in the joints. Given that curcumin is a robust mitigating compound, it bodes well to assist with joint inflammation. A few types of research validate this to be effective. In examining individuals with rheumatoid joint pain, curcumin was considerably more viable than a mitigating drug. Numerous investigations have taken a gander at the impacts of curcumin on joint inflammation and noted upgrades in different indications.

Wounds:

Kasthuri Turmeric has wonderful wound healing properties and has been traditionally used for it. The natural healing actions of Kasturi Manjal is valuable in treating wounds, scars, snake bites and scrapes. The bioactive compounds in Kasturi Manjal promote cell regeneration, facilitate the healing process, and help in curing scar tissue.

A 2009 study by Kumar et al., in 2004 - Govindarajan et al. and in 2000 - Mukherjee et al., showed the wound healing properties of the powdered rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica incorporated in an ointment of soft white paraffin. The ointment was topically applied to acute wounds on rabbits and resulted in significant wound contraction and complete epithelization within 9–11 days. Similarly, cream formulations of Curcuma aromatica rhizome extracts also showed significant wound healing properties when applied externally on excision wounds of Swiss albino mice.

Apply Wild Turmeric poultice for small scrapes and wounds and usually they heal very quickly.

Insects & Pests:

Repels Insects Naturally:

Insect repellent activity Apart from pharmacological use, Curcuma aromatica is also extensively studied as a potential insecticide. Lack of sufficient knowledge on plant-based oviposition deterrents lead to the current overuse of synthetic insecticides and insect growth regulators to monitor larval instars of mosquitoes, which are believed to cause resistance to insecticides, environmental contamination, and threats to humans and other species, thus representing significant limitations to their successful employment. Recently, the use of some plantderived products, such as essential oils, has shown to provide safer and effective alternatives to synthetic pesticides and repellents.

A 2003 study by Pitasawat et al., showed that the ethanol extract could provide repellence against Aedes togoi mosquito on human volunteers with ED50 and ED95 values of 0.061 and 1.55 mg/cm2, respectively. The biting protection lasted for 3.5 hours when the extract was applied topically at a concentration of 25% (w/w). Neither dermal irritation nor adverse effect was reported on the human volunteers. The ethanolic extract was further shown to provide a protective effect against other mosquito species, including Armigeres subalbatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus under field conditions.

Another 2002 study conducted by Singh et al., showed that the essential oil of Curcuma aromatica possesses a better insecticidal effect against Odontotermes obesus Rhamb. (a pest of sugarcane) than the commercial synthetic insecticides, Thidon and Primoban-20. At a dose of 3 µl and 6 µl, the essential oils of Curcuma aromatica showed a percentage mortality rate of 50% and 100%, respectively, after 2 hours of exposure, whereas Thidon showed a mortality rate of 10% and 20%, and Primoban-20 showed 10% and 30% under the same dose and exposure time, respectively.

Repels Mosquitos:

Kasturi Manjal is attributed externally to have mosquito repellent actions that safeguard the skin against mosquito bites. The richness of curcumin in Wild Turmeric aids in soothing itching and strong aroma fend off the mosquitoes. The volatile oil extracted from Kasturi Turmeric also have mosquito repellent properties.

A 2010 study "Efficacy of bioactive compounds from Curcuma aromatica against mosquito larvae" published in Acta Trop. by S K Madhu, A K Shaukath, V A Vijayan, aimed to evaluate the efficacy of extracts from rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica against the larvae of filariasis vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus employing standard World Health Organization (WHO) procedure at Mysore. The soxhlet extraction was carried out using non-polar organic solvent, petroleum ether. The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be effective with LC50 and LC90 values of 11.42 and 18.00 ppm respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation through flash chromatography lead to the isolation of two larvicidal compounds namely 9-oxoneoprocurcumenol and neoprocurcumenol. Between the two, 9-oxoneoprocurcumenol exerted significant toxicity (P<0.01) on mosquito larvae with LC50 value of 5.81 ppm and LC90 being 9.99 ppm compared to neoprocurcumenol with 13.69 and 23.92 ppm of LC50 and LC90 values respectively. From the results, Curcuma aromatica could be considered as one of the powerful candidate to bring about useful botanicals so as to prevent the resurgence of mosquito vectors.

In a 1999 clinical trial "Field evaluation of herbal mosquito repellents" published in Journal Commun Dis. by N G Das, D R Nath, I Baruah, P K Talukdar, S C Das, Repellent properties of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Syn. Z. alatum Roxb. (Timur), Curcuma aromatica (Jungli haldi) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) oils were evaluated against mosquitoes in mustard (Brassica sp.) and coconut (Cocos sp.) oil base and compared with synthetic repellent. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as standard. Timur and jungli haldi afforded better protection in the both the base at all the concentrations. Tepellents in mustard oil gave longer protection time than those in coconut oil. At 0.57 mg/cm2 concentration timur oil gave significantly higher protection both in mustard (445 min) as well as coconut oil (404 min) than the other repellents and DMP.

Repels Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes (Dengue):

A 2016 study "Antimosquito property of Petroselinum crispum (Umbellifereae) against the pyrethroid resistant and susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)" published in Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. by J Intirach, A Junkum, N Lumjuan, U Chaithong, A Jitpakdi, D Riyong, A Wannasan, D Champakaew, R Muangmoon, A Chansang, B Pitasawat, was carried out with the aim to investigate the antimosquito property, larvicidal and adulticidal potential, of plant products against both the pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant strains of Aedes aegypti. Seventeen plant products, including essential oils and ethanolic extracts, were obtained by steam distillation and extraction with 95% ethanol, respectively. Their larvicidal activity was screened, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures against A. aegypti, Muang Chiang Mai-susceptible (MCM-S) strain. The most effective product was a candidate for investigating larvicidal and adulticidal potential against three laboratory strains of A. aegypti, comprising MCM-S, Pang Mai Dang-resistant (PMD-R), and Upakut-resistant (UPK-R). Potential toxicity of the plant candidate was compared with that of synthetic temephos, permethrin, and deltamethrin. Chemical constituents of the most effective plant product also were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results obtained from the preliminary screening revealed the varying larvicidal efficacy of plant-derived products against MCM-S A. aegypti, with mortality ranging from 0 to 100%. The larvicidal activity of seven effective plant products was found to be dose dependent, with the highest efficacy established from Petroselinum crispum fruit oil, followed by oils of Foeniculum vulgare, Myristica fragrans, Limnophila aromatica, Piper sarmentosum, Curcuma longa, and M. fragrans ethanolic extract (LC50 values of 43.22, 44.84, 47.42, 47.94, 49.19, 65.51, and 75.45 ppm, respectively). Essential oil of P. crispum was then investigated further and proved to be a promising larvicide and adulticide against all strains of A. aegypti. The pyrethroid-resistant strains of both PMD-R and UPK-R A. aegypti showed significant resistance to temephos, permethrin, and deltamethrin in either the larval or adult stage. Interestingly, high susceptibility to P. crispum oil was observed in the larvae and adults of MCM-S, which are pyrethroid-susceptible A. aegypti, and comparable to those of the pyrethroid-resistant strains, PMD-R and UPK-R. GC-MS analysis of P. crispum oil demonstrated that 19 compounds, accounting for 98.25 % of the whole oil, were identified, with the main constituents being thymol (42.41%), p-cymene (27.71%), and γ-terpinene (20.98%). In conclusion, the profound larvicidal and adulticidal potential of P. crispum oil promises to form a new larvicide and adulticide against either the pyrethroid-susceptible or resistant strain of A. aegypti. Consequently, P. crispum oil and its constituents can be used or incorporated with other chemicals/measures in integrated mosquito management for controlling A. aegypti, particularly in localities with high levels of pyrethroid and organophosphate resistance.

In a 2005 study "Chemical composition and anti-mosquito potential of rhizome extract and volatile oil derived from Curcuma aromatica against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)" published in Journal Vector Ecol. by Wej Choochote, Dana Chaiyasit, Duangta Kanjanapothi, Eumporn Rattanachanpichai, Atchariya Jitpakdi, Benjawan Tuetun, Benjawan Pitasawat, crude rhizome extracts and volatile oils of Curcuma aromatica were evaluated for chemical composition and anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Chemical identification achieved by GC/MS analysis revealed that xanthorrhizol, 1H-3a, 7-methanoazulene and curcumene at 35.08 and 13.65%, 21.81% and 30.02%, and 13.75% and 25.71%, were the main constituents in hexane extracts and volatile oils, respectively. Volatile oil of Cu. aromatica possessed a significantly higher larvicidal activity against the 4th instar larvae of Ae. aegypti than that of hexane extracts, with LC50 values of 36.30 and 57.15 ppm, respectively. In testing for adulticidal activity, on the other hand, hexane-extracted Cu. aromatica (LC50: 1.60 microg/mg female) was found to be slightly more effective against female Ae. aegypti than volatile oil (LC50: 2.86 microg/mg female). However, the repellency of these two products against Ae. aegypti adult females differed significantly. The hexane-extracted Curcuma aromatica, with a median complete protection time of 1 h (range = 1-1.5 h) when applied at a concentration of 25%, appeared to have significantly higher repellency than that of distillate oil (0.5 h, range = 0-0.5 h). The different results obtained from both products of Curcuma aromatica were probably due to variety in quantity and type of active ingredients as well as the biological and physiological characteristics that differed between both developmental stages of mosquitoes, larvae, and adults. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of xanthorrhizol, 1H-3a, 7-methanoazulene, curcumene, germacrone, and camphor as the major constituents, with the exception of germacrone and camphor that are present only in the essential oils.

Uses of Kasturi Manjal - Wild Turmeric

Medical Uses of Kasturi Manjal - Wild Turmeric:

  • In India used as a tonic, carminative, as an antidote to snake bites and astringent.
  • It is used for bruises, sprains and is a well-known for enhancing complexion.
  • As an anti-inflammatory agent, to promote blood circulation, to remove blood stasis and also for the treatment of cancer.
  • It contains aromatic volatile oils that help to remove excessive lipids from the blood, reduce aggregation of platelets (sticking of the blood cells to form masses)
  • It is believed to play a role in preventing and curing cancer in Chinese medicine.
    In an effort to remove cell accumulations such as a tumors,
  • Reduces sun tan on skin and enhances your complexion.
  • Gives a blemish-free, natural glowing skin.
  • Excellent anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-aging agent.
  • Reduces acne and its scars effectively.
  • Slows down the growth of unwanted facial hair.
  • Heals skin infections and insect bites due to its antibacterial and antiseptic properties.
  • Treats several skin ailments including eczema.
  • Makes your skin looks younger.
  • Prevents and fades away stretch marks.
  • Works as a bath powder for babies.
  • It is used in cosmetic formulations.
  • It Protects newborn babies from airborne infections.
  • Stomach acid will regulate and have proper digestion.
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