Curcuma zanthorrhiza commonly known as temulawak, Javanese Ginger, or Javanese Turmeric is an erect, herbaceous perennial plant species, belonging to the ginger family. It grows well in loose soil in tropical forests in the lowlands to an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level. Javanese Turmeric grows in shady lands, temperatures of 19-30°C and rainfall of 1,000-4,000 mm/year. In general, this plant has a high adaptability for various weather conditions in tropical climates. Roots adapt well to various types of soil including calcareous, sandy and clay soils. The plant originated from Indonesia, more specifically from Java Island, out of which it spread to several places in the bio-geographical region Malesia. Currently, most of the temu lawak is cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Outside of South East Asia, cultivars may be found also in China, Indochina, Barbados, India, Japan, Korea, the United States and some countries in Europe. It is known in Javanese as temulawak, in Sundanese as koneng gede and in Madurese as temu labak. False Turmeric, Giant Curcuma, Indian Saffron, Java Turmeric, Javan Turmeric, Javanese Turmeric, Curcumine, Gedè, Haridra, Indian Saffron, Jiang Huang, Shu Gu Jiang Huang, Temu Lawak and Tumulawak are some of the popular common names of the plant.
Curcuma zanthorrhiza has pseudo stems up to 2 m tall. The stem is a midrib of upright, overlapping leaves, green or dark brown in color. Rhizomes are perfectly formed, large, branched and reddish brown, dark yellow or dark green. The highest starch content in the rhizome is at an altitude of 240 m. Each bud forms 2-9 leaves with a circular shape extending to lancet, green or light purple to dark brown, leaves 31-84 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, stems 43-80 cm long and each strand is connected with a midrib. Flowers are dark yellow, uniquely shaped and clustered with lateral inflorescences. The stems and scales are in the form of lines, 9-23 cm long and 4-6 cm wide, having protectors with comparable crowns. Petals are white, hairy and 8-13mm long. The crown is tubular, 4-5cm long, long, round white flower strands with a red tip, 1-2cm long and 1cm wide, while the rhizome is dark orange or brown, with a pungent aroma and bitter taste.
Vegetative propagation using old rhizomes aged 9 months or more, then germinated in a damp, dark place for 2-3 weeks. Another way is to cut old rhizomes that are harvested and already have buds, then dried for 4-6 days.
The main content of rhizomes is protein, carbohydrates and essential oils consisting of camphor, glucoside, turmerol, and curcumin which are useful as anti-inflammatory and anti-hepototoxic properties. Rhizome contains 48-59.64% starch, 1.6-2.2% curcumin and 1.48-1.63% essential oils which are believed to improve kidney work, anti-inflammatory, acne medications, increase appetite, anti-cholesterol, anemia, antioxidants, cancer prevention, and anti-microbial. Pharmacological effects include hepatoprotector, lower cholesterol, laxative, diuretic, relieve joint pain, increase appetite, smooth milk, and cleanse the blood. Curcuma is planted in the highlands to produce rhizomes that contain only a little essential oil. Pests include Chrysodeixis chalcites, Agrotis ypsilon and Mimegrala coerulenfrons.
Curcuma zanthorrhiza is used as a medicinal plant. It has been traditionally used to treat stomach diseases, liver disorders, constipation, bloody diarrhea, dysentery, children’s fevers, hemorrhoid, and skin eruptions. This herbal plant can do more to keep your health in shape and maintain body stamina. It was often used as a pain relief inside the bones. According to the Health Research Institute this herbal plant register as a traditional medicine to cure all various disease, such a asthma and digestive problems. Lately this herbal plant made as a healthy drink and distributed to many countries specially in Asia region. It has been used by Indonesian ancestors for food, medicinal purposes, and as a tonic. According to one source it is an effective preventive and pesticide of mushroom mites.
Javanese Turmeric has been homemade and consumed for over 1,200 years since the Mataram Kingdom in Java, using fresh and raw ingredients such as Tamarind, Galangal, Ginger, and Turmeric. This potent concoction of earthy and spicy herbs is made by grandmothers, villagers, and even urbanites, and is also recently available to tourists who visit local warungs (restaurants) and massage parlours. Javanese and Balinese traditional healers use it frequently in their healing sessions too.
People in Indonesia started stocking up on Jamu, a traditional herbal drink which is known to boost one’s immune system and maintain good health. Local Jamu sellers started selling out their stock, ingredient prices soared more than 50%, and Jamu makers reaped handsome profits while a gloomy future looms. Even Indonesia’s president Joko Widodo swears by his Jamu, he has consumed it daily for 18 years. This ancient Indonesian traditional herbal drink is wildly popular again in 2020. At the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, people all around the globe were scurrying to supermarkets and staying home as much as possible to avoid contracting the unprecedented virus. In Indonesia, however, an unusual trend revealed itself.
Tamarind is an excellent source of dietary fibre, which binds to toxins, bile salts and surplus cholesterol, and then detoxifying them out of the body safely and cleanly. It is a commonly used natural laxative, gently aiding digestion and alleviating stomach discomforts due to constipation. It is also sometimes termed the "slimming fruit" due to its effectiveness in weight loss practices. Ginger also promotes healthy weight and helps digestion. Various health disorders in the digestive tract such as flatulence, dyspepsia, and indigestion can be overcome with Javanese Turmeric.
In 2006, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology states that patients who experienced health problems found in the ulcerative colitis disease is getting better by taking ginger supplements on a regular basis.
For parents who have children with low appetite, Javanese Turmeric can be a powerful drug to increase your child’s appetite. Certainly in a form that has been processed so it can be very safe and delicious when consumed by your child. Javanese Turmeric can quicken the process of emptying the stomach so that the appetite will soon increase again.
Javanese Turmeric can control, prevent, or even kill various types of cancer including colon, breast, and prostate. Javanese Turmeric also has the benefit of preventing the action of enzymes or other components that cause the growth of tumor cells. So the regular use of Javanese Turmeric in tumor sufferers is the right step.
The first preliminary antitumor test of some compounds (β-atlantone, α-curcumene, ar-turmerone, and xanthorrhizol) from rhizome extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza was performed on sarcoma 180 ascites in rats. Three compounds (α-curcumene, ar-turmerone, and zanthorrhizol) from this study showed significant antitumor activity evaluated by the packed cell volume method. The antimetastatic and antitumor potential of zanthorrhizol was further assessed in vivo using mice lung-metastasis specimens and a tumor cell development test. Surprisingly, zanthorrhizol significantly suppressed the induction of tumor spots in the lung tissue and the development of the intra-abdominal mass of the tumor. This result is strengthened by the molecular analysis showing that zanthorrhizol could inhibit the expression of COX-2, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 MMP-9 in metastatic mice.
Further assessment of isolated xanthorrhizol from Curcuma zanthorrhiza against the proliferation of cancer cells was performed in combination with curcumin in MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells). The experiment proved that the application of zanthorrhizol and curcumin exhibited synergistic growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells via activation of apoptosis.
Research of the scientific Journal The Prostate, it is known that the content of curcumin in Javanese Turmeric can inhibit the growth of prostate cancer. The University of Maryland Medical Center explains this by hypothesizing that working curcuma stop the growth of blood vessels that supply the cancer. Its preventive effects are assumed to be supported by its antioxidant activity, which protects your cells from damage.
Previous studies also showed that zanthorrhizol was able to activate apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial pathway (p53-dependent) in HeLa cervical cancer and HepG2 liver cancer. Within HeLa cervical cancer cells, zanthorrhizol upregulated p53 and Bax but had no effect on Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic protein). This upregulation of p53 and Bax protein production probably reactivates the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells toward apoptotic stimuli. However, this result is in contrast with those reported by Handayani et al. and Cheah et al. where upregulation of p53 did not affect Bax expression but lowered the Bcl-2 level in HepG2 liver cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer. From these findings, zanthorrhizol may have apoptosis induction activity via p53-regulated mitochondrial pathway in particular cancer cells with diverse regulation on the expression of Bax/Bcl-2.
Various ingredients contribute to a better, livelier heart. It is widely believed that Javanese Turmeric prevents heart attacks and diabetes while tamarind, the thick gooey edible fruit, reduces blood sugar level and promotes good cardiovascular health due to its potassium content. Furthermore, this herb lowers blood pressure and is great for both heart and eye health due to its naturally high levels of antioxidants. Javanese Turmeric lowers cholesterol levels to aid your healthy, balanced lifestyles.
All parts of Javanese Turmeric are effective but the rhizomes are most widely used. Rhizome consists of more than one hundred kinds of compounds such as amylase, phenolase, fat, starch, minerals, phenol derivatives (curcuminoids) and essential oils. These compounds proved to be effective in optimally improving endurance.
The antimicrobial activity of Curcuma zanthorrhiza has been well studied using a number of disease-causing microbes. The tested pathogens could cause some serious diseases such as food-borne illness, dental plaque, skin disease, infectious disease, pneumonia, tuberculosis, pulp necrosis, diarrhea, typhus, acne, nosocomial infections, hospital-acquired infection, filamentous fungal infections, nail infection, and penicilliosis.
Some well-known methods used to evaluate in vitro susceptibility test of Curcuma zanthorrhiza such as NCCLS (M38-A) standard method and biofilm quantification, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Rhizome extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza, pure xanthorrhizol, and its essential oils are proven to be the potential of inhibiting or killing pathogenic microbes ranging from medium level activity to strong killing ability.
The antimicrobial capability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza is possibly due to its phenolic compound content particularly zanthorrhizol and curcuminoids as the main ingredient. The phenolic compound has been reported to have inhibition action on cell walls or membranes of microbes by altering its cell permeability, resulting in the forfeit of essential molecules such as ATP, RNA, protein, and DNA. Although the mode of antimicrobial action of xanthorrhizol has not been comprehensively elucidated, xanthorrhizol possibly has suppression ability on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) caused by microbial attack. As for curcumin, some of its antimicrobial modes of action were explained by restraint of cytokinesis and bacterial cell multiplication, as well as interruption of bacterial cell wall and membrane, inducing cell lysis. Curcumin was also reported to form electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interplay with cell membrane and wall of fungi resulting in a disarrangement of the membrane. Even though the antibacterial attribute of Curcuma zanthorrhiza seems to work on Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria, it is more powerful than Gram-positive bacteria due to the composition of its cell wall.
Most of those reported microbe-related illnesses are linked up to the traditional uses of Curcuma zanthorrhiza such as treatment of gastrointestinal problems and skin-related disorders. Thus, the reported antimicrobial activity of Curcuma zanthorrhiza supports some of its traditional medicinal benefits. For example, the ability of ethanol extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza to suppress the growth of Escherichia coli is related to its traditional use for diarrhea treatment.
In the world of physiotherapy, Javanese Turmeric is classified as an adaptogen, a harmless substance that can encourage increased resistance to toxins or which can affect physically, chemically and biologically. In general, it has the effect of normalizing the affected tissue. Javanese Turmeric treats your body and mind holistically, replenishing your body with lots of powerful minerals and vitamins for optimal vitality and energy levels. Tamarind is rich in organic compounds, making it a frontrunner for its high antioxidant content.
Rosidi et al. assessed the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza in the liquid-liquid extraction method in hexane solvent using the DPPH method. The study revealed that the tested extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza has a relatively active antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 87.01 ppm.
Widyastuti et al. examined the antioxidant properties of Curcuma zanthorrhiza harvested from different locations. The methanol extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza from various places has been assessed for its antioxidant properties along with total phenolic and total flavonoid composition. The result showed that Curcuma zanthorrhiza has potent antioxidant activity and its level is apparently affected by different harvesting areas. The discovery validates the diverse uses and effectiveness of this herb over various traditional areas and populations and gives possible suggestions on the levels of active molecules depending on the location of cultivation. Storage time following the harvesting also affects the antioxidant level of Curcuma zanthorrhiza. The prolonged storage time of Curcuma zanthorrhiza could decrease its antioxidant ability. In addition, the harvesting age of Curcuma zanthorrhiza is another parameter affecting the level of its antioxidant activity.
A study by Rosiyani showed that 9-month-old Curcuma zanthorrhiza rhizome possesses greater antioxidant activity compared to 7- or 8-month-old harvesting time. This could happen probably because the curcuminoid content is higher in that of older Curcuma zanthorrhiza. Along with Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza was shown higher than the other seven Zingiberaceae species studied by Akinola et al. In addition, the antioxidant activity of pure xanthorrhizol from Curcuma zanthorrhiza has been evaluated in copper-mediated isolated human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and sturdily reduced human LDL peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner.
Aerobic metabolism in the human body could produce free radicals (e.g., nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and other reactive species (e.g., peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid). Free radical reactions can cause harmful degenerative illness including degenerative eye disorder, senile dementia, asthma, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and inflammatory joint sickness. Antioxidants are compounds that exert synergistic actions in scavenging free radicals by inhibition of oxidation reaction.
Some studies reported the potential natural antioxidant activity of Curcuma zanthorrhiza extract. The antioxidant ability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza has been evaluated using various methods including the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihydazi), superoxide anion, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal bonding activity.
The antioxidant properties of Curcuma zanthorrhiza greatly contribute to its traditional uses. For example, traditionally, Curcuma zanthorrhiza has been utilized as an arthritis medication where one of its major causes is the inflammation reaction within the joint caused by the free radical reaction. The antioxidant ability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza in scavenging free radicals could treat this inflammatory joint sickness as reported traditionally. Furthermore, the traditional efficacy of Curcuma zanthorrhiza for skin treatment is also inseparable from this antioxidant ability. The antioxidant activity has been reported to have connected with the prevention of skin aging.
However, although the potent antioxidant capability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza was evaluated, it still leaves the fundamental question of whether all free radical scavenging activities are a reflection of the extracts and chemicals being tested and should be further evaluated using a more reliable antioxidant assay method. One of them is by using a more comprehensive in vitro cell-based antioxidant assay approach because it can detect metabolites that play a direct role in the antioxidant pathway and safeguarding cells against oxidative harm.
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 - Corona Virus):
Indonesia is a rich archipelago with an abundance of natural resources. From our past generations, it can be used as a natural medicine or other health purposes. Recently, herbal plants are widely used to prevent coronavirus disease or COVID-19. The common consumed herbs for prevention of COVID-19 are Turmeric and Javanese Turmric. Since SARS epidemic happened in 2003, various pharmacological studies on curcumin have been conducted.
Right now, researchers are focused on the effect of curcumin and its power to fend off COVID-19. The receptor that plays a role (SARS-CoV-2) is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 forms as fixed matter (attached to cells) and soluble matter (not attached to cells). Research on curcumin compounds (as single or pure compounds) reported an ability to increase ACE2 on rats by animal testing, but there are no further studies about its direct relationship toward coronavirus disease (COVID-19). "In order to achieve the therapeutic requirements of curcumin, it is expected that many ACE2 are free as soluble matters so it will prevent the coronavirus sticking to our cells, which will directly prevent the infection".
Empirically, the combined content of chemical compounds from these plants are useful as an immunomodulator to maintain body endurance. The pharmacological effects of chemical compounds (multi compound) in these plants can be different from the pharmacological effects of single compound. Related with COVID-19, the beneficiation of these plants either in single compound or multi compound as an immunomodulator can increase our immune system and it’s safe for our bodies. Recently, are doing further research. As researchers, we should work together with pharmaceutical industries and our government to develop our herbs as an antiviral against COVID-19.
Javanese Turmeric is a popular ingredient in Ayurvedic treatments due to its highly potent nature. It was first used as a dye, and gradually became a key ingredient in many branches of folk medicine including TCM and animalistic rituals of the Austronesian peoples. Turmeric contains curcumin which reduces swelling, pain, headaches, and osteoarthritis. Some people also use it for inflammatory bowel disease, itching, stress, and depression too. Combine it with the earthy, slightly bitter, and unique taste, there is no question about its superstar role in all Jamus.
The anti-inflammatory capability of methanol rhizome extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza has long been investigated on carrageenan-induced edema, vascular permeability caused by acetic acid, and the writhing phenomenon in rats. The extract exhibited anti-inflammatory potential particularly by the presence of germacrone. The anti-inflammatory ability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza probably is also related to its curcuminoid content especially curcumin. Curcumin has more potent anti-inflammatory properties than other curcuminoid derivatives such as demethoxy- or bisdesmethoxy-form.
The anti-inflammatory ability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza is indeed also caused by zanthorrhizol as its marker compound. The earliest in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of zanthorrhizol has been reported on lipopolysaccharide-induced mice leukemic monocyte-macrophage cell RAW 264.7. The study reported the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by xanthorrhizol, resulting in the reduction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively . The result is supported by other anti-inflammatory tests of xanthorrhizol using lipopolysaccharide-activated primary cultured microglial cells . Lim et al.  successfully showed that xanthorrhizol could hinder COX-2, iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in induced microglial cells. Zanthorrhizol has also been studied in vivo using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) activated mice severe inflammation specimen and restrains the impact of TPA-activated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), COX-2, and iNOS expression in mice dermis . According to these findings, xanthorrhizol can be confirmed to be involved in the suppression of IL 6 and TNF-α, as well as inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS activation via NF-kB pathway causing PGE2 and NO decrease. Based on preliminary reported data, the hydroxyl group of xanthorrhizol is essential for its pharmacological ability, in that acetylation of the hydroxyl group causes activity loss. However, in-depth future research is necessary to elucidate the structure-function correlation and molecular mode of action of xanthorrhizol.
In the most recent study, Kim et al. reported the anti-inflammatory properties of standardized zanthorrhizol and Curcuma zanthorrhiza extract in a high-fat diet- (HFD-) caused obese mouse. The report suggested the significant inhibition expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as C reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and TNF-α in muscle (65.2–92.5%), liver (43.9–84.7%), and adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%) . Repression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) p65 by C. xanthorrhiza extract and xanthorrhizol has also been investigated on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated human gingival fibroblast-1 cells . This result showed the potential of Curcuma zanthorrhiza extract and xanthorrhizol to suppress LPS-activated oral inflammation. Thus, we believe that Curcuma zanthorrhiza and zanthorrhizol have antiperiodontitis capability. In this research, Kim et al.  using zanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM (low and high, respectively). Hence, other concentrations between 1 and 10 μg/ml C. xanthorrhiza or 1 and 10 μM xanthorrhizol would have anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenic activities.
In addition, these data are reinforced by the ability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza to inhibit the growth of periodontopathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans. However, the stimulatory ability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza and xanthorrhizol on osteoblastogenesis or the mechanism of bone development has not been illustrated yet. Hence, further studies on the osteoblastogenic effects and underlying molecular actions of these metabolites in living systems, such as animal models, are required.
Some researchers used animal models to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of Curcuma zanthorrhiza and its compounds. However, ethical processes increase the limitation of animal model-research based. Therefore, several in vitro anti-inflammatory approaches are available to elucidate the anti-inflammatory ability of Curcuma zanthorrhiza and its isolated compounds. For example, flow cytometry is a fast and helpful instrument to discover the anti-inflammatory activity of some inflammatory markers together and there should be a useful anti-inflammatory investigation on Curcuma zanthorrhiza.
Prof. Daryono Hadi Tjahjono, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology explained that Javanese Turmeric contains natural metabolite compounds in the form of curcumin which are reported to have various therapeutic potentials such as antibiotics, antivirals, antioxidants, anticancer, and anti-Alzheimer's disease. "Curcumin are also found in, Ginger, and similar plants. In addition, there are dozens of other chemical compounds contained in these plants. Generally, we are using these plants in our daily basis and it can be used as a raw material for herbal medicine", he explained.
Oral application of Curcuma zanthorrhiza in mice and rats has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects from a number of hepatotoxic causes, such as acetaminophen, galactosamine, and carbon tetrachloride, as indicated by extreme alleviation of serum transaminases. This hepatoprotective activity is regarded due to the presence of its antioxidant compounds, as well as its capability to reduce the activation of proinflammatory cytokines.
Kim et al. found that oral feeding of 200 mg zanthorrhizol weakened cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice (cisplatin is frequently applied in chemotherapy). Its likely mode of action is by attenuation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) phosphorylation. The above effect shows that Curcuma zanthorrhiza has the potential to safeguard the liver against various hepatotoxins as also reported by many of its traditional uses. This hepatoprotective activity was further supported by other reports showing that Curcuma zanthorrhiza could reduce liver triglyceride level and serum triglyceride content.
Detox the Body:
For many of us, especially distraction-filled urbanites, having a clean lifestyle of good, wholesome, natural food everyday is simply not that easy. Along with all the late-night snacking, sinful buffet spreads, and party nights with free-flow drinks, we seldom pause to listen to our body. Thankfully, drinking Javanese Turmeric can help with reseting some of that accumulated toxins in your body. Ginger, Turmeric, and Tamarind are all excellent ingredients to help detoxify your liver and kidneys, purifying you from the inside-out to unleash your natural immunity and power. Ginger also replenishes your body's levels of iron, sodium, vitamins A and C, flavonoids and phytonutrients.
Kurkuminoid has the efficacy of treating disorders of liver health and prevent fatty liver cells. Several scientific studies and clinical trials have been carried out by scientists from both Indonesia and the world, and the result generally supports the use of Javanese Turmeric as a traditional medicine that can use to liver disease and stiff.
The antimetabolic disorder effect of Curcuma zanthorrhiza extract, such as antidiabetic, has been evaluated using both insulin-dependent and no-insulin-dependent diabetic models.
Yasni et al. reported the antidiabetic properties of the extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza in the streptozotocin-activated diabetic mouse. The report suggested that the extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza extremely lowered the level of serum glucose and triglyceride as compared to cellulose and other tested herbals. Curcuma zanthorrhiza was also found to reduce the ratio of arachidonate to linoleate in the liver phospholipids.
In another study using high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese rats, Kim et al. found that both zanthorrhizol and Curcuma zanthorrhiza extracts could exceptionally suppress postprandial blood glucose content in HFD-induced obese mouse. Moreover, xanthorrhizol and Curcuma zanthorrhiza extracts are also able to reduce triglyceride (TG), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and insulin composition in serum. According to this study, zanthorrhizol and Curcuma zanthorrhiza extracts may suppress and cure noninsulin-dependent diabetes, which is mostly caused by obesity-activated resistance of insulin.
The health benefits that this was already great fame both in India since thousands of years ago. Ginger, or commonly known as Curcuma, has the ability to relieve inflammation, such as osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of disability in the US.
Research indicated that taking Javanese Turmeric for 4 weeks could help relieve pain associated with osteoarthritis among the people who already have the condition.
Skin Aging (Wrinkles):
The study of anti-skin aging properties of xanthorrhizol was performed by evaluating its effect on the expression of MMP-1 and type-1 procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one responsible factor mediating the UV-induced skin aging that is upregulated by UV irradiation. Meanwhile, type-1 collagen is the main builder of the skin dermis, and the degradation of this structural protein could lead to skin aging problems. Xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma zanthorrhiza was proven to be efficacious for decreasing the expression level of MMP-1 and increasing type-1 procollagen expression. Zanthorrhizol's ability to suppress the MMP-1 expression and increase type-1 procollagen expression is even better than the effect of a natural antiaging agent known as epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG).
Javanese Turmeric has an astringent attribute that causes the reduction in the pores of the skin so that it indirectly will prevent the appearance of acne on the skin surface. In addition, the capability of its essential oil of flower bract to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes growth is probably related to its traditional usage for the medication acne. However, even if the antibacterial ability of this herb has been explained, their utilization as alternatives to antibiotics still needs pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic examination to reveal the mode of action of underlying metabolites.
Skin caring effects of Curcuma zanthorrhiza were also evaluated using its flower bract extract. Batubara et al. reported that methanol extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza flower bract could suppress the growth of acne-causing microbe Propionibacterium acnes and its ethyl acetate flower bract extract could suppress tyrosinase and lipase activities. α-curcumene and xanthorrhizol of Curcuma zanthorrhiza flower bract extract are two main compounds responsible for lipase activity inhibition and Propionibacterium acnes growth suppression, respectively. This study shows that Curcuma zanthorrhiza flower bract extract is a potent natural skincare and whitening agent. However, this study did not assess dose-response effects. Moreover, since the study of flower bract extract of Curcuma zanthorrhiza is still limited, a follow-up study is required to reveal other active molecules within the flower bract extract that is responsible for the skin-caring activity as well as its possible structure-function relationship.
Pure zanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma zanthorrhiza extract has also reported anti-insecticidal properties against Spodoptera littoralis following its topical application. This discovery opens its future potential for treating agriculture pests.
Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes:
Essential oil content of Javanese Turmeric has the use of inhibiting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to get closer to your body. This will cause you to avoid the danger of dengue fever because this type of mosquito is a carrier of dengue virus.
Traditional Uses of Javanese Turmeric:
- Rhizomes are used in Indonesian folk medicine as cholagogues, aromatic stomachic, analgesics, and a rheumatic remedy.
- Rhizomes of Java turmeric have been traditionally used for medicinal purposes in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.
- It is administered for indigestion and rheumatism, as a tonic after childbirth and as an emmenogogue in amenorrhea.
- Rhizome is used in Indonesian traditional medicine for various therapeutic purposes such as anti-hypertensive, anti-rheumatic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, etc.
- Rhizomes are used as a tonic in many jamus in Indonesia.
- It is the most popular Indonesian herbal for hepatitis remedy and other liver disorders.
- It is considered a broad spectrum hepato protective agent useful in the treatment of liver injuries and can protect the liver from various hepato-toxins, encourage bile discharge and prevent the formation of gallstones and stomachic to treat various abdominal complaints and normalize digestion.
- Decoction of the rhizome is used for fever and constipation and taken by women as a galactagogue and to reduce uterine inflammation after childbirth.
- Recently, it has been used in supplement beverages to increase appetite and to refresh stamina.
- It was also reported to prevent avian flu.
- It is used for the topical treatment of acne and skin inflammations in Thailand.
- Rhizome is used to relive stomach ache in Thailand.
- Rhizome is used in dyspeptic complaints and as stomachic and carminative.
- Turmeric, java turmeric and cassumunar ginger are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines.
- It heals Inflammation and boosts longevity.
- Root or rhizome of the herb is widely used for medicinal purpose.
- It is very effective in treating a number of diseases.
- It is good for the health of Heart and Liver.
- It is a very effective remedy for Arthritis, Gastrointestinal problems and Kidney disorders.
- It reduces the Blood fat and lowers the Cholesterol level in the Body.
- It inhibits the growth of Prostate Cancer.
- It increases flow of milk during Breast feeding.
- It fights Premature Aging.
- It treats Constipation.
Culinary Uses of Javanese Turmeric:
- Young rhizome tips, inflorescence and centers of spurious stem are aromatic with a strong odor and bitter taste and are eaten as vegetables raw or cooked.
- Heart of the spurious stems is eaten raw or cooked as lalab.
- Young tops of the lateral rhizomes are also eaten fresh as lalab, and the inflorescences are eaten cooked with rice, usually as ‘sayur’ or ‘urab’.
- In Java a soft drink called ‘bir temu lawak’ or ‘wedang temu lawak’ is prepared by cooking dried pieces of the rhizomes which impart a yellow color and flavor and mixing with Javanese sugar.
- Rhizomes yield starch meal which is used in making porridge; pudding; delicacies like ‘dodol temu lawak’, ‘jenang temu’ and ‘jenang pati’; and drinks in Java.
- Rhizome is an important ingredient in various ‘jamu’.
- Starch obtained from the roots is used for porridge and as a pudding.
- Flowers are cooked and eaten with rice.
- Asthma: Prepare ½ Rhizome of Javanese Turmeric, and then wash clean. Peel and slice Javanese Turmeric. Boil 5 cups of water and combine Palm sugar to taste. Boil until the water becomes half. Take this herbal drink three times a day.
- Boils: Clean and then peeled. Boil 2 cups of water with Javanese Turmeric and little Palm sugar. Cook up to half the water and lift. Add one spoke. Wait for it cool slightly, then strained and drunk all at once.
- Hepatitis: Prepare the 2 Javanese Turmeric, then wash and Peel. Sliced and boiled with ½ liter water and add a little Palm sugar. Boil until the water becomes half. Drink this concoction twice a day.
- Kidney Pain: Washed clean and peeled. Prepare 4 glasses of water and then with a handful of Javanese Turmeric cook Java tea leaves and a handful of meniran leaves. Boil until the water is left half. This stew is taken three times a day.
- Muscular Fatigue: Javanese Turmeric is also effective to help cope with muscular fatigue, especially for those of you who do exercise serious time fitness.