Health Benefits and Uses of Kali Haldi (Black Turmeric)
Black Turmeric or Kali Haldi, also known as Black Zedoary (Curcuma caesia) is actually a perennial herb with bluish-black rhizome, that grows about 0.5 – 1.0 m tall, in a tropical climate around the world. The plant grows well in fertile, well drained, sandy or pebbly, loamy soil that is moist. It is a member of the Ginger family Zingiberaceae, which consists of 70 species of rhizomatous herbs making it a perennial rhizome. The plant is native to North-East and Central India as well as some other states. The plant has been considered as endangered by the central forest department of India due to bio piracy. The west has caught up with eastern wisdom regarding the bright yellow spice that is a permanent fixture in almost all Indian kitchens. While Yellow Turmeric has been taking the health and culinary world by storm, not many know about Black Turmeric. The plant is grown in a similar manner as common Turmeric plant and just like Yellow Turmeric, It is also sparsely found in the Papi Hills of East Godavari, West Godavari, and the Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh, the rhizomes are considered auspicious. In west Bengal, the rhizome of the plant is used in Kali Puja, and therefore the plant is called "Kali Haldi". By etymology, "Kali" is the feminine form of "Kala", which means black color and hence the plant is termed as "Black Turmeric" in English.
Black Turmeric looks quite different than the more common Yellow Turmeric. It has an appearance that more closely resembles its cousin, the knobby Ginger. Black Turmeric The main stem, or rhizome, may have smaller rhizomes branching out, reaching from 1-2 inches in length, the shape and size is often variable. It is sessile, laterally flattened and covered with adventitious roots, root scars and warts. It shows longitudinal circular wrinkles on the surface giving the look of nodal and intermodal zones to the rhizomes. The surface (cork) of rhizome is dark brown, bluish black, or buff in color. The outer part of the rhizome is a light brown, with rough areas. The flesh is a bluish-purple color that can appear entirely blue or in light and dark concentric circles, sometimes lighter in the center or just near the skin. Leaves are elongated oval-shaped with a reddish color on the edges, broadly rounded, with a bluish-purple mid-vein on the upper surface and the flowers are coloured on the pink side. Most of the leaf color is bright green, while the reverse side has a pale green color. Petiole has a white color ivory long enough. Flowers are usually pink or maroon or pale yellow color with reddish border. Calyx is 10-15 mm long, obtuse and 3 toothed. Corolla is long tubular, pale yellow lip-3 lobe semi- elliptic. Since it’s a rhizome, it starts out with a light pink color then turns blue as it grows.
For centuries in India, Black Turmeric has been used in the puja for the Goddess Kali and is where the herb’s common name is derived. A puja is a sacred ceremony or ritual using herbs, songs and invocations to show reverence to a god or divine figure. The festival of Kali coincides with the north Indian New Year, the festival of Diwali. Black Turmeric has also been used by tribes in northeastern India to ward off evil spirits; pieces of the root were kept in a pocket or medicine bag. As of 2016, Black Turmeric has been listed as an endangered species by the Indian Agricultural Department. Efforts are being made to protect and conserve Black Turmeric in Odisha (formerly Orissa), on the central eastern coast, along the Bay of Bengal.
Turmeric has been an important part of Indian culture, for years. Well, the popular ingredient in your kitchen is now a global health fad. Black Turmeric has a pungent, camphor-like smell. It is somewhat bitter, with an earthy, hot taste. Turmeric is known around the world for its amazing health benefits and its use in multiple dishes and drinks. From Bollywood actresses swearing by Turmeric face packs to Hollywood celebrities such as Gwenyth Paltrow offering their favourite Turmeric latte recipes, Haldi is the star of all spices. India's very own Haldi Milk is all the rage in San Francisco and they're calling it "Turmeric Latte". The typical Indian beverage, Haldi milk, that our mothers and grandmothers forced us to drink a zillion times, is finally gaining popularity in the west. While, we may still crib about drinking it, people in the West are already treating it as gold. Cafes from Sydney to San Francisco are adding the "golden milk" to their menu. It is an improvised version of our desi Haldi milk with the addition of coconut, almond and cashew milk. In fact, this Turmeric Latte is one of the top Google searches and a popular name in most food trends in the US. Its demand has increased by 56% from November 2015 to January 2016. Looks like the Turmeric trend will be on a high this year as market research firm Mintel called Turmeric one of the foods to watch out for in 2016. Global consumers are recognising its health benefits. They believe that Golden Milk is an anti-inflammatory alternative to caffeine drinks. Interestingly, According to the co-founder of Nama, a vegan restaurant in London, the drink sells particularly well in the morning hours. While at Modern Baker in Oxford, whose menu has other options that include espresso shots, iced lattes, and turmeric biscuits, revealed that turmeric latte outsells all their other lattes. This might be new for Americans, but it's been a part of our Indian lifestyle since forever. The plant may be used to indicate abundance and the possession of this plant is said to prevent a shortage of food grains and cereals at home. The rhizome has a characteristic sweet smell due to the presence of essential oils. They are also used in "Poojas", the ceremonial worship, ranging from brief daily rites in the home to elaborate temple rituals, to host and honor a guest, or to spiritually celebrate an event. It may honor or celebrate the presence of special guests, or their memories after they die.
The sacred treasure of nature gifted us some incredible medicinal plants which can heal and cure so many health conditions without relying on doctor and spent a lot of money in vain. The Mother Nature blessed us with each and everything for survival and it’s the final call to search and find out those treasures. This plant has enormous medicinal benefits on humans for centuries till date. Since more and more people are tuned to herbal remedies across the globe, this plant covered up in the tropical rainforests of Asia gives a logical solution to several diseases. Black Turmeric is fibrous with a strong camphor aroma are extremely bitter in taste as they are rich in alkaloids and are of immense therapeutic uses. This is probably why Black Turmeric is used for medicinal purposes instead of cooking. Also the root has an immensely bitter taste. The curcumin present in all three kinds of Turmeric, Black, White and Yellow Turmeric, is what makes them very effective medicinally. However, like any other medicinal plants, it has specific uses and purposes. Illnesses, such as a toothache, are just one of the back Turmeric’s most common uses. In ethnomedicinal practices, the traditional healers use the genus Curcuma for the treatment of various types of diseases. As an anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, anti-amyloid, anti-ischemic, antioxidant, CNS depressant activity booster and many other miscellaneous activities, it is frequently used in medicine. It can help relieve gastrointestinal problems, relax muscles, lessen joint discomfort, regulate bleeding, and hasten the healing of cuts and wounds. It's known to improve your memory, lighten your mood, make your skin glow, fights arthritis, stymie onset of diabetes and protect you from cancer; and these are just a handful of the many benefits of turmeric. It is also used in the prevention of leukoderma, epilepsy and Hiv Aids. The rhizomes of the herb are often used to reduce the effects of cold, fever, muscle spasm, cough and various inflammations throughout the body. This traditional herb does not contain any cholesterol; however, it is rich in antioxidants and dietary fiber, which helps to control blood LDL or "bad cholesterol" levels. Black Turmeric provides even more of the essential benefits that traditional turmeric offers such as support for healthy skin and veins, support for good sexual function, relief for mild menstrual cramping, immunologic and respiratory support, relief from minor digestive complaints and support for liver health. Adding a tiny amount of Black Turmeric to your diet can also increase immunity.
Black Turmeric is a rare, medicinal plant. It has been one of India’s best kept secrets for centuries. Since Black Turmeric is a popular herbal medicinal plant with its usage always demanding, it is an endangered plant chased by many people. As this plant is dying slowly, the need of the hour is to protect this precious herb. This particular rhizome may contain the highest content of curcumin in its class. It also contains alkaloids, terpenes, amino acids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavones, flavonoids, steroids, proteins, and glycosides. It has, thanks to the presence of essential oils and over 30 components as well as terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, and alkaloids as major constituents. Turmeric has been in use since antiquity for its anti-inflammatory (painkiller), carminative, anti-flatulent and anti-microbial properties. The herb contains health benefiting essential oils such as turmerone, zingiberene, cineole, and p-cymene.
Only 100 g of Black Turmeric provides 53% of dietary fiber and 1.80 mg or 138% of daily recommended levels of pyridoxine (vitamin B6), niacin (32%), choline, riboflavin and vitamin E (21%). Pyridoxine is employed in the treatment of homocystinuria, sideroblastic anemia, and radiation sickness. Niacin helps prevent pellagra or dermatitis. The fresh root contains good levels of vitamin C. 100 g compose of 23.9 mg of this vitamin (32%). Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin and a powerful natural antioxidant, which helps the body develop immunity against infectious agents, and remove harmful free oxygen radicals. Black Turmeric contains good amounts of minerals like iron (517%), potassium (54%), manganese (340%), zinc (40%), sodium, copper, calcium and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps in controlling heart rate and blood pressure. The human body utilizes manganese as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Iron is an essential co-factor for cytochrome oxidase enzymes at cellular level metabolisms and required for red blood cell (RBC's) productions. Black Turmeric is one of the readily available, cheap herbs that contain notable phytonutrients profile. At 1,59,277 µmol TE/100 g, its total-ORAC value or antioxidant strength is one of the highest among known herb and spice species. Just a few grams of Black Turmeric per day either in the form of powder, crushed root or fresh root can provide enough nutrients to help you keep away from anemia, neuritis, memory disorders and offer protection against cancers, infectious diseases, high blood pressure, and strokes.
A 2019 study "Callus induction in rhizome of Curcuma caesia: A medicinal plant" published by K. K. Rajak, C. Kishore, B. D. Prasad, M. Trivedi, The rhizome of the plant traditionally known for treating various diseases such as leukoderma, asthma, tumours, piles, leprosy, epilepsy, cancer by the tribal peoples. The medicinal properties of Kali haldi might be various phytochemical constituents present inside the plant. In present investigation an attempt was taken to induce callus for its in vitro propagation and phytochemical extraction. For inducing callus, MS media supplemented with various combinations and concentrations of 2, 4-D, BAP, IAA and NAA was used. The most suitable media composition on which 90.28% callus generated was MS medium added with CaCl2 and supplemented with 2,4D (1.0/ mglˉ) and NAA (0.5/mglˉ) phytohormones.
A 2018 review "Kali Haldi , an ethnomedicinal plant of Jharkhand state" published in Biology by D. Mahato, H. Sharma, Curcuma caesia is a multipurpose medicinal plant widely used in the traditional system of medicine, mainly fresh and dried rhizomes, in treating leucoderma, asthma, tumours, piles, bronchitis, bruises, snack bites, etc. The plant is reported to contain camphor, ar-turmerone, (Z)‐ocimene, ar-curcumene, 1, 8‐cineole, elemene, borneol, bornyl acetate and curcumin as the major constituents. The plant has been scientifically reported to have antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic activities. Other medicinal properties are muscle relaxant, analgesic, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory. It is now considered as one of the potential sources of unique natural products for the development of medicines. In the present review article various established facts related to the plant Curcuma caesia have been compiled so that proper scientific methods can be initiated to validate its traditional uses and open the door for a source of potential drugs in near future.
Another 2017 review "Medicinal Properties of Black Turmeric" published in International Journal of Sciences by A. Venugopal, this species has been gradually increasing in popularity in the interested community for its unmatched medicinal properties. In ethnomedicinal practices, the traditional healers use the genus Curcuma for the treatment of various types of diseases but Curcuma caesia Roxb. Is a very less known and almost untouched drug. Rhizomes of the plant have been explored for antifungal activity, smooth muscle relaxant and anti‑asthmatic activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic activity, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, anxiolytic and CNS depressant activity, anti‑bacterial activity, anti‑ulcer activity and many other miscellaneous activities. Keywords: Curcuma Caesia, black turmeric, perennial herb, traditional healers, medicinal uses.
According to a 2013 report published in The International Journal Of Research In Pharmacy And Chemistry, one of the most popular uses of the Black Turmeric rhizome or root is to crush it into a paste and administer it to anyone suffering from gastric issues, including stomach ache and dysentery. Black Turmeric powder can be mixed with water and consumed to get relief from gastric stress. Just like common Turmeric, Black Turmeric is also said to control bleeding and induce quick healing in cases of cuts or wounds and snake bites.
Currently there is limited research into the benefits and potential uses of Black Turmeric, "Less information is available regarding the clinical, toxicity, and phytoanalytical properties of this plant. Several phytochemical studies have been reported but still it needs to progres". Currently, Black Turmeric rhizomes are very rarely available in grocery stores, but you may go to your nearest nursery to see if you can cultivate the plant at home.
Natural Pain Reliever:
Black Turmeric is considered an excellent pain reliever. From rashes, toothaches, osteoarthritis to stomach problems, Its root is squashed and can be applied to wounds and injuries to ease discomfort or applied to the forehead to help relieve indications of headaches. Black Turmeric can help to ease problems of this kind and also can reduce fever. Do note, however, that despite all these good effects, it must be taken in moderation or its proper dosage. Depending on what particular illness you are trying to cure or how much discomfort you are experiencing. Extracts from both Yellow and Black Turmeric possess analgesic properties and can help reduce both acute and chronic pain especially muscle and joint pain. It can help reduce the severity of arthritis, as well as help reduce the pain induced by sore muscles.
Analgesic activity different extracts obtained from Curcuma caesia and Curcuma amada rhizomes possess analgesic and antipyretic activity. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of the plant extracts was evaluated using chemical model of acute pain and brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. The writhing and pyrexia were observed at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of rats. Both the plants exerted analgesic and antipyretic activity. Where by Curcumaamada showed better response in comparison to Curcuma caesia.
Black Turmeric, just like Yellow Turmeric, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, carminative, and anti-flatulent properties properties. It has been in use since a very long ago as an essential ingredient in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Medicine for its anti-inflammatory, carminative, and anti-flatulent properties.
It is usually used in dried form, added to various dishes or in fresh form, added to tea or blended into smoothies. Consumption of Black Turmeric is believed to help the body prevent inflammation or swelling. However, you still need to balance it with a healthy diet, as a bad diet can also trigger inflammation.
Proteins isolated from aqueous soxhlet extraction of rhizome Curcuma caecia showed significant antioxidant activity which was found to be heat stable. When tested on the carrageenan rat paw model system it showed high anti-inflammatory activity at a dose level of 100mg/kg.
Due to its potent anti-inflammatory properties, black turmeric is very effective in treating arthritis. Including black turmeric in your daily diet provides relief from the stiffness and pain in the joints caused by arthritis.
Osteoarthritis is the most well-known type of joint pain, affecting a large number of people around the world. This disease mostly causes damage to the articular cartilage that exists in between joints of the joints. It happens when the defensive ligament that cushions the closures of your bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can harm any joint, the disorder most regularly affects joints in your hand, knees, hips and spine. Ibuprofen found in Black Turmeric can treat the pain of chronic osteoarthritis and can correct the pain of old osteoarthritis.
In a research, analysts selected 139 individuals with indications of knee osteoarthritis. Their indications were at any rate respectably extreme and required treatment with a nonsteroidal mitigating drug (NSAID). For one month, they were given the NSAID diclofenac, 50 mg, twice every day or curcumin, 500 mg, three times every day. The two medicines calmed joint pain indications and served to a comparable degree: 94% of those taking curcumin and 97% of those taking diclofenac revealed at least half improvement.
Black Turmeric also shows promising results in being a natural anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant. It may reduce the severity of epileptic fits and help induce muscle relaxation.
Take a pinch of Black Turmeric powder and do gentle massage on the affected tooth. Make sure you take only pinch, do not take it in large amount.
Lung Diseases (Asthma, Bronchitis, Pneumonia):
Your lungs are essential for a complex system, expanding and loosening thousands of times every day to acquire oxygen and send out carbon dioxide. Lung ailments are the absolute most basic ailments in the world. Smoking, infections, and genes cause most lung illnesses. One of the prominent uses of Black Turmeric is its effectiveness against lung infections. Black Turmeric is quite beneficial to improve or treat lung illnesses such as asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc. Substance known as kurkumini in Black Turmeric removes the element that causes the lung cancer. It decreases inflammation of the lungs and reaches patients with asthma.
Again, the curcumin in Black Turmeric is the miracle worker here. If you are worried about the new or old type of wet cough, Black Turmeric is a panacea for this. This is because the compounds found in Black Turmeric do not interfere with the lung treatment of conventional drugs as well as our immune system’s good cells, unlike chemotherapy or some other medical treatments.
For this, you can take Turmeric bumps and wash it and grind its juice and drink it. This will soon remove your cough. Consuming Black Turmeric juice cleanses the lungs and prevents the onset of asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A 2011 study by Pritesh Paliwal et al., investigated the bronchodilating activity of extracts of Curcuma caesia. Bronchodilator activity of the extract was studied on the histamine aerosol induced Bronchospasm and preconvulsion dyspnoea in guinea pigs. Treatment with methanolic Curcuma caesia extract 500 mg/kg showed significant protection against histamine induced bronchospasm. In this study Curcuma caesia extract significantly prolonged the latent period of convulsions followed by exposure to histamine aerosol at the dose of 500 mg/kg and showed maximum protection of 34.84% at 4th h as compared to chlorpheniramine maleate (standard) 2 mg/kg, p.o. which indicating its H1 receptor antagonistic activity and supports the anti-asthmatic properties of the plant.
Being foodie is a typical quality among Indians and so are the gastric issues. Acid reflux, gas, swelling, hiccups, indigestion, stomach agony, ulcers, and queasiness are a portion of the normal highlights of gastric issues. Black Turmeric’s mitigating activity seems to help improve Crohn’s ailment, ulcerative colitis, fractious inside disorder, and stomach ulcers. It may lower inflammation in the gut and provide better digestion. These are essentially the regularly received rewards of the unhealthy lifestyle, including pigging out, smoking, drinking liquor, rest issues, eating garbage, stress, and so on. Parading these rewards can place one into humiliating circumstances. Owing to discomfort, one can’t leave it unattended. Likewise, one can’t counsel specialist or approach drug store so frequently for such a general problem.
According to a report published in The International Journal of Research in Pharmacy & Chemistry, one of the most popular uses of the Black Turmeric rhizome or root is to crush it into a paste and administer it to anyone suffering from gastric issues, including stomach ache and dysentery.
Black Turmeric powder can be mixed with water and consumed to get relief from gastric issues.
Colitis is a ceaseless stomach related ailment portrayed by aggravation of the internal lining of the colon. Contamination, loss of blood supply in the colon, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and intrusion of the colon divider with collagen or lymphocytic white platelets are for the most part potential reasons for a inflamed colon. Ulcerative colitis is a deep rooted condition that you need to manage, instead of a dangerous ailment. Still, it’s a serious disease that can cause some hazardous intricacies, if you don’t get the correct treatment. It is beneficial to use black turmeric extract to treat colitis.
Utilization of Black Turmeric extricate is valuable for treating colitis. You can take Black Turmeric supplements, two times every day after dinners. It will soothe colitis and support digestion.
Study of the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the ethanolic extracts of rhizome of Curcuma caesia against gastric ulcers in experimental animals Curcuma caesia has significant ant-ulcer activity. The ethanol extract of Curcuma caesia exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity in the experimental animal model studied by Swarnamoni et al., The albino rats of either sex were used to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity. The treatment of rats with ethanol extract of Curcuma caesia (EECC500mg/kg) produced significant reduction of ulcer index, gastric acid volume, pepsin, free and total acidity along with increased production of gastric mucus in Aspirin induced ulcer animal model. Aspirin treatment caused a significant increase in the ulcer index, pepsin activity, free and total acidity, volume of gastric juice and decreased mucus production. Curcuma caesia extract decreased the gastric volume and gastric acid secretion significantly by pretreatment with aspirin.
Boosts Immune System:
Black Turmeric can help improve the functions of the immune system thanks to its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It may help reduce oxidative stress and reduce the effects and duration of both the common cold and seasonal flu.
Black Turmeric is also a great antibacterial plant that can help reduce the number of bad bacteria in the body, especially in the gut, therefore it can improve digestion and reduce bloating. Similar to Yellow and White Turmeric, Black Turmeric is also antibacterial and antifungal. It makes Black Turmeric to prevent the growth of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Candida albicans, which can cause infections in the body.
Antibacterial (Mycobacterium smegmatis):
A 2020 study "Effect of temperature and pressure on antimycobacterial activity of Curcuma caesia extract by supercritical fluid extraction method" published in Int Journal Mycobacteriol. by Monika Chaturvedi, Reena Rani, Dushyant Sharma, Jaya Parkash Yadav, The extract of Curcuma caesia by SFE was accomplished using temperature range (40°C-60°C) and pressure range (10-20 MPa). The chemical profile of the extracts were investigated by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and the antimycobacterial activity of the extracts were analyzed against Mycobacterium smegmatis strains MTCC06 and MTCC994. Compounds found in the extract were further checked by in silico analyses with two protein target 4DRE and 3UCI. Extraction yield ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 g/25g dry substrate, with the highest value being achieved at 50°C and 15 MPa. The results of GCMS analyses revealed the presence of beta-elemene, curzerenone, boldenone, and 2-cyclohexen-1-one, 4-ethynyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5, 5-trimethyl in the extracts. The extract obtained at 50°C temperature and 15 MPa pressure showed the highest zone of inhibition against M. smegmatis strains MTCC06 and MTCC994, that is, 15.6 mm and 13.6 mm, respectively. Active constituents present in the extracts showed good binding energy with 4DRE and 3UCI by in silico analysis. This study identified the effect of temperature and pressure on yield Curcuma caesia extract by SFE method. Furthermore, the effect of different extracts on antimycobacterial potential and docking study validated the antimycobacterial potential.
Antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli):
The isolated oil from the rhizome of Curcuma caecia possessed high antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and also inhibit g+ve such as S. aureus and B. subtilis and g-ve such as E. coli bacteria. Essential oils comprising of mixtures of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and various aliphatic hydrocarbons are potential sources of antimicrobial compounds .Ethanolic extract of Curcuma caecia showed a significant antibacterial activity against Staphyloccocus aureus. The antibacterial properties have also shown the presence of phenolic compound. Terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and reported that the nonenzymatic extracts prove to be a better scavenger of free radical in comparison to enzymatic extracts in Curcuma species.
This bluish-purple plant contains the highest concentration of curcumin. Curcumin is known for its healing and antifungal properties. Curcumin is the bright yellow chemical compound found in many species of the ginger family. It is advised to mix curcumin with Black Pepper in order to improve its bio-availability.
Antifungal (Ovatospora brasiliensis):
A 2019 study "Bioconversion of curcumin into calebin-A by the endophytic fungus Ovatospora brasiliensis EPE-10 MTCC 25236 associated with Curcuma caesia" published in AMB Express by Anju Majeed, Muhammed Majeed, Nooruddin Thajuddin, Sivakumar Arumugam, Furqan Ali, Kirankumar Beede, Sebastian John Adams, Muthuraman Gnanamani, Calebin-A is a curcuminoid compound reported to be present in Curcuma longa rhizome. The current study was aimed to isolate and characterize calebin-A from Curcuma caesia rhizome and its production through biotransformation approach using endophytic fungus. Curcuma caesia rhizomes of different ages were subjected to analysis in order to investigate the age at which maximum calebin-A content is present. HP-TLC profiles, HPLC retention times and mass spectrometry detector confirmed the occurrence of calebin-A in Curcuma caesia rhizomes of 12 to 14 months of age but not in rhizomes younger to 12 months. Furthermore, an endophytic fungus strain, EPE-10 that was isolated from the medicinal plant Curcuma caesia was identified as O. brasiliensis based on morphological and molecular characteristics. This strain O. brasiliensis was deposited to the culture collected centre, MTCC Chandigarh, India under the Budapest treaty and was designated with the Accession Number MTCC 25236. Biotransformation process was carried out at 37 ± 0.5 °C with shaking for 7 days after addition of 0.01% w/v curcumin. Extraction of biotransformed products was done by following partition method and the extracts obtained were analyzed using HPTLC, HPLC and LCMS. The data of the study suggested that O. brasiliensis MTCC 25236 was found to convert curcumin to calebin-A in a time dependant manner with optimum conversion at 48 h. Furthermore, O. brasiliensis MTCC 25236 was found to be positive for the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMOs) enzyme activity which could possibly be the mechanism of this bioconversion. The results of this study for the first time indicated that the endophytic fungus identified as O. brasiliensis MTCC 25236 isolated from the Curcuma caesia rhizome could be a possible source for naturally producing calebin-A.
Pruritus (Itchy Skin):
Itchy skin is an uncomfortable, aggravating vibe that makes you need to scratch. Otherwise called pruritus, itchy skin can be caused or declined by dry skin. It’s usual in older adults, as skin tends to become drier with age. Contingent upon the reason for your itchy skin, it might seem ordinary, red, harsh or uneven. Continued scratching can cause raised thick regions of skin that may bleed or become infected. Usual treatments are medicated lotions, moist dressings and oral anti-itch drugs.
Black Turmeric can also help overcome skin itch and can help in removing skin itching. This is because the content in Black Turmeric is capable of being an anti-inflammatory nature supposedly helps in curing itchy skin. It also helps fight foreign pathogens like bacteria, so besides overcoming itchy skin, Black Turmeric can also be used as anti-inflammatory on the skin itchy. It contains health benefiting essential oils such as turmerone, curcumene, cineole, and p-cymene. These compounds have applications in the cosmetic industry.
Vitiligo likewise called as leucoderma is an immune system issue wherein the insusceptible arrangement of the body assaults the healthy cells and begins affecting the body. The condition is described by white patches on the skin that creates because of melanocytes inside the skin. Leucoderma sometimes runs in families, suggesting a genetic basis. However, in these families, the inheritance seems to be multifactorial, involving the interaction between multiple genes and unidentified environmental factors or triggers. Anyone struggling with leucoderma skin problem may apply Black Turmeric on their patches. A ready-made cream is also commercially available. Curcuma Caesia might also help to control skin irritation.
Those suffering from the skin condition leucoderma, can apply Black Turmeric on their patches.
In a study "Comparative antioxidant activity of nonenzymatic and enzymatic extracts of Curcuma zedoaria, Curcuma angustifolia and Curcuma caesia", the non-enzymatic and enzymatic extracts of three important medicinal plants namely Curcuma zedoary, Curcuma caesia and Curcuma angustifolia were used to compare the antioxidant activity. By using in-vitro systems both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic extracts of the rhizome and leaves of these plants were analyzed for their free radicalscavenging activity. DPPH scavenging activity of Curcuma caesia was found to be 55.32±0.2 at a concentration of 200μg/ml of crude extract. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of Curcuma caesia was found to be 40.26± 0.01 of the crude extracts and it was compared to ascorbic acid (standard), which was found to be 52.33 ± 0.40 at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. In case of enzymatic extracts 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of Curcuma caesia was found to be 31.2± 0.8 at a concentration of 200μg/ml. The maximum antioxidant activity was found in catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme.
A comparative study of phenol content and antioxidant activity between nonconventional Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma amada Roxb by Krishnaraj et al., was to investigate the phenol content and antioxidant activity of a nonconventional Curcuma sp. namely, Curcuma caesiain comparison with another species Curcuma amada. The reducing power and superoxide, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were determined to compare the antioxidant activity. The total phenol content of methanol extracts of rhizomes was found to be 37.64 and 44.33 mg TAE/g dry materials, respectively. These phenolic compounds are generally responsible for antioxidant activity. The reducing power of Curcuma caesia was more than the Curcuma amada, similarly superoxide, ABTS and DPPH scavenging ability of Curcuma caesia rhizome was more than the Curcuma amada.
A 2021 study "Comparison of Curcuma Caesia extracts for bioactive metabolite composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential" published in Nat Prod Res. by Monika Chaturvedi, Reena Rani, Dushyant Sharma, Jaya Parkash Yadav, was to compare the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Curcuma caesia rhizome extracts and to characterise its bioactive metabolites by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Extracts were prepared using methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate by cold percolation methods. Compared to other extracts, methanol extract discovered to have the greatest antioxidant capacity. Analysis of FTIR spectra of all the extracts of Curcuma caesia shows the existence of several functional groups such as phenol, aldehydes and carboxylic group. But in methanol extract C≡C stretching bond, nitro compound and conjugated aldehyde were also presented. GC-MS extract assessment showed that sesquiterpene and monoterpenes were primarily presented. This research provides an efficient basis for separating the innovative bioactive compound from plant and assessing their effectiveness for antioxidant and antibacterial operations in particular.
A 2020 study "Study of Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Genotoxicity, and Antimicrobial Activities and Analysis of Different Constituents found in Rhizome Essential Oil of Curcuma caesia Roxb., Collected from North East India" published in Curr Pharm Biotechnol. by Manabi Paw, Roktim Gogoi, Neelav Sarma, Sudin K Pandey, Angana Borah, Twahira Begum, Mohan Lal, was designed to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, genotoxicity, and antimicrobial activities of Curcuma caesia Roxb rhizome essential oil. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition, standard antioxidative test DPPH assay, reducing power assay, in vitro antiinflammatory activity (egg albumin denaturation, protease inhibitory assay) by using standard methods. Similarly, antimicrobial activity was tested using the disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration ability (MIC); while to test genotoxicity, Allium cepa assay was used. GC/MS analysis revealed eucalyptol (28.55%), epicurzerenone (19.62%), and camphor (21.73%) as the major components of Curcuma caesia rhizome essential oil. Potent antioxidant (IC50= 48.08±0.003 μg/mL), anti-inflammatory (IC50= 121.7±0.0013 μg/mL), and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil were recorded better than the standard drugs Fluconazole for fungus and Ciprofloxacin for bacteria. The essential oil also possessed a strong antibacterial effect against two tested bacterial strains B. subtilis and B. cereus with 7.5 μg/mL MIC value, while for fungal strains the essential oil was most effective against S. cereviaceae with an MIC value of 2.5 μg/mL. All the data were recorded in triplicates. Allium cepa assay revealed minor genotoxicity with mitotic index, MI= 27.70%; chromosome aberration, A= 1.1% of Curcuma caesia rhizome essential oil. Curcuma caesia rhizome essential oil possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties with negligible genotoxicity. Hence, the present study is highly significant for the utilization of rhizome of Curcuma caesia, a high-value ethnopharmacological plant for advanced R & D and commercial application.
This is the most common quality of the Black Turmeric and the other types of Turmeric. They are natural antioxidants. Curcumin present in Turmeric is very effective in neutralizing free radicals and repairs damaged cells and tissues. Antioxidants are important substances needed to protect the body’s cells from damage caused by exposure to free radicals, such as cigarette smoke, pollution, and vehicle fumes. This is why if taken in moderation, the Black Turmeric can neutralize the free radicals which our body cannot. Thus, negating the effects of aging and cancer cells.
By eating foods that contain antioxidants, you will be better protected from heart and liver disease. Pair your Black Turmeric based dishes with some antioxidant fruits for dessert. An effective anti-cancer and aging meal for the day is ready.
Cancer is a group of diseases including irregular cell development with the possibility to attack or spread to different pieces of the body. These difference with amiable tumors, which don’t spread. Cancer can occur when cells in the body experience abnormal growth, caused by genetic changes or mutations in the cells. These are proven by science that Black Turmeric curcumin could assist limit the spread of cancerous cells. It has been found to affect the growth, development, and spread of cancer at the molecular level. This has also been proven that pre-cancer changes in the body organs are modified. Further study also indicates that conventional chemotherapy combined with Turmeric can be a strong combination in opposing cancer cells. So, if you’re aiming for an anti-cancer solution that doesn’t have any side effects, you may want to look at the Black Turmeric.
These are proven by science that Black Turmeric curcumin could assist limit the spread of cancerous cells. This has also been proven that pre-cancer changes in the body organs are modified. Further study also indicates that conventional chemotherapy combined with Turmeric can be a strong combination in opposing cancer cells. So, if you’re aiming for an anti-cancer solution that doesn’t have any side effects, you may want to look at the Black Turmeric. There are various health benefits of Black Turmeric that are so beloved to miss. However, don’t rely on it alone, because the benefits mentioned above still need to be investigated. If you want to use Black Turmeric as a medicine or accompanying medicine, you should first consult your doctor.
One study shows that Black Turmeric extract has antimutagenic compounds that can prevent cancer in the body.
Research studies have suggested that curcumin, a polyphenolic compound, found in this herb may inhibit the multiplication of tumor cells, including multiple myelomas, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer.
Further research has also shown that chemotherapy with Balck Turmeric application makes it a powerful treatment in preventing cancer cells. So if you are looking for cancer remedies with no side effects, turmeric can be the best way for you.
A 2021 study "Bioactive chemical constituents from Curcuma caesia Roxb. rhizomes and inhibitory effect of curcuzederone on the migration of triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231" published in Nat Prod Res. by Mohammad Al-Amin, Nagla Mustafa Eltayeb, Melati Khairuddean, Salizawati Muhamad Salhimi, rhizomes of Curcuma caesia are traditionally used to treat cancer in India. The aim is to isolate chemical constituents from Curcuma caesia rhizomes through bioassay-guided fractionation. The extract, hexanes and chloroform fractions showed effect on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells in cell viability assay. The chromatographic separation afforded germacrone, zerumbone, furanodienone, curzerenone, curcumenol, zederone, curcumenone, dehydrocurdione from hexanes fraction and curcuminol G, curcuzederone, (1S, 10S), (4S,5S)-germacrone-1, 4-diepoxide, wenyujinin B, alismoxide, aerugidiol, zedoarolide B, zedoalactone B , zedoarondiol, isozedoarondiol from chloroform fraction. This is first report of compounds from Curcuma caesia. The study demonstrated compounds are the bioactive compounds. The effect of curcuzederone on MDA-MB-231 cell migration showed significant inhibition in scratch and Transwell migration assays. The results revealed that curcuzederone could be a promising drug to treat cancer.
Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells and much research has been done for the past several years from various disciplines for the treatment of cancer but till now no therapy has been discovered. Treatment of cancer with chemotherapeutic drugs has been suggested to prevent cancer cells however they are often limited with their toxicity to normal cells. Therefore it has been suggested that the supplementation of medicinal plants which are rich source of antioxidants can decrease the toxic effect caused by chemotherapeutic drugs. Curcuma caesia Roxb is a medicinal plant which has high antioxidant activity, as per present study, methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb prevents the toxicity caused by cyclophosphosphamide (chemotherapeutic drug) in bone marrow cells by reducing the micronuclei formation; it also prevents the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by cyclophosphamide, so it can be used as a supplement in cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide. With an ever increasing cause of cancer, it has been recommended to treat with conventional drugs, however because of the side effects caused by the conventional drugs, the research on medicinal plants has been intensified due to their less adverse and toxic effects.
A 2016 study "Methanolic Extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Prevents the Toxicity Caused by Cyclophosphamide to Bone Marrow Cells, Liver and Kidney of Mice" published in Pharmacognosy Res. by Heisanam Pushparani Devi, Pranab Behari Mazumder, the primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the medicinal plant Curcuma caesia Roxb. against free radicals ABTS+ and O2-. Also it was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Curcuma caesia Roxb. against the chemotherapeutic drug Cyclophosphamide and its side effects in liver and kidney. The rhizomes of the plant was extracted with methanol through soxhlet and its antioxidant activity was tested against ABTS+ and O2-. For antigenotoxic studies, animals were divided into eight groups and micronucleus assay was employed and for biochemical analysis serum sample was collected from the blood and SGOT, SGPT analysis was performed. Also the biochemical analysis was performed from both the liver and kidney. The methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb. was found to scavenge the free radicals ABTS+ and O2-. the micronuclei formation was found to be increased in the positive control group as compared to the negative control group significantly (P<0.002) however increase in the number of micronuclei was found to be decrease with the pretreatment of the extract at different concentrations significantly as compared to the negative control groups (P<0.01, P<0.005, P<0.001). The increased level of serum SGPT and SGOT as well as peroxidation level in both liver and kidney due to treatment of cyclophosphamide was also found to be decreased with the pretreatment of the extract significantly as compared to the positive control groups. There was decreased in the level of endogenous antioxidant such as GSH and GR in the positive control group however decreased level of GSH and GR was found to be increased with the pretreatment of the methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb. The present study suggested that the methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb has not shown any genotoxicity and reduces the genotoxicity caused by cyclophosphamide. It was also to have the protective effects against the liver and kidney. So it could be provided as one of the herbal supplementation in chemoprevention of CP to ameliorate the side effects of it.
Colon Cancer - Colorectal Cancer:
Cancer is a deadly disease responsible for worldwide mortality; usually, middle- and low-income countries have been more affected by cancer and are responsible for 70% of deaths. The present study was performed with the aim to design silver nanoparticles using three species of Curcuma, i.e., Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma caesia.
A 2022 study "Design and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles of Different Species of Curcuma in the Treatment of Cancer Using Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HT-29)" published in Journal Gastrointest Cancer by Akanksha Jain, Parag Jain, Pranay Soni, Akhilesh Tiwari, Sandip Prasad Tiwari, the rhizomes of different plants were extracted with ethanol. The rhizome extracts were used to prepare silver nanoparticles. It was optimized at different pH, silver ion concentrations, and concentrations of plant extracts. The anticancer activity of prepared nanoparticles of C.Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma caesia was evaluated on a human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The percentage yield of Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma caesia was 11.34 g, 15.45 g, and 12.67 g, respectively. The results exhibited that the prepared nanoparticles were smooth and spherical. All the nanoparticles of rhizome extracts rescued the viability of HT-29 cells in a different extent. HT-29 cells were sensitive to prepared nanoparticles that induce more cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Thus, the prepared silver nanoparticle of Curcuma species through green synthesis may help treat cancer with low toxicity.
Black Turmeric helps in the breakdown of dietary fat in the body. If you are looking for that ideal body weight, adding a little bit of Black Turmeric to your daily curries could be a starter for you. Black Turmeric tends to slow down the body’s dietary fat. Efficient bile production aids in better digestion and prevents liver problems. It decreases the risks of developing insulin resistance in the body.
The curcumin in Black Turmeric helps stabilize the elevated blood sugar levels. When you have diabetes, your blood sugar (glucose) levels may be consistently high. Over time, this can damage your body and lead to other serious issues. Any sugar levels higher than ordinary are undesirable. Levels that are higher than typical, but not reaching the point of full-blown diabetes, are called prediabetes.
A 2019 review "Investigation of the utility of Curcuma caesia in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy" published in Journal Pharm Pharmacol. by Madhuri Grover, Karan Shah, Gaurav Khullar, Jyoti Gupta, Tapan Behl, aims at exploring several hypothesis which can be proposed to explain further its utility in diabetic neuropathy by its antioxidant property, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant effect, antibacterial and antifungal property. For finding the accurate and exact detail, a thorough review of all the available research and review article was done. A number of book chapters and encyclopaedias were taken into consideration to find out the origin, botany and genetics. The databases were searched using different keywords like antioxidant, inflammation, turmeric, diabetic neuropathy. After getting data on pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, it has been found out that its role as antioxidant will reduce the level of oxidative stress which is the main reason for the occurrence of the present complication. Apart this, the anti-inflammatory activity will further prevent the inflammation of neurons and antibacterial effect will inhibit the spread of infection. Combining all the factors together, the plant can be utilized in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Curcuma caesia can be proved as a useful approach in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
The chemical compounds in Black Turmeric helps in the breakdown of dietary fat in the body. So, if you’re looking to lose weight, add Black Turmeric to your regular diet.
A 2021 study "Analysing Curcuma caesia fractions and essential oil for neuroprotective potential against anxiety, depression, and amnesia" published in 3 Biotech by Sudarshana Borah, Priyanka Sarkar, Hemanta Kumar Sharma, evaluate the bioactivity of essential oil and the various polarity-based solvent partitioned fractions obtained from Curcuma caesia for anti-amnesia, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities using Elevated plus maze and Morris water maze models. The cold maceration technique using methanol was adopted for extraction from dried powdered rhizomes and essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method. Partitioning of the methanolic extract based on solvent polarity by hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol was continued, followed by column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction. Suspensions were prepared for fractions (dissolved in distilled water) and essential oil (dissolved in tween 20) at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg after acute toxicity study and were orally administered to Wistar albino female rats after the orientation of hypoxia by sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) and amnesia by scopolamine (1 mg/kg). Behavioural observations, biochemical and histopathological examinations were carried out for all the treated groups. Diazepam (12 mg/kg) and galantamine (3 mg/kg) were used as standard drugs for this study against hypoxia and amnesia. Data acquired from behavioural, biochemical (acetylcholinesterase, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase) and histopathological studies have illustrated that fraction II acquires highly significant memory-enhancing, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Rest fractions (I and III) and essential oil showed moderate efficacy. In prospects, identification of active molecules from the most active fraction (fraction II) and further studies on a molecular basis would substantiate its specific mechanism of neuroprotective action.
A study "Neuropharmacological assessment of Curcuma caesia Rhizome in experimental animal models", the ethanol extracts of Curcuma caesia exhibited an important neuro pharmacological activity. The study was conducted in adult male Swiss albino mice in methanol extract of Curcuma caesia rhizome for evaluating neuro pharmacological activities. Methanol extract Curcuma caesia at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight was evaluated for analgesic activity against acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick tests. Using actophotometer locomotors activity was estimated. Anticonvulsant effect was assessed against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion in mice and muscle relaxant effect was evaluated by using Rota-rod apparatus. The methanol extract of Curcuma caesia showed significant inhibition of writhes in a dose dependent manner and also exhibited significant increase in tail flicking reaction time of mice, were not dose dependent, Peak analgesic effect was increase up to a maximum. In a dose dependent manner the methanol extract of Curcuma caesia significantly depressed the locomotors activity in mice. The methanol extract of Curcuma caesia pre-treatment exhibited significant and dose dependent protection from PTZ-induced convulsions in mice by slowing the onset of convulsions. The methanol extracts of Curcuma caesia significantly and dose dependently decreased the fall off time in mice demonstrating its muscle relaxant property.
A 2011 study by Indrajit Karmakar et al., evaluated the MECC for some neuro pharmacological activities like analgesic, locomotor, anticonvulsant property and muscle relaxant effect in experimental animal models. The results of acetic acid induced writhing showed significant inhibition of writhes, at both test doses as compared with control group in a dose dependent manner. In tail flick test MECC at the both doses exhibited significant increase in reaction time of mice. In locomotor activity study, it was found that MECC significantly depressed the locomotor activity in mice in a dose dependent fashion. In anticonvulsant evaluation methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia pre-treatment exhibit significant and dose dependent protection from PTZ-induced convulsions in mice. In muscle relaxant study, the MECC significantly and dose dependently decreased the fall off time in mice demonstrating its muscle relaxant property.
Curcumin, along with other antioxidants, has been found to have anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, it is useful in preventing or at least delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.
Curcumin has been found to improve brain functions and boost the production of hormones like Serotonin and Dopamine that lifts our mood. It also relaxes the nervous system and gives a calm feeling. Curcuma caecia has potential therapeutic value for the management of depressive disorders. The methanol extract of Curcuma caecia rhizome was studied for CNS depressant activities and reported that the flavonoids, saponins and tannic acid are involved for the protecting brain function from CNS disturbance antidepressant. The analgesic activity of Curcuma caecia extract was evaluated by both acetic acid induced writhing method and tail flick method in mice to assess peripheral (non-narcotic) and central (narcotic) type of activities and revealed remarkable analgesic, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and hypnotic activity.
Central Nervous System (CNS):
A 2011 study by Indrajit Karmakar et al., evaluated the Methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia rhizome for Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant activities. Methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia was studied for hypnotic activity, forced swim test and tail suspension test. Methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia (50 and 100 mg/kg; i.p.) produced significant and dose dependent reduction in the onset and prolongation of sleep duration induced by pentobarbitone. Methanolic extract of Curcumacaesia on immobility period in both FST and TST at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p for 7 successive days to mice reduce the immobility periods significantly in a dose dependent manner, denotes significant antidepressant activity.
Regularly alluded to as perseverance, stamina is your capacity to continue a physical or mental exertion for an extensive stretch of time. In the event that you’ve been encountering an individual vitality emergency recently (outside of dealing with your utility bills), building up your continuance may be the perfect thing for recuperating your zing. Like different members from Ginger Family, these rhizomes go about as a nourishing enhancement, an incredible therapeutic herb to your diet. It expands endurance and essentialness whenever devoured in little amounts.
One ought not expend Black Turmeric in excess of 500 mg for every day beyond which could be unsafe to a human body.
One of the leading causes of blindness in people over the age of 60 is eye degeneration. Regular consumption of curcumin is found to protect the eyes against degeneration. Black Turmeric is one of the powerful Ayurvedic herbs known to man, but not many people know about this plant. Unfortunately, the plant has been considered as endangered by the Central Forest Department of India due to biopiracy. So, it is time we appreciate Black Turmeric and the numerous health benefits that comes with it.
The rhizome has a characteristic sweet smell due to the presence of essential oils. The plant has special significance for tribes in Manipur and some other states, where the paste from the rhizomes is applied on wounds, including snakes and scorpion bites.
Crush fresh Black Turmeric and make a fine paste. Apply this on the affected wound. This will heal the wound at faster rate.
The root herb contains no cholesterol. However, it is rich in antioxidants, and dietary fiber. Together, they help control blood pressure and cholesterol levels, offer protection from coronary artery disease and stroke risk.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension):
The curcumin present in Black Turmeric can improve the function of the endothelium, the lining of your blood vessels. It causes the blood vessels to dilate and thus, regulates your blood pressure.
Black Turmeric does not contain any cholesterol; however, it is rich in antioxidants and dietary fiber, which helps to control blood LDL or "bad cholesterol" levels.
A 2011 study by Gill Randeep et al., studies two most popular species of genus Curcuma, Curcuma amada and Curcuma caesia were proved for their anthelmintic activity. In this study, 4 extracts viz. Petroleum ether, Dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous extract of rhizomes of Curcuma amada and Curcuma caesia were investigated for anthelmintic activity at three different concentrations. Three concentrations (50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml and 150 mg/ml) of each extract were studied which included the determination of paralysis time and time of death of earthworms.
Medical Uses of Kali Haldi - Black Turmeric:
- Fresh and dried rhizomes of Curcuma caesia are used in traditional medicine to treat leucoderma, asthma, tumours, piles, bronchitis, bruises, tuberculous glands of the neck, enlargement of the spleen, epileptic seizures, inflammations, and allergic eruptions.and other conditions.
- Rhizomes of the herb are often used by the Baiga, Sahariya, Agariya, Gond, Korku, and other tribal communities of Mandla, Balaghat,
- Chhindwara, Anooppur, and Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh state for the treatment of pneumonia, cough, and cold in children, and for fever and asthma in adults.
- In Arunachal Pradesh, Adi tribes use decoction of fresh rhizome as anti-diarrheic.
- Powder of rhizomes is used by tribal women as a face-pack during their engagement and marriage period in northeast India.
- Fresh rhizomes are crushed and applied as a paste on forehead for relief from migraine or applied on the body for sprains and bruises.
- Kanti tribes apply fresh rhizome paste on snake and scorpion bites in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh.
- The Khamti tribe of Lohit district applied the paste of fresh rhizome in case of snake and scorpion bite.
- Gondi people of Bastar apply rhizome paste on the hydrocele using betel leaves.
- In Assam fresh rhizome juice mixed with mustard oil and is given to cattles in dysentery.
- In Asian Rhizome of Curcuma caecia used for wound, pox and tumour.
- Rhizome and leaves of kali haldi is used in different parts of the world. It is used as a tonic for the brain and the heart.
- Curcumin is a very powerful anti-inflammatory property produced by Turmeric.
- Black Turmeric contains many compounds with antioxidant properties. Curcumin, in particular, is a potent antioxidant that is ten times more powerful than resveratrol, the much-hyped antioxidant in red wine.
- Piperine possesses its own antioxidant properties. This substance can reduce the oxidative stress brought on by a high-fat diet.
- Consuming Pepper with Turmeric regularly can double the antioxidant protection, helping you stay healthier longer.
- Rhizomes are used as a rubeficient to rub the body after taking a Turkish bath.
- Rhizomes are claimed to have a property of acting against leukoderma, epilepsy, cancer and HIV/AIDS.
- It is a laxative and has antibacterial and antifungal properties.
- Intake of small amount of rhizome paste is claimed to expel gases from stomach and cure menstrual disorders.
- Decoction prepared from its roots is a good herbal treatment for migraine and epilepsy. It combats the problem of feverishness.
- Tincture of Black Turmeric powder is useful for toothache.
- It is an effective herb for the skin. It is used as a face pack for glowing skin.
- It is beneficent for alleviating wounds and bruises.
- It is good for treating respiratory illness like cold and cough in children. It is a good herbal remedy for lung ailments like asthma and bronchitis.
- Black Turmeric possesses anti-cancer properties.
- Its paste is used for curbing rheumatic pain.
- Its consumption is advantageous for treating stomach problems like vomiting, dyspepsia and stomach pain.
- It is advantageous for women. It helps in curbing menstrual disorders like menopause, leucorrhea, and difficult menses.
- Roots of the Curcuma caesia are grounded into powder and used water to treat gastric disorder.
- Black Turmeric root is crushed and can be applied to bruises and sprains to ease discomfort or applied to the forehead to help relieve symptoms of migraines.
- Dried rhizomes and leaves of Curcuma caesia are used in piles, leprosy, asthma, cancer, wounds, impotency, fertility, tooth ache, vomiting, and allergies.
- Dried powder used to mixed with seed powder of Andrographis paniculata Wall ex. Nees and applied during insect and snake bite.
- Fresh rhizome decoction is used as ant diarrhoeiaric and to get relief from stomachache.
- Fresh rhizomes are used in leprosy, cancer, epilepsy, anti-helminthic, aphrodisiac, gonorrheal discharge.
- Rhizome is used for the treatment of cough, fever, dysentery, worm infection.
- Rhizome of Curcuma caesia is grounded and applied in the form of paste in rheumatic arthritis.
- Rhizome Curcuma caesia is administered during inflammation of tonsils.
- Crushed rhizome paste is applied against cur or injury to control bleeding and quick healing.
- Paste is applied on bruises, contusions and rheumatic pains in manipur.
- The rhizomes of the herb are often used for pneumonia, cough, and
also for cold in children.
- The rhizome of Curcuma caesia is used for fever and asthma in adults.
- Intake of small amount of rhizome paste is claimed to expel gases from the stomach and cure menstrual disorders.
- The rhizome of the herb is traditionally used for the treatment of hemorrhoids, leprosy, asthma, fever, wounds, vomiting, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, gonorrheal discharges and inflammation.
- Also Curcuma caesia rhizome extract had been used as smooth muscle relaxant, anti-tumour and anti-oxidant.
- The characteristic pungent smell of the rhizome is mainly due to the presence of essential oil rich in camphor and starch.
- Fresh rhizome of black turmeric is used in wounds and nagging sores for relief and quick healing.
- Curcuma caesia provides relief from stomach problems including indigestion.
- Chewing a small piece of rhizome will provide relief from indigestion or stomach pain. It also helps in easy digestion and the proper functioning of the liver and kidneys.
- Rhizome of Curcuma caesia is grounded in the form of a paste in rheumatic arthritis.
- The dried powder used to mixed with seed powder of Andrographis paniculata Wall ex Nees and applied during insect and snake bite.
- Powdered tuber is orally administered with water in stomachache and bloating.
- Fresh rhizome decoction is used as antdiarrhoeiaric.
Edible Uses of Kali Haldi - Black Turmeric:
- Black Turmeric’s rhizome has a flavour that is harsh, spicy, bitter, and has a good aroma.
- In order to keep the fragrance and flavor intact, it is generally added at the last moment in the cooking recipes since prolonged cooking would result in the evaporation of its essential oils.
- In India, the sun-dried roots mixed with other spices, curry leaves, peppers, etc., and then gently roasted and ground to prepare a masala curry powder.
- Turmeric-tea is a popular drink in Okinawan population and many Asian countries.
- Turmeric leaves are added to flavor sweet dishes (rice-milk payasam) and ghee (melted butter) in some parts of South-India, Thailand, and other South Asian regions.
- It is a natural food preservative. The paste is used to marinate fish, chicken, and meat to enhance shelf-life; and particularly to offset the stingy smell of fish.
- Turmeric powder has been in use as a food colorant, natural food preservative, and flavor base since ancient times. It is traditionally recognized as "Indian saffron" since its deep yellow-orange color is quite similar to that of the prized saffron.
- Turmeric powder complements well with any vegetable or meat preparations and mixes nicely with other spicy powders and herbs, enhancing the overall flavor and fragrance of the dishes.
- It has been used in the preparations of soups, salad dressings and has been found application in the food industry like canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, yellow cakes, orange juice, biscuits, popcorn color, sweets, cake icings, cereals, sauces, etc.
- Can be added into food, cooking, baking, smoothies, juices, shakes or any other drink.
- Wash fresh roots in cold running water or rinse for few minutes to remove any sand, grit, soil, or pesticide residues. The fresh powder can be prepared at home with the following simple steps: first, the root is boiled in the water, dried under the sun, and then ground to get flavorful yellow colored powder.
- It is essential to be watchful while handling turmeric since its pigments can easily stain clothes and kitchen walls. To avoid a lasting stain, immediately wash any area with soap and water.
Other Uses of Kali Haldi - Black Turmeric:
- Black Turmeric contains the highest concentrations of curcumin of any plant species with nearly 4 times more than Curcumin in yellow Turmeric.
- For centuries in India, Black Turmeric has been used in the puja for the Goddess Kali. A puja is a sacred ceremony or ritual using herbs, songs and invocations to show reverence to a god or divine figure. Black Turmeric is used in the Kali Puja, the festival dedicated to Kali the Hindu goddess and is where the herb’s common name is derived. The festival of Kali coincides with the north Indian New Year, the festival of Diwali.
- Crushed Turmeric has long been used as a natural antidote to snake, scorpion and spider bites across India.
- Black Turmeric has also been used by tribes in northeastern India to ward off evil spirits; pieces of the root were kept in a pocket or medicine bag.
- Rhizome of the plant is used in Kali Puja, and hence the plant is called Kali Haldi in West Bengal.
- In Chhattisgarh, tribes make paste of rhizomes using cow’s urine and apply the mixture on forehead as Bindi along with blood, for Vasikaran and Tantra practices.
- Some Hindu organizations sell rhizome paste to use as Tilaka, with a belief that it will remove all kinds of black magic.
- Color of the root is considered similar to the skin complexion of several Hindu deities: Kali, Rama, Krishna, and Shiva.
- The plant is regarded as very auspicious and is stated that a person who possess it will never experience shortage of cereals and food in Madhya Pradesh.
- Some tribes believe that the rhizomes act as a talisman to keep evil spirits away.
- Some people believe that the rhizome of the plant is a form of the goddess Kali and carry a rhizome in their pockets.
- the plant is believed to bring abundance, prosperity and protection.
- The blue root is also believed to ward off evil spirits and it is commonly carried in pockets or medicine bags.