Health Benefits and Uses of Javanese Turmeric

Created by philiHealth | | Health & Wellness

Javanese Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza)

Javanese Turmeric or Javanese Ginger (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) is a medicinal plant belonging to the tribe-finding meeting (Zingiberaceae). This plant originated from Indonesia, more specifically from Java island, out of which it spread to several places in the biogeographical region Malesia. At present, most cultured meeting buffoonery was in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Philippines this plant than in Southeast Asia can be found also in China, Indochina, Barbados, India, Japan, Korea, the United States and several European countries. It is known in Javanese as Temulawak, in Sundanese as Koneng Gede and in Madurese as Temu Labak. Javanese Turmeric grows in shady lands, temperatures of 19-30°C and rainfall of 1,000-4,000 mm/year. In general, this plant has a high adaptability for various weather conditions up to 1500 m above sea level in tropical forests climates. Roots adapt well to various types of soil including calcareous, sandy and clay soils.

Curcuma xanthorrhiza has pseudo stems up to 2 m tall. The stem is a midrib of upright, overlapping leaves, green or dark brown in color. Rhizomes are perfectly formed, large, branched and reddish brown, dark yellow or dark green. The highest starch content in the rhizome is at an altitude of 240 m. Each bud forms 2-9 leaves with a circular shape extending to lancet, green or light purple to dark brown, leaves 31-84 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, stems 43-80 cm long and each strand is connected with a midrib. Flowers are dark yellow, uniquely shaped and clustered with lateral inflorescences. The stems and scales are in the form of lines, 9-23 cm long and 4-6 cm wide, having protectors with comparable crowns. Petals are white, hairy and 8-13 mm long. The crown is tubular, 4-5 cm long, long, round white flower strands with a red tip, 1-2cm long and 1cm wide, while the rhizome is dark orange or brown, with a pungent aroma and bitter taste.

Javanese Turmeric has been homemade and consumed for over 1,200 years since the Mataram Kingdom in Java, using fresh and raw ingredients such as Tamarind, Galangal, Ginger, and Turmeric. This potent concoction of earthy and spicy herbs is made by grandmothers, villagers, and even urbanites, and is also recently available to tourists who visit local warungs (restaurants) and massage parlours. Javanese and Balinese traditional healers use it frequently in their healing sessions too. People in Indonesia started stocking up on Jamu, a traditional herbal drink which is known to boost one’s immune system and maintain good health. Local Jamu sellers started selling out their stock, ingredient prices soared more than 50%, and Jamu makers reaped handsome profits while a gloomy future looms. Even Indonesia’s president Joko Widodo swears by his Jamu, he has consumed it daily for 18 years. This ancient Indonesian traditional herbal drink is wildly popular again in 2020.

Health Benefits of Javanese Turmeric

Curcuma xanthorrhiza is used as a medicinal plant. It has been traditionally used to treat stomach diseases, liver disorders, constipation, bloody diarrhea, dysentery, children’s fevers, hemorrhoid, and skin eruptions. This herbal plant can do more to keep your health in shape and maintain body stamina. It was often used as a pain relief inside the bones. According to The Health Research Institute this herbal plant register as a traditional medicine to cure all various disease, such a asthma and digestive problems. Lately this herbal plant made as a healthy drink and distributed to many countries specially in Asia region. It has been used by Indonesian ancestors for food, medicinal purposes, and as a tonic. According to one source it is an effective preventive and pesticide of mushroom mites. In traditional medicine Curcuma xanthorrhiza is reported to be useful for the treatment of hepatitis, liver complaints, diabetes, rheumatism, anticancer, hypertension and heart disorders. Curcuma xanthorrhiza has also shown antidiuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-rheumatic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-dysmenorrheal, anti-spasmodic, anti-leucorrhoea, anti-bacterial and antifungal effects. It reduces cholesterol, treats constipation, migraines and increases flow of milk during breast feeding. At the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, people all around the globe were scurrying to supermarkets and staying home as much as possible to avoid contracting the unprecedented virus. In Indonesia, however, an unusual trend revealed itself.

The main content of rhizomes is protein, carbohydrates and essential oils consisting of camphor, glucoside, turmerol, and curcumin which are useful as anti-inflammatory and anti-hepototoxic properties. Rhizome contains 48-59.64% starch, 1.6-2.2% curcumin and 1.48-1.63% essential oils which are believed to improve kidney work, anti-inflammatory, acne medications, increase appetite, anti-cholesterol, anemia, antioxidants, cancer prevention, and antimicrobial. The traditional benefits of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were further supported by the isolation and identification of several active chemical constituents, including xanthorrhizol, curcumin and few volatile substances. Xanthorrhizol, the major component of the essential oil of Curcuma xanthorrhiza, is a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid. This compound makes up nearly 46.3% of the total components of the essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation. Xanthorrhizol was investigated for its antibacterial and anticandidal activity. Curcuma xanthorrhiza contains various active volatile substances and borneol, which are present in much lower quantities. Pharmacological effects include hepatoprotector, lower cholesterol, laxative, diuretic, relieve joint pain, increase appetite, smooth milk, and cleanse the blood. Curcuma is planted in the highlands to produce rhizomes that contain only a little essential oil.

A 1996 study "Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Java Tumeric) in clinical use" published in Fortschr Med. by C Hentschel, M C Eglau, E G Hahn, the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza has been used for medical purposes for hundreds of years. A related plant, but which contains other constituents, is Curcuma domestica, which is used in the manufacture of curry powder. Both experimental and clinical studies have revealed, in particular, a choleretic effect. In addition, in part in animal experimental studies, antilipidemic, analgesic-antiphlogistic and antimicrobial effects have also been found.

Digestive Disorders:

Tamarind is an excellent source of dietary fibre, which binds to toxins, bile salts and surplus cholesterol, and then detoxifying them out of the body safely and cleanly. It is a commonly used natural laxative, gently aiding digestion and alleviating stomach discomforts due to constipation. It is also sometimes termed the "slimming fruit" due to its effectiveness in weight loss practices. Ginger also promotes healthy weight and helps digestion. Various health disorders in the digestive tract such as flatulence, dyspepsia, and indigestion can be overcome with Javanese Turmeric.

In 2006, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology states that patients who experienced health problems found in the ulcerative colitis disease is getting better by taking ginger supplements on a regular basis.

If you have digestive problems such as bloating or colds you can easily solve by using Curcuma xanthorrhiza. The way is easy, that is by consuming Curcuma xanthorrhiza everyday routine. Take 2 fingers of fresh Javanese Turmeric rhizome is washed and cut. After it boiled in 3 cups of water until the remaining 1 cup. Setela cold filtered and drunk as well as 2 times a day.

Gastric Protection (Gastroprotective):

A 2014 study "Gastroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats" published in Biomed Res Int. by Nurhidayah Ab Rahim, Pouya Hassandarvish, Shahram Golbabapour, Salmah Ismail, Saad Tayyab, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg).

Treating Gallstones:

Provide approximately 25 grams of Javanese Turmeric, 30 grams Meniran, and palm sugar to taste. Enter the three ingredients into 500 cc of water and boil until the water remaining 200 cc, then strain and drink the water.

Liver Disorders:

Liver Protection (Hepatoprotective):

Curcuma xanthorrhiza is excellent for keeping or maintaining liver health because Curcuma xanthorrhiza contains katagoga. Katagoga is what helps the liver to produce bile and also give incentives to vacate the bile. Oral application of Curcuma xanthorrhiza in mice and rats has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects from a number of hepatotoxic causes, such as acetaminophen, galactosamine, and carbon tetrachloride, as indicated by extreme alleviation of serum transaminases. This hepatoprotective activity is regarded due to the presence of its antioxidant compounds, as well as its capability to reduce the activation of proinflammatory cytokines.

Kim et al. found that oral feeding of 200 mg xanthorrhizol weakened cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice (cisplatin is frequently applied in chemotherapy). Its likely mode of action is by attenuation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases phosphorylation. The above effect shows that Curcuma xanthorrhiza has the potential to safeguard the liver against various hepatotoxins as also reported by many of its traditional uses. This hepatoprotective activity was further supported by other reports showing that Curcuma xanthorrhiza could reduce liver triglyceride level and serum triglyceride content.

A 2014 study "Investigation of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damaged rats" published in Scientific World Journal by Sutha Devaraj, Sabariah Ismail, Surash Ramanathan, Mun Fei Yam, Curcuma xanthorrhiza has been used for centuries in traditional system of medicine to treat several diseases such as hepatitis, liver complaints, and diabetes. It has been consumed as food supplement and "jamu" as a remedy for hepatitis. Hence, Curcuma xanthorrhiza was further explored for its potential as a functional food for liver related diseases. As such, initiative was taken to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome. Antioxidant activity of the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza fractions was determined using in vitro assays. Hepatoprotective assay was conducted against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of hexane fraction. Highest antioxidant activity was found in hexane fraction. In the case of hepatoprotective activity, Curcuma xanthorrhiza hexane fraction showed significant improvement in terms of a biochemical liver function, antioxidative liver enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activity. Good recovery was observed in the treated hepatic tissues histologically. Hence, the results concluded that Curcuma xanthorrhiza hexane fraction possessed prominent hepatoprotective activities which might be due to its in vitro antioxidant activity. These findings also support the use of Curcuma xanthorrhiza as a functional food for hepatitis remedy in traditional medicinal system.

Provide 25 grams of Javanese Turmeric and 30 grams of crushed leaves of Mirten. Then mixed with about 600 cc of water, boil until the water remaining 300 cc. After that strain the water and drink in a warm state.

Detox the Body:

For many of us, especially distraction-filled urbanites, having a clean lifestyle of good, wholesome, natural food everyday is simply not that easy. Along with all the late-night snacking, sinful buffet spreads, and party nights with free-flow drinks, we seldom pause to listen to our body. Thankfully, drinking Javanese Turmeric can help with reseting some of that accumulated toxins in your body. Ginger, Turmeric, and Tamarind are all excellent ingredients to help detoxify your liver and kidneys, purifying you from the inside-out to unleash your natural immunity and power. Ginger also replenishes your body's levels of iron, sodium, vitamins A and C, flavonoids and phytonutrients.

Human Liver Glucuronidation Activity:

A 2017 study "In vitro Inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Constituents on Human Liver Glucuronidation Activity" published in Pharmacogn Mag. by Zulhilmi Husni, Sabariah Ismail, Mohd Halimhilmi Zulkiffli, Atiqah Afandi, Munirah Haron, evaluated the inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and their constituents on human liver glucuronidation activity. Herbal extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts) and their constituents were incubated with human liver microsomes with the addition of UDPGA to initiate the reaction. Working concentrations of herbal extracts and their constituents ranged from 10 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL and 10 μM to 300 μM respectively. IC50 was determined by monitoring the decrement of glucuronidation activity with the increment of herbal extracts or phytochemical constituent's concentrations. All herbal extracts inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity in range of 34.69 μg/mL to 398.10 μg/mL whereas for the constituents, only xanthorrhizol and curcumin (constituents of Curcuma xanthorrhiza) inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity with IC50 of 538.50 and 32.26 μM respectively. In the present study, we have proved the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to interfere with in vitro glucuronidation process in human liver microsomes.

Liver Dysfunction:

Kurkuminoid has the efficacy of treating disorders of liver health and prevent fatty liver cells. Several scientific studies and clinical trials have been carried out by scientists from both Indonesia and the world, and the result generally supports the use of Javanese Turmeric as a traditional medicine that can use to liver disease and stiff.

Liver Damage:

The Curcuma xanthorrhiza aqueous extract revealed significant hepatoprotective activity against β-D-galactosamine induced liver damage.

A 1995 study "Protective and therapeutic effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza on hepatotoxin-induced liver damage" published in Am Journal Chin Med. by S C Lin, C C Lin, Y H Lin, S Supriyatna, C W Teng, was to clarify whether Curcuma xanthorrhiza treatment may prevent acute liver damage induced by acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results clearly indicated that extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza could reduce significantly the acute elevation of serum transaminases levels induced by the two kinds of hepatotoxins, and alleviated the degree of liver damage at 24 hours after the intraperitoneal administration of two hepatotoxins. It may be concluded that Curcuma xanthorrhiza can protect the liver from various hepatotoxins, hence Curcuma xanthorrhiza could be useful in the treatment of liver injuries and has promise as a kind of broad spectrum hepatoprotective agent.

Kidney Disorders:

Benefits of Curcuma xanthorrhiza for kidney health is also no doubt, by consuming Curcuma xanthorrhiza regularly it happens renal impairment may be overcome with good.

Two fingers of fresh Javanese Turmeric rhizome is washed and cut. After it boiled in 3 cups of water until the remaining 1 cup. Setela cold filtered and drunk as well as 2 times a day.

Gall Bladder:

A 2002 clinical trial "Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder" published in Asia Pac Journal Clin Nutr. by Abdul Rasyid, Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman, Kamaruddin Jaalam, Aznan Lelo, demonstrated that curcumin, an active compound of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuma domestica, produces a positive cholekinetic effect. A 20 mg amount of curcumin is capable of contracting the gall bladder by up to 29% within an observation time of 2 h. The aim of the current study was to define the dosage of curcumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the gall bladder, and to determine if there is a linear relationship between doubling the curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction. A randomised, single-blind, three-phase, crossover-designed examination was carried out on 12 healthy volunteers. Ultrasonography was carried out serially to measure the gall bladder volume. The data obtained was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The fasting volumes of gall bladders were similar (P > 0.50), with 17.28 +/- 5.47 mL for 20 mg curcumin, 18.34 +/- 3.75 mL for 40 mg and 18.24 +/- 3.72 mL for 80 mg. The percentage decrease in gall bladder volume 2 h after administration of 20, 40 and 80 mg was 34.10 +/- 10.16, 51.15 +/- 8.08 and 72.25 +/- 8.22, respectively, which was significantly different (P < 0.01). On the basis of the present findings, it appears that the dosage of cucumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the bladder was 40 mg. This study did not show any linear relationship between doubling curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction.

Take about 30 grams of Javanese Turmeric, sliced ​​into small pieces, then put in 500 cc of water and boil until the water remaining 200 cc. strain and drink the decoction of Curcuma xanthorrhiza.

Infections:

Antibacterial:

The antimicrobial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza has been well studied using a number of disease-causing microbes. The tested pathogens could cause some serious diseases such as food-borne illness, dental plaque, skin disease, infectious disease, pneumonia, tuberculosis, pulp necrosis, diarrhea, typhus, acne, nosocomial infections, hospital-acquired infection, filamentous fungal infections, nail infection, and penicilliosis.

Some well-known methods used to evaluate in vitro susceptibility test of Curcuma xanthorrhiza such as NCCLS (M38-A) standard method and biofilm quantification, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza, pure xanthorrhizol, and its essential oils are proven to be the potential of inhibiting or killing pathogenic microbes ranging from medium level activity to strong killing ability.

The antimicrobial capability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza is possibly due to its phenolic compound content particularly xanthorrhizol and curcuminoids as the main ingredient. The phenolic compound has been reported to have inhibition action on cell walls or membranes of microbes by altering its cell permeability, resulting in the forfeit of essential molecules such as ATP, RNA, protein, and DNA. Although the mode of antimicrobial action of xanthorrhizol has not been comprehensively elucidated, xanthorrhizol possibly has suppression ability on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) caused by microbial attack. As for curcumin, some of its antimicrobial modes of action were explained by restraint of cytokinesis and bacterial cell multiplication, as well as interruption of bacterial cell wall and membrane, inducing cell lysis. Curcumin was also reported to form electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interplay with cell membrane and wall of fungi resulting in a disarrangement of the membrane. Even though the antibacterial attribute of Curcuma xanthorrhiza seems to work on Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria, it is more powerful than Gram-positive bacteria due to the composition of its cell wall.

Most of those reported microbe-related illnesses are linked up to the traditional uses of Curcuma xanthorrhiza such as treatment of gastrointestinal problems and skin-related disorders. Thus, the reported antimicrobial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza supports some of its traditional medicinal benefits. For example, the ability of ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza to suppress the growth of Escherichia coli is related to its traditional use for diarrhea treatment.

Antibacterial (Streptococcus mutans):

Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibacterial chemotherapy. This has prompted the application of antibacterial photodynamic therapy in bacteria-related diseases due to its excellent biocide effects. However, few studies have attempted to develop a novel photosensitizer based on natural components. The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial photodynamic therapy effects of curcumin and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract against Streptococcus mutans.

A 2020 study "Antimicrobial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza nanoemulsions on Streptococcus mutans biofilms" published in Biofouling by Mu-Yeol Cho, Si-Mook Kang, Eun-Song Lee, Baek-Il Kim, an optimal nanoemulsion formulation for Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil was investigated using different sonication times. The antimicrobial effects of the nanoemulsion, the original emulsion, distilled water, and Listerine, on Streptococcus mutans biofilms were compared. The optimum ultrasonic time, determined in terms of droplet size and stability, was found to be 10 min. Cell viability was the lowest on exposure to the nanoemulsion, and significantly different compared with exposure to distilled water or Listerine. The emulsion's effect was similar to that of the nanoemulsion, but was non-uniform with a high interquartile range. Confocal microscope analysis revealed that the live/dead cell ratio in the nanoemulsion was 50% and 40% less than those in distilled water and Listerine, respectively. Biofilm treated with the nanoemulsion was thinner than biofilms exposed to the other treatments. Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil nanoemulsions exhibited stable and strong antimicrobial effects due to nano-sized particles, highlighting their potential use in oral health treatment.

A 2017 study "Antibacterial photodynamic therapy with curcumin and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract against Streptococcus mutans" published in Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. by Hyung-Jung Lee, Si-Mook Kang, Seung-Hwa Jeong, Ki-Ho Chung, Baek-Il Kim, a planktonic suspension containing an S. mutans strain was treated in three separate groups: antibacterial photodynamic therapy with curcumin, Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract, and a mixture of curcumin and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract (ratio= 1:1) at concentrations of 0, 10, 102, 103, and 104ng/ml. Light irradiation with a center wavelength of 405nm was applied using an LED (power density of 84.5mW for 300s at an energy density of 25.3J/cm2). The phototoxicity of photosensitizers against S. mutans was investigated using a colony-forming-unit assay. Percentage logarithmic reductions [log10(CFU/ml) values] were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05) and Student's independent t-test. The viability of S. mutans in the presence of curcumin, Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract, and a mixture of these two components was substantially reduced during irradiation with 405 nm light. The phototoxicity of the photosensitizer varied with its solubility and concentration. These preliminary in vitro findings imply that combining curcumin and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract with a 405nm LED may be a novel method of applying antibacterial photodynamic therapy. This could be advantageous in preventing and treating dental caries using devices that are readily available in clinics.

A 2008 study "Antibacterial characteristics of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract on Streptococcus mutans biofilm" published in Journal Microbiol. by Jung-Eun Kim, Hee-Eun Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Ho-Jeong Lee, Ho-Keun Kwon, Baek-Il Kim, evaluated the antibacterial effects of a natural Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract on a Streptococcus mutans biofilm by examining the bactericidal activity, inhibition of acidogenesis and morphological alteration. Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract was obtained from the roots of a medicinal plant in Indonesia, which has shown selective antibacterial effects on planktonic S. mutans. S. mutans biofilms were formed on slide glass over a 72 h period and treated with the following compounds for 5, 30, and 60 min: saline, 1% DMSO, 2 mg/ml chlorhexidine, and 0.1 mg/ml Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract. The Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract group exposed for 5 and 30 min showed significantly fewer colony forming units (CFU, 57.6 and 97.3%, respectively) than those exposed to 1% DMSO, the negative control group (P<0.05). These CFU were similar in number to those slides exposed to chlorhexidine, the positive control group. Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract showed similar bactericidal effect to that of chlorhexidine but the dose of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract was one twentieth that of chlorhexidine. In addition, the biofilms treated with Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract and chlorhexidine maintained a neutral pH for 4 h, which indicates that Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract and chlorhexidine inhibit acid production. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in the cell wall and membrane of the Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract-treated biofilms; an uneven surface and a deformation in contour. Overall, natural Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract has strong bactericidal activity, inhibitory effects on acidogenesis, and alters the microstructure of S. mutans biofilm. In conclusion, Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract has potential in anti-S. mutans therapy for the prevention of dental caries.

A 2006 study "In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol against Streptococcus mutans biofilms" published in Lett Appl Microbiol. by Y Rukayadi, J-K Hwang, the biofilms of S. mutans at different phases of growth were exposed to XTZ at different concentrations (5, 10 and 50 micromol l-1) and for different time exposures (1, 10, 30 and 60 min). The results demonstrated that the activity of XTZ in removing S. mutans biofilm was dependent on the concentration, exposure time and the phase growth of biofilm. A concentration of 5 micromol l-1 of XTZ completely inhibited biofilm formation by S. mutans at adherent phases of growth, whereas 50 micromol l-1 of XTZ removed 76% of biofilm at plateau accumulated phase when exposed to S. mutans biofilm for 60 min. Xanthorrhizol isolated from an edible plant (C. xanthorrhiza Roxb.) shows promise as an antibacterial agent for inhibiting and removing S. mutans biofilms in vitro. XTZ could be used as a potential antibacterial agent against biofilm formation by S. mutans.

Another 2006 Study "Effect of coating the wells of a polystyrene microtiter plate with xanthorrhizol on the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans" published in Journal Basic Microbiol. by Yaya Rukayadi, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Colonization on the surface of tooth by Streptococcus mutans is an important step in the initiation of dental plaque. Polystyrene microtiter plates have been employed to study bacterial colonization and biofilm formation of periodontal bacteria. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of coating the wells of a polystyrene microtiter plate with xanthorrhizol isolated from java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) on Strep. mutans biofilm formation. Our studies demonstrated that coating of a polystyrene microtiter plate with 5 microg/ml of xanthorrhizol resulted in significant (up to 60%) reduction of adherent cells compared to that of cells in uncoated wells. This result suggests that xanthorrhizol displays potent activity in preventing Strep. mutans biofilm formation.

Antibacterial (Mycobacterium tuberculosis):

A 2018 study "Evaluation of antimycobacterial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in vitro" published in Vet World by Ngadino, Setiawan, Koerniasari, Ernawati, S A Sudjarwo, was to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of the Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in vitro. Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was set by maceration method. The broth microdilution and disc diffusion method were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), respectively, of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract on strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. C. xanthorrhiza ethanol extract was found to have the antimycobacterial effects with a MIC value of 1600 μg/ml while MBC value of 3200 μg/ml for M. tuberculosis H37Rv. From these findings, it can be concluded that Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract have an antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in vitro and its potency elevated by increasing the C. xanthorrhiza ethanol extract concentration.

Antibacterial (Escherichia coli):

A 2020 study "The food-grade antimicrobial xanthorrhizol targets the enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) in Escherichia coli" published in Bioorg Med Chem Lett. by Yogiara, Elena A Mordukhova, Dooil Kim, Won-Gon Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Jae-Gu Pan, xanthorrhizol, isolated from the Indonesian Java turmeric Curcuma xanthorrhiza, displays broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. We report herein the evidence that mechanism of action of xanthorrhizol may involve FabI, an enoyl-(ACP) reductase, inhibition. The predicted Y156V substitution in the FabI enzyme promoted xanthorrhizol resistance, while the G93V mutation originally known for triclosan resistance was not effective against xanthorrhizol. Two other mutations, F203L and F203V, conferred FabI enzyme resistance to both xanthorrhizol and triclosan. These results showed that xanthorrhizol is a food-grade antimicrobial compound targeting FabI but with a different mode of binding from triclosan.

A 2015 study "Escherichia coli ASKA Clone Library Harboring tRNA-Specific Adenosine Deaminase (tadA) Reveals Resistance towards Xanthorrhizol" published in Molecules by Yogiara, Dooil Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Jae-Gu Pan, screened for probable target(s), we introduced the ASKA pooled-plasmid library into Escherichia coli W3110 imp4213 and enriched the library for resistant clones with increasing concentrations of xanthorrhizol. After three rounds of enrichment, we found nine genes that increased xanthorrhizol resistance. The resistant clones were able to grow in LB medium containing 256 µg/mL xanthorrhizol, representing a 16-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration. Subsequent DNA sequence analysis revealed that overexpression of tadA, galU, fucU, ydeA, ydaC, soxS, nrdH, yiiD, and mltF genes conferred increased resistance towards xanthorrhizol. Among these nine genes, tadA is the only essential gene. tadA encodes a tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase. Overexpression of E. coli W3110 imp4213 (pCA24N-tadA) conferred resistance to xanthorrhizol up to 128 µg/mL. Moreover, overexpression of two tadA mutant enzymes (A143V and F149G) led to a twofold increase in the MIC. These results suggest that the targets of xanthorrhizol may include tadA, which has never before been explored as an antibiotic target.

Antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae):

Xanthorrhizol, isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza, has potent antifungal and antibacterial activity. It shows very strong activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus, but is generally not active against Gram-negative bacteria.

A 2019 study "Expansion of antibacterial spectrum of xanthorrhizol against Gram-negatives in combination with PMBN and food-grade antimicrobials" published in Journal Microbiol. by Man Su Kim, Ha-Rim Kim, Haebom Kim, Soo-Keun Choi, Chang-Hwan Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Seung-Hwan Park, was explored the possibility of using a combination strategy for expanding the antimicrobial spectrum of xanthorrhizol against Gram-negative bacteria. To take advantage of xanthorrhizol being a food-grade material, 10 food-grade or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) antimicrobial compounds with low toxicities were selected for combination therapy. In addition, polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), which is less toxic than polymyxin B, was also selected as an outer membrane permeabilizer. The antibacterial activity of various double or triple combinations with or without xanthorrhizol were assayed in vitro against four Gram-negative bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Vibrio cholerae), with synergistic combinations exhibiting clear activity subjected to further screening. The combinations with the greatest synergism were xanthorrhizol + PMBN + nisin, xanthorrhizol + PMBN + carvacrol, and xanthorrhizol + PMBN + thymol. These combinations also showed potent antimicrobial activity against Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In time-kill assays, the three combinations achieved complete killing of E. coli within 2 h, and S. Typhi and V. cholera within 15 min. This is the first report on expanding the activity spectrum of xanthorrhizol against Gram-negative bacteria through combination with PMBN and food-grade or GRAS substances, with the resulting findings being particularly useful for increasing the industrial and medical applications of xanthorrhizol.

Foodborne Bacterial Infections (Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus):

A 2008 study "Antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. against foodborne pathogens" published in Journal Food Prot. by Lee Young Lee, Jae-Seok Shim, Yaya Rukayadi, Jae-Kwan Hwang, xanthorrhizol, isolated from the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., is a sesquiterpene compound with a molecular weight of 218. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol against foodborne pathogens. The antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol was measured in terms of the MIC and the MBC. MICs and MBCs of xanthorrhizol against Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were 8, 16, 8, 8, 16, 8 microg/ml and 16, 32, 16, 16, 16, 16 microg/ml, respectively. The bactericidal study, as determined by the viable cell count method, revealed that xanthorrhizol treatment at 4 x MIC reduced viable cells by at least 6 to 8 log for all six foodborne pathogens in 4 h. Xanthorrhizol maintained its antibacterial activity after thermal treatments (121 degrees C, 15 min) under various pH ranges (pH 3.0, 7.0, and 11.0). These results strongly suggest that xanthorrhizol, conferring strong antibacterial activity with thermal and pH stability, can be effectively used as a natural preservative to prevent the growth of foodborne pathogens.

Antifungal (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis):

A 2013 study "In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms" published in Phytother Res. by Yaya Rukayadi, Jae-Kwan Hwang, was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD₄₉₀ compared to the control wells. The SMIC₅₀ and SMIC₈₀ of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD₄₉₀ was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections.

A 2006 study "In vitro anticandidal activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb" published in Journal Antimicrob Chemother by Yaya Rukayadi, Dongeun Yong, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Xanthorrhizol, isolated from the methanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., was investigated for its anticandidal activity using six Candida species. The in vitro susceptibility tests for xanthorrhizol were carried out in terms of MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) using the NCCLS M27-A2 broth microdilution method. Time-kill curves were determined to assess the correlation between MIC and fungicidal activity of xanthorrhizol at concentrations ranging from 0 MIC to 4x MIC.  All Candida species showed susceptibility to xanthorrhizol in the MIC range 1.0-15.0 mg/L for Candida albicans, 1.0-10 mg/L for Candida glabrata, 2.0-8.0 mg/L for Candida guilliermondii, 2.5-7.5 mg/L for Candida krusei, 2.5-25 mg/L for Candida parapsilosis and 2.0-8.0 mg/L for Candida tropicalis. Time-kill curves demonstrated that xanthorrhizol was able to kill the Candida strains with MFCs of 20 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, 12.5 mg/mL, 10 mg/L, 30 mg/mL and 10 mg/L for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis, respectively. The potent anticandidal activity of xanthorrhizol may support the use of C. xanthorriza for the treatment of candidiasis.

Antifungal (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichophyton mentagrophytes):

A 2007 study "In Vitro antimycotic activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. against opportunistic filamentous fungi" published in Phytother Res. by Yaya Rukayadi, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Xanthorrhizol was isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Zingiberaceae) and its in vitro activity against opportunistic filamentous fungi was evaluated using the NCCLS (M38-A) standard method. Xanthorrhizol was found to be active against all the species tested, namely Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: the MICs being 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 4.0, 1.0 and 1.0 microg/mL, while the MFCs were 4.0, 4.0, 4.0, 8.0, 2.0 and 2.0 microg/mL, respectively. The susceptibility of six species of filamentous fungi to xanthorrhizol was comparable to that of the commercial antifungal, amphotericin B. Xanthorrhizol also has activity to inhibit the conidial germination of all tested species. The results strongly suggest that xanthorrhizol can be developed as a natural antifungal agent.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 - Corona Virus):

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the coronavirus family. The first case was reported in December 2019, and the disease has become a pandemic. Impaired immune regulation is one of the factors that play a role in its pathogenesis and results in poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients. There have been many studies with drug candidates used as antivirals or immunomodulators. However, the results of these investigations showed that the drug candidates were not significantly effective against the disease. Meanwhile, people believe that consuming herbal immunomodulators can prevent or even cure COVID-19. Unfortunately, specific preclinical and clinical trials to evaluate the effects of herbal immunoregulators have not been conducted. Certain natural compounds might be effective for the treatment of COVID-19 based on general concepts from previous experiments.

Indonesia is a rich archipelago with an abundance of natural resources. From our past generations, it can be used as a natural medicine or other health purposes. Recently, herbal plants are widely used to prevent coronavirus disease or COVID-19. The common consumed herbs for prevention of COVID-19 are Turmeric and Javanese Turmric. Since SARS epidemic happened in 2003, various pharmacological studies on curcumin have been conducted.

Right now, researchers are focused on the effect of curcumin and its power to fend off COVID-19. The receptor that plays a role (SARS-CoV-2) is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 forms as fixed matter (attached to cells) and soluble matter (not attached to cells). Research on curcumin compounds (as single or pure compounds) reported an ability to increase ACE2 on rats by animal testing, but there are no further studies about its direct relationship toward coronavirus disease (COVID-19). "In order to achieve the therapeutic requirements of curcumin, it is expected that many ACE2 are free as soluble matters so it will prevent the coronavirus sticking to our cells, which will directly prevent the infection".

Empirically, the combined content of chemical compounds from these plants are useful as an immunomodulator to maintain body endurance. The pharmacological effects of chemical compounds (multi compound) in these plants can be different from the pharmacological effects of single compound. Related with COVID-19, the beneficiation of these plants either in single compound or multi compound as an immunomodulator can increase our immune system and it’s safe for our bodies. Recently, are doing further research. As researchers, we should work together with pharmaceutical industries and our government to develop our herbs as an antiviral against COVID-19.

A 2020 review of Their Mechanisms, Pros and Cons "Traditional Herbal Medicine Candidates as Complementary Treatments for COVID-19" published in Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine by Rhea Veda Nugraha, Hastono Ridwansyah, Mohammad Ghozali, Astrid Feinisa Khairani, Nur Atik, discusses some herbal agents extracted from various plants, including Echinacea, Cinchona, Curcuma longa, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza, which are considered for the treatment of COVID-19. In addition, we discuss the pros and cons of utilising herbal medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic, draw some conclusions, and make recommendations at the end of the session.

Pediatric Health Issues:

Stimulates Appetite:

For parents who have children with low appetite, Javanese Turmeric can be a powerful drug to increase your child’s appetite. Certainly in a form that has been processed so it can be very safe and delicious when consumed by your child. Javanese Turmeric can quicken the process of emptying the stomach so that the appetite will soon increase again.

Tumors & Cancers:

Javanese Turmeric can control, prevent, or even kill various types of cancer including colon, breast, and prostate. Javanese Turmeric also has the benefit of preventing the action of enzymes or other components that cause the growth of tumor cells. So the regular use of Javanese Turmeric in tumor sufferers is the right step.

The first preliminary antitumor test of some compounds (β-atlantone, α-curcumene, ar-turmerone, and xanthorrhizol) from rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was performed on sarcoma 180 ascites in rats. Three compounds (α-curcumene, ar-turmerone, and xanthorrhizol) from this study showed significant antitumor activity evaluated by the packed cell volume method. The antimetastatic and antitumor potential of xanthorrhizol was further assessed in vivo using mice lung-metastasis specimens and a tumor cell development test. Surprisingly, xanthorrhizol significantly suppressed the induction of tumor spots in the lung tissue and the development of the intra-abdominal mass of the tumor. This result is strengthened by the molecular analysis showing that xanthorrhizol could inhibit the expression of COX-2, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 MMP-9 in metastatic mice.

Previous studies also showed that xanthorrhizol was able to activate apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial pathway (p53-dependent) in HeLa cervical cancer and HepG2 liver cancer. Within HeLa cervical cancer cells, xanthorrhizol upregulated p53 and Bax but had no effect on Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic protein).

This upregulation of p53 and Bax protein production probably reactivates the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells toward apoptotic stimuli. However, this result is in contrast with those reported by Handayani et al. and Cheah et al. where upregulation of p53 did not affect Bax expression but lowered the Bcl-2 level in HepG2 liver cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer. From these findings, xanthorrhizol may have apoptosis induction activity via p53-regulated mitochondrial pathway in particular cancer cells with diverse regulation on the expression of Bax/Bcl-2.

Xanthorrhizol, a bisabolene sesquiterpenoid, is abundantly found in the plant Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Traditionally, Curcuma xanthorrhiza is widely used for the treatment of different health conditions, including common fever, infection, lack of appetite, fatigue, liver complaints, and gastrointestinal disorders. Xanthorrhizol exhibits wide-ranging pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities, in addition to a protective effect on multiple organs. The present review provides detailed findings on the anticancer activities of xanthorrhizol and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms.

A 2022 study "Xanthorrhizol, a potential anticancer agent, from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb" published in Phytomedicine by Adelina Simamora, Kris Herawan Timotius, Mukerrem Betul Yerer, Heri Setiawan, Abdul Mun'im, showed that xanthorrhizol has preventive and therapeutic activities against different types of cancer, including breast, cervical, colon, liver, lung, oral and esophageal, and skin cancers. Xanthorrhizol regulates multiple signaling pathways that block carcinogenesis and proliferation. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that xanthorrhizol targets different kinases, inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis proteins, and transcription factors, leading to the suppression of angiogenesis, metastasis, and the activation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The potential anticancer benefits of xanthorrhizol recommend further in vivo studies against different types of cancer. Further, xanthorrhizol needs to be confirmed for its toxicity, bioavailability, protective, antifatigue, and energy booster activities. Future studies for the therapeutic development of xanthorrhizol may be directed to cancer-related fatigue.

"Xanthorrhizol: a review of its pharmacological activities and anticancer properties" published in Cancer Cell Int. in 2015 by Seok Fang Oon, Meenakshii Nallappan, Thiam Tsui Tee, Shamarina Shohaimi, Nur Kartinee Kassim, Mohd Shazrul Fazry Sa'ariwijaya, Yew Hoong Cheah, has been well established to possess a variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Since many synthetic drugs possess toxic side effects and are unable to support the increasing prevalence of disease, there is significant interest in developing natural product as new therapeutics. XNT is a very potent natural bioactive compound that could fulfil the current need for new drug discovery. Despite its importance, a comprehensive review of XNT's pharmacological activities has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, the present review aims to summarize the available information in this area, focus on its anticancer properties and indicate the current status of the research. This helps to facilitate the understanding of XNT's pharmacological role in drug discovery, thus suggesting areas where further research is required.

Human Cancer Cell Lines (Cytotoxicity):

Another 2015 study "Therapeutic Effect of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Curcuma Species with Cancer Drugs in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines" published in Phytother Res. by Cheppail Ramachandran, Karl-W Quirin, Enrique A Escalon, Ivonne V Lollett, Steven J Melnick, synergistic effect of supercritical CO2 extracts of Curcuma species with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs was investigated in human alveolar (SJRH30) and embryonal (RD) rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. The Curcuma amada (Mango Ginger) extract showed the highest levels of cytotoxicity with inhibitory concentration IC50 values of 7.133 µg/ml and 7.501 µg/ml for SJRH30 and RD cell lines, respectively, as compared with Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Javanese Turmeric) extracts. Curcuma amada showed synergistic cytotoxic effects with vinblastine (VBL) and cyclophosphamide (CP) as indicated by the combination index values of <1 for VBL + Curcuma amada, CP + Curcuma amada, and VBL + CP + Curcuma amada combinations in both embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. When lower doses of Curcuma amada (0.1-0.2 µg/ml) were combined with cancer drugs like CP and VBL, caspase-3 activity increased significantly compared with individual agents and correlated with the percentage of apoptotic cells. Curcuma amada in combination with VBL and CP induced a higher percentage of apoptosis than single agents in both cell lines. Curcuma amada also modulated the expression of genes associated with intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, Bak, and p53) and also inhibited the expression of genes associated with inflammation such as COX-2 and NF-κB. Xenograft studies with SJRH30 tumors in nude mice showed that Curcuma amada treatment inhibited tumor growth rate with and without VBL and increased the survival rate significantly. These results suggest that Curcuma amada can be evaluated further as an adjuvant with cancer drugs for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma patients.

A 1999 study "Anti-tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Ginger rhizobia used in traditional medicine" published in Br Journal Cancer by S Vimala, A W Norhanom, M Yadav, Zingiberaceae rhizomes commonly used in the Malaysian traditional medicine were screened for anti-tumour promoter activity using the short-term assay of inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells. The inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA was detected using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot technique. The indirect IFA detected the expression/inhibition of EBV-EA-D (diffused EA antigen), whereas the Western blot technique detected the expression/inhibition of both EBV-EA-D and EA-R (restricted EA antigen). Seven rhizomes were found to possess inhibitory activity towards EBV activation, induced by TPA; they are: Curcuma domestica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber officinale, Zingiber officinale (red variety), and Zingiber zerumbet. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the toxicity of the Zingiberaceae rhizome extracts. The rhizome extracts that exhibited EBV activation inhibitory activity had no cytotoxicity effect in Raji cells. Therefore, the present study shows that several Zingiberaceae species used in Malaysian traditional medicine contain naturally occurring non-toxic compounds that inhibit the EBV activation, which, if further investigated, could contribute in the development of cancer prevention methods at the tumour-promoting stage.

Chemoprotective:

Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) is a medicinal plant widely spread in South East Asia. In particular, it is commonly used not only for food and medicinal purposes in Indonesia, but also for the topical treatment of acne and skin inflammations as Thai traditional medicine.

A 2008 study "Cancer chemoprotective effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza" published in Phytother Res. by Jae Hee Park, Kwang Kyun Park, Mi Jeong Kim, Jae Kwan Hwang, Sun Kyu Park, Won Yoon Chung, was found that the methanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza inhibited significantly 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced bacterial mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in the presence of S9, and the mutagenesis induced by H2O2 and tert-butylhydroperoxide in S. typhimurium TA102, respectively. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-induced mouse ear edema was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract. Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract dose-dependently reduced ODC expression in mouse skin with TPA-induced acute inflammation. Furthermore, repeated treatment with 0.1% Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract reduced the average number of tumors per mouse and the percentage of tumor-bearing mice in a multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. These results demonstrate that the methanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza possesses cancer chemopreventive potential.

Colon Cancer - Colorectal Cancer:

A 2009 study "Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid, induces apoptosis and growth arrest in HCT116 human colon cancer cells" published in Journal Pharmacol Sci. by You-Jin Kang, Kwang-Kyun Park, Won-Yoon Chung, Jae-Kwan Hwang, Sang Kook Lee, xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. In our previous studies, xanthorrhizol suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, inhibited cancer cell growth, and exerted an anti-metastatic effect in an animal model. However, the exact mechanisms for its inhibitory effects against cancer cell growth have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the growth inhibitory effect of xanthorrhizol on cancer cells. Xanthorrhizol dose-dependently exerted antiproliferative effects against HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Xanthorrhizol also arrested cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 and G2/M phase and induced the increase of sub-G1 peaks. Cell cycle arrest was highly correlated with the downregulation of cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1; cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), CDK2, and CDK4; proliferating cell nuclear antigen; and inductions of p21 and p27, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The apoptosis by xanthorrhizol was markedly evidenced by induction of DNA fragmentation, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, xanthorrhizol increased the expression and promoter activity of pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1). These findings provide one plausible mechanism for the growth inhibitory activity of xanthorrhizol against cancer cells.

Breast Cancer:

Further assessment of isolated xanthorrhizol from Curcuma xanthorrhiza against the proliferation of cancer cells was performed in combination with curcumin in MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells). The experiment proved that the application of xanthorrhizol and curcumin exhibited synergistic growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells via activation of apoptosis.

A 2006 study "Xanthorrhizol exhibits antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction" published in Anticancer Res. by Yew Hoong Cheah, Hawariah Lope Pihie Azimahtol, Noor Rain Abdullah, xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae). Xanthorrhizol was tested for a variety of important pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. An antiproliferation assay using the MTT method indicated that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with an EC50 value of 1.71 microg/ml. Three parameters including annexin-V binding assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and accumulation of sub-G1 population in DNA histogram confirmed the apoptosis induction in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Western-blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein expression. However, xanthorrhizol did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, at a concentration of 1 microg/ml, 2.5 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml. The level of p53 was greatly increased, whilst PARP-1 was cleaved to 85 kDa subunits, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol at a dose-dependent manner. These results, thereby, suggest that xanthorrhizol has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of bcl-2, p53 and PARP-1 protein levels.

Prostate Cancer:

Coping with cancer: Curcuma xanthorrhiza are believed to inhibit the development or growth of prostate cancer, where the way it works is by stopping the blood that supports the growth of cancer.

Research of the scientific The Journal The Prostate, it is known that the content of curcumin in Javanese Turmeric can inhibit the growth of prostate cancer. The University of Maryland Medical Center explains this by hypothesizing that working curcuma stop the growth of blood vessels that supply the cancer. Its preventive effects are assumed to be supported by its antioxidant activity, which protects your cells from damage.

Pain & Inflammation:

The formalin test is a pain model which assesses the way an animal responds to continuous pain generated by injured tissue. The formalin test has a distinctive biphasic peripheral nociceptive response termed as the early and late phases. The standardized ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza has revealed significant (p < 0.05) analgesic effects on formalin induced pain in both early (0–5 min) and late phases (15–30 min). The treated groups at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant reduction in the licking of paw in the early phase (neurogenic pain) and late phase (inflammatory pain) respectively. Aspirin as a peripheral analgesic significantly reduced the licking of paws in both phases compared to the control. The early phase or tonic pain response corresponds to the neurogenic phase which is directly stimulated in the paw with the release of substance P. The late phase refers to the inflammation pain response involving the release of histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and prostaglandin.

In a study, standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract reduced the neurogenic pain (early phase) caused by formalin. As it was previously reported, some neuropathic pains can be caused by central neurogenic mechanism due to the ascending nociceptive pathway such as spinothalamic tract (STT). In contrast, thermal pain in hot plate and tail flick tests is mediated by supraspinal and spinal nociceptive pathways respectively, which are dissimilar to the neurogenic mechanism.

Reduces Inflammation:

Javanese Turmeric is a popular ingredient in Ayurvedic treatments due to its highly potent nature. It was first used as a dye, and gradually became a key ingredient in many branches of folk medicine including TCM and animalistic rituals of the Austronesian peoples. Turmeric contains curcumin which reduces swelling, pain, headaches, and osteoarthritis. Some people also use it for inflammatory bowel disease, itching, stress, and depression too. Combine it with the earthy, slightly bitter, and unique taste, there is no question about its superstar role in all Jamus. The anti-inflammatory capability of methanol rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza has long been investigated on carrageenan-induced edema, vascular permeability caused by acetic acid, and the writhing phenomenon in rats. The extract exhibited anti-inflammatory potential particularly by the presence of germacrone. The anti-inflammatory ability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza probably is also related to its curcuminoid content especially curcumin. Curcumin has more potent anti-inflammatory properties than other curcuminoid derivatives such as demethoxy- or bisdesmethoxy-form.

The anti-inflammatory ability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza is indeed also caused by xanthorrhizol as its marker compound. The earliest in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of xanthorrhizol has been reported on lipopolysaccharide-induced mice leukemic monocyte-macrophage cell RAW 264.7. The study reported the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by xanthorrhizol, resulting in the reduction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively [52]. The result is supported by other anti-inflammatory tests of xanthorrhizol using lipopolysaccharide-activated primary cultured microglial cells [14]. Lim et al. [14] successfully showed that xanthorrhizol could hinder COX-2, iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in induced microglial cells. Xanthorrhizol has also been studied in vivo using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) activated mice severe inflammation specimen and restrains the impact of TPA-activated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), COX-2, and iNOS expression in mice dermis [90]. According to these findings, xanthorrhizol can be confirmed to be involved in the suppression of IL 6 and TNF-α, as well as inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS activation via NF-kB pathway causing PGE2 and NO decrease. Based on preliminary reported data, the hydroxyl group of xanthorrhizol is essential for its pharmacological ability, in that acetylation of the hydroxyl group causes activity loss. However, in-depth future research is necessary to elucidate the structure-function correlation and molecular mode of action of xanthorrhizol.

Lim et al., have reported on the anti-inflammatory effects of xanthorrhizol against neuronal cells. Curcumin belongs to the phenol group and comprises almost 1 to 2% in ethyl acetate fraction of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. It is the second essential active compound found in this plant. Curcumin has been shown to have a powerful anti-inflammatory action since it inhibits the mechanisms of arachidonic acid and leukotrine formation. This suggests that the presence of xanthorrhizol in the standardized ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza may partly contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed in the late phase of formalin test.

In the most recent study, Kim et al. reported the anti-inflammatory properties of standardized xanthorrhizol and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract in a high-fat diet- (HFD-) caused obese mouse. The report suggested the significant inhibition expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as C reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and TNF-α in muscle (65.2–92.5%), liver (43.9–84.7%), and adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%) [54]. Repression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) p65 by C. xanthorrhiza extract and xanthorrhizol has also been investigated on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated human gingival fibroblast-1 cells [91]. This result showed the potential of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract and xanthorrhizol to suppress LPS-activated oral inflammation. Thus, we believe that Curcuma xanthorrhiza and xanthorrhizol have antiperiodontitis capability. In this research, Kim et al. [91] using xanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM (low and high, respectively). Hence, other concentrations between 1 and 10 μg/ml C. xanthorrhiza or 1 and 10 μM xanthorrhizol would have anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenic activities.

In addition, these data are reinforced by the ability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza to inhibit the growth of periodontopathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans. However, the stimulatory ability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and xanthorrhizol on osteoblastogenesis or the mechanism of bone development has not been illustrated yet. Hence, further studies on the osteoblastogenic effects and underlying molecular actions of these metabolites in living systems, such as animal models, are required. Some researchers used animal models to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its compounds. However, ethical processes increase the limitation of animal model-research based. Therefore, several in vitro anti-inflammatory approaches are available to elucidate the anti-inflammatory ability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its isolated compounds. For example, flow cytometry is a fast and helpful instrument to discover the anti-inflammatory activity of some inflammatory markers together and there should be a useful anti-inflammatory investigation on Curcuma xanthorrhiza.

A 1996 study "Non-phenolic linear diarylheptanoids from Curcuma xanthorrhiza: a novel type of topical anti-inflammatory agents: structure-activity relationship" published in Planta Med. by P Claeson, U Pongprayoon, T Sematong, P Tuchinada, V Reutrakul, P Soontornsaratune, W C Taylor, the topical anti-inflammatory activity of three non-phenolic linear 1,7-diarylheptanoids, previously isolated from a Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Zingiberaceae) and four new semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring compounds were assessed in the murine model of ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema. The naturally occurring compound 1E,3E,1,7-diphenylheptadien-5-one (6) exerted the most potent anti-inflammatory activity, with an ID50 value of similar magnitude to that of the reference drug oxyphenbutazone (67 vs. 46 micrograms/ear, respectively). None of the semi-synthetic diarylheptanoids was more active than 6. The chemical structures and pharmacological data of the natural and semi-synthetic derivatives identified a distinct structure-activity relationship. The degree of unsaturation in positions 1 and 3, and the nature of the oxygenated functional group in position 5 of the C7-chain were found to play significant roles in determining the observed in vivo activity. Based on these findings, the non-phenolic linear 1,7-diarylheptanoids-are proposed to represent a novel class of topical anti-inflammatory agents.

A 1993 study "Three non-phenolic diarylheptanoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Curcuma xanthorrhiza" published in Planta Med. by P Claeson, A Panthong, P Tuchinda, V Reutrakul, D Kanjanapothi, W C Taylor, T Santisuk, Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hexane extract of the rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) led to the isolation of three non-phenolic diarylheptanoids, identified mainly by high-field 1H-NMR as trans-trans-1,7-diphenyl-1,3-heptadien-4-one (alnustone), trans-1,7-diphenyl-1-hepten-5-ol, and trans,trans-1,7-diphenyl-1,3-heptadien-5-ol. The latter is reported for the first time as a plant constituent. Germacrone, curzerenone, and cinnamaldehyde were also isolated and identified. The three diarylheptanoids all exerted significant anti-inflammatory activity in the assay of carrageenin-induced hind paw edema in rats.

In another 1990 study "Anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, and its active principles" published in Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) by Y Ozaki, was carried out to elucidate the antiinflammatory effect of the methanol extract obtained from these rhizomes and its active principles. The methanol extract was partitioned between ether and water, and then the ether-soluble fraction was extracted with n-hexane. The n-hexane-soluble fraction was chromatographed (fr. I-IV), fr. II was rechromatographed (fr. V-VII), and then fr. V was rechromatographed (fr. VIII-X) by silica gel column chromatography. The anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on carrageenin-induced edema in rats and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability as well as the writhing symptom in mice. The methanol extract (p.o.) showed both an antiinflammatory activity and an analgesic activity and these activities shifted successively to the ether-soluble fraction, the n-hexane-soluble fraction, fr. II, V and IX. The chemical structure of fr. IX was identified as germacrone. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action of Curcuma xanthorrhiza is the result of the germacrone that it contains.

Oral Diseases:

Periodontal Disease:

Periodontal disease is triggered by the host immune response to pathogens in the microbial biofilm. Worsening of periodontal disease destroys the tooth-supporting tissues and alveolar bone. As oral inflammation can induce systemic diseases in humans, it is important to prevent periodontal disease.

A 2018 study "Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Supercritical Extract and Xanthorrhizol on LPS-Induced Inflammation in HGF-1 Cells and RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 Cells" published in Journal Microbiol Biotechnol. by Siyeon Kim, Kyo Eun Kook, Changhee Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang, was demonstrated that Curcuma xanthorrhiza supercritical extract (CXS) and its active compound, xanthorrhizol (XAN), exhibit anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human gingival fibroblast-1 cells and anti-osteoclastic effects on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-treated RAW264.7 cells. LPS-upregulated inflammatory factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B p65 and interleukin-1β, were prominently reduced by CXS and XAN. In addition, RANKL-induced osteoclastic factors, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and cathepsin K, were decreased in the presence of CXS and XAN. CXS and XAN inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathway. Collectively, these results provide evidence that CXS and XAN suppress LPS-induced inflammation and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the MAPK/AP-1 pathway.

Bone & Muscle Related Disorders:

Arthritis:

Curcuma xanthorrhiza also contains curcumin which is good for your health, particularly for reducing arthritis.

To threat arthritis, and rheumatism, take 20 grams of Javanese Turmeric and 20 grams of Red Ginger. Enter in 400 cc of water and boiled for a long time until the water remaining 200 cc. Drinking water was boiled while still warm.

Osteoarthritis:

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of disability in the US. The health benefits that this was already great fame both in India since thousands of years ago. Ginger, or commonly known as Javanese Curcuma, has the ability to relieve inflammation, such as osteoarthritis. Research indicated that taking Javanese Turmeric for 4 weeks could help relieve pain associated with osteoarthritis among the people who already have the condition.

A 2003 clinical trial "Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study of P54FP for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis" published in Vet Rec. by J F Innes, C J Fuller, E R Grover, A L Kelly, J F Burn, P54FP is an extract of Indian and Javanese Turmeric, Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza respectively, which contains a mixture of active ingredients including curcuminoids and essential oils. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial of P54FP as a treatment for osteoarthritis of the canine elbow or hip was conducted to assess its efficacy and safety. Sixty-one client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis were recruited through first-opinion practices and examined at a single centre. After a two-week wash-out period, they were randomly allocated to receive P54FP or a placebo orally twice daily for eight weeks, and were re-examined after four, six and eight weeks of treatment. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed in terms of the peak vertical force (PVz) and vertical impulse of the affected limbs, as measured with a force platform, by clinical assessments of lameness and joint pain by the investigators, and overall assessments of the response to treatment by the investigators and the owners. The results from 25 P54FP-treated dogs and 29 placebo-treated dogs showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the PVz of the affected limb. The investigators' overall assessment showed a statistically significant treatment effect in favour of P54FP (P=0.012), but the owners' assessment just failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.063). No serious adverse effects were recorded, but two P54FP-treated dogs and four placebo-treated dogs were withdrawn from the study because their condition deteriorated.

Skin & Hair Condition and Care:

Skin Aging (Wrinkles):

The study of anti-skin aging properties of xanthorrhizol was performed by evaluating its effect on the expression of MMP-1 and type-1 procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one responsible factor mediating the UV-induced skin aging that is upregulated by UV irradiation. Meanwhile, type-1 collagen is the main builder of the skin dermis, and the degradation of this structural protein could lead to skin aging problems. Xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza was proven to be efficacious for decreasing the expression level of MMP-1 and increasing type-1 procollagen expression. Xanthorrhizol's ability to suppress the MMP-1 expression and increase type-1 procollagen expression is even better than the effect of a natural antiaging agent known as epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG).

Acne:

Javanese Turmeric has an astringent attribute that causes the reduction in the pores of the skin so that it indirectly will prevent the appearance of acne on the skin surface. In addition, the capability of its essential oil of flower bract to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes growth is probably related to its traditional usage for the medication acne. However, even if the antibacterial ability of this herb has been explained, their utilization as alternatives to antibiotics still needs pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic examination to reveal the mode of action of underlying metabolites.

Skin caring effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were also evaluated using its flower bract extract. Batubara et al. reported that methanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza flower bract could suppress the growth of acne-causing microbe Propionibacterium acnes and its ethyl acetate flower bract extract could suppress tyrosinase and lipase activities. α-curcumene and xanthorrhizol of Curcuma xanthorrhiza flower bract extract are two main compounds responsible for lipase activity inhibition and Propionibacterium acnes growth suppression, respectively. This study shows that Curcuma xanthorrhiza flower bract extract is a potent natural skincare and whitening agent. However, this study did not assess dose-response effects. Moreover, since the study of flower bract extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza is still limited, a follow-up study is required to reveal other active molecules within the flower bract extract that is responsible for the skin-caring activity as well as its possible structure-function relationship.

Head Lice:

Head lice infestation is an important public health problem worldwide. Chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy because lice have developed resistance to them. Therefore, alternative pediculicides such as essential oils and herbal products have been proposed for treating head lice infestation.

A 2018 study "Ovicidal effect of essential oils from Zingiberaceae plants and Eucalytus globulus on eggs of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer" published in Phytomedicine by Mayura Soonwera, Orawan Wongnet, Sirawut Sittichok, determine the efficacy of essential oils from three Zingiberaceae plants (Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber zerumbet) against head lice eggs and to investigate an augmenting substance (Eucalyptus globulus essential oils) for improving the efficacy of these essential oils in killing head lice eggs, especially on the inhibition of their hatching process. Permethrin pediculicide, soyabean oil, and drinking water were used as positive, negative, and neutral controls, respectively. An immersion test was used to evaluate the ovicidal activity of 12 essential oil formulations. Head lice eggs were immersed for 1, 5 and 10 min in the treatments. Mortality rate was observed on day 7 and day 14; mortality was checked under a stereomicroscope. All head lice eggs that were immersed in a combination of 10% C. zedoaria essential oils and 10% Eucalyptus globulus essential oils for 5 min did not hatch at all for 7-14 days of incubation. All head lice eggs that were immersed in soyabean oil and drinking water for 1, 5, and 10 min showed 100% hatching rate in 7-14 days of incubation. All head lice eggs that were immersed in permethrin pediculicide for 1, 5 min, showed 100% hatching rate, but when they were immersed for 10 min, permethrin provided 4.0-6.0% inhibition rate with 94.0-96.0% hatching rate for 7-14 days of incubation. All combinations of Zingiberaceae essential oilss and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils at low and high concentrations (5 and 10%) exhibited high ovicidal activities against head lice eggs, and the combinations showed a synergistic effect with an increase in the inhibition rate of more than 50%. These results demonstrated that Zingiberaceae essential oilss augmented with Eucalyptus globulus essential oils are promising ovicidal agents for head lice control.

Physical Health:

Increases Endurance:

All parts of Javanese Turmeric are effective but the rhizomes are most widely used. Rhizome consists of more than one hundred kinds of compounds such as amylase, phenolase, fat, starch, minerals, phenol derivatives (curcuminoids) and essential oils. These compounds proved to be effective in optimally improving endurance.

Neurological Health & Nerve Diseases:

Alzheimer's Disease:

Prof. Daryono Hadi Tjahjono, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology explained that Javanese Turmeric contains natural metabolite compounds in the form of curcumin which are reported to have various therapeutic potentials such as antibiotics, antivirals, antioxidants, anticancer, and anti-Alzheimer's disease. "Curcumin are also found in, Ginger, and similar plants. In addition, there are dozens of other chemical compounds contained in these plants. Generally, we are using these plants in our daily basis and it can be used as a raw material for herbal medicine", he explained.

Diabetes Mellitus:

The antimetabolic disorder effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract, such as antidiabetic, has been evaluated using both insulin-dependent and no-insulin-dependent diabetic models.

Yasni et al. reported the antidiabetic properties of the extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza in the streptozotocin-activated diabetic mouse. The report suggested that the extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extremely lowered the level of serum glucose and triglyceride as compared to cellulose and other tested herbals. Curcuma xanthorrhiza was also found to reduce the ratio of arachidonate to linoleate in the liver phospholipids.

A 2014 study "Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice" published in Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine by Mi-Bo Kim, Changhee Kim, Youngwoo Song, Jae-Kwan Hwang, was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract with standardized xanthorrhizol on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Treatment with xanthorrhizol (10 or 25 mg/kg/day) or Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. xanthorrhizol and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of xanthorrhizol (26.6% and 20.1%) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract (25.8% and 22.5%), respectively. Xanthorrhizol and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, xanthorrhizol and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue (27.8-82.7%), liver (43.9-84.7%), and muscle (65.2-92.5%). Overall, these results suggest that xanthorrhizol and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. According to this study, xanthorrhizol and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts may suppress and cure noninsulin-dependent diabetes, which is mostly caused by obesity-activated resistance of insulin.

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD):

Curcuma xanthorrhiza also has benefits for cardiovascular health. Curcuma xanthorrhiza benefits for heart health is certainly not in doubt. Javanese Turmeric does have a good content for your body’s health, not least to maintain the health of your heart. Various ingredients contribute to a better, livelier heart. It is widely believed that Javanese Turmeric prevents heart attacks and diabetes while tamarind, the thick gooey edible fruit, reduces blood sugar level and promotes good cardiovascular health due to its potassium content. Javanese Turmeric lowers cholesterol levels to aid your healthy, balanced lifestyles.

Two fingers of fresh Javanese Turmeric rhizome is washed and cut. After it boiled in 3 cups of water until the remaining 1 cup. Setela cold filtered and drunk as well as 2 times a day.

Hematologic Diseases:

Lowers Blood Fats:

Health benefits of Curcuma xanthorrhiza for the next body that Curcuma xanthorrhiza can reduce blood fat. Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract and also produces kurkuminoid fraction, is beneficial for lowering cholesterol levels.

Two fingers of fresh Javanese Turmeric rhizome is washed and cut. After it boiled in 3 cups of water until the remaining 1 cup. Setela cold filtered and drunk as well as 2 times a day.

Women's Health Issues:

Vaginal Tightening:

Vaginal tightening after giving birth is a tightening of the pelvic muscles to achieve or maintain the right degree of elasticity of the pelvic floor muscles.

Two fingers of fresh Javanese Turmeric rhizome is washed and cut. After it boiled in 3 cups of water until the remaining 1 cup. Setela cold filtered and drunk as well as 2 times a day.

Antioxidants:

There are more than 80 species of Turmeric (Curcuma spp.) and some species have multiple varieties, for example, Curcuma longa has 70 varieties.They could be different in their chemical properties and biological activities. Therefore, we compared antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of different species and varieties of turmeric namely Curcuma longa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma amada, and Curcuma zedoaria.

In the world of physiotherapy, Javanese Turmeric is classified as an adaptogen, a harmless substance that can encourage increased resistance to toxins or which can affect physically, chemically and biologically. In general, it has the effect of normalizing the affected tissue. Javanese Turmeric treats your body and mind holistically, replenishing your body with lots of powerful minerals and vitamins for optimal vitality and energy levels. Tamarind is rich in organic compounds, making it a frontrunner for its high antioxidant content.

Rosidi et al. assessed the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza in the liquid-liquid extraction method in hexane solvent using the DPPH method. The study revealed that the tested extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza has a relatively active antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 87.01 ppm.

Widyastuti et al. examined the antioxidant properties of Curcuma xanthorrhiza harvested from different locations. The methanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza from various places has been assessed for its antioxidant properties along with total phenolic and total flavonoid composition. The result showed that Curcuma xanthorrhiza has potent antioxidant activity and its level is apparently affected by different harvesting areas. The discovery validates the diverse uses and effectiveness of this herb over various traditional areas and populations and gives possible suggestions on the levels of active molecules depending on the location of cultivation. Storage time following the harvesting also affects the antioxidant level of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. The prolonged storage time of Curcuma xanthorrhiza could decrease its antioxidant ability. In addition, the harvesting age of Curcuma xanthorrhiza is another parameter affecting the level of its antioxidant activity.

A study by Rosiyani showed that 9-month-old Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome possesses greater antioxidant activity compared to 7- or 8-month-old harvesting time. This could happen probably because the curcuminoid content is higher in that of older Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Along with Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was shown higher than the other seven Zingiberaceae species studied by Akinola et al. In addition, the antioxidant activity of pure xanthorrhizol from Curcuma xanthorrhiza has been evaluated in copper-mediated isolated human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and sturdily reduced human LDL peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner.

A 2019 comparative study "Antioxidant activity of different species and varieties of turmeric (Curcuma spp): Isolation of active compounds" published in Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. by Jesmin Akter, Md Amzad Hossain, Kensaku Takara, Md Zahorul Islam, De-Xing Hou, the antioxidant activity was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power and 2-deoxyribose oxidation assay. Our results suggested that Curcuma longa contained significantly higher concentrations of total phenolic (157.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and flavonoids (1089.5 mg rutin equivalent/g extract). RD also showed significantly higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50: 26.4 μg/mL), ORAC (14,090 μmol Trolox equivalent/g extract), reducing power absorbance (0.33) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50: 7.4 μg/mL). Therefore, Curcuma longa was chosen for the isolation of antioxidant compounds using silica gel column, Toyopearl HW-40F column, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the compounds was conducted using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The purified antioxidant compounds were bisabolone-9-one, 4-methyllene-5-hydroxybisabola-2,10-diene-9-one, turmeronol B, 5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-hepten-3-one, 3-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-hepten-1,5-dione, cyclobisdemethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin. The IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity were 474, 621, 234, 29, 39, 257, 198, 47 and 18 μM and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity were 25.1, 24.4, 20.2, 2.1, 5.1, 17.2, 7.2, 3.3 and 1.5 μM for the compound respectively. Our findings suggested that the a variety of Curcuma longa, developed by The University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, is a promising source of natural antioxidants.

A 2012 study "Correlation between Chemical Composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Their Antioxidant Effect on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation" published in Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine by Ibrahim Jantan, Fadlina Chany Saputri, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Fhataheya Buang, the antioxidant activity of the curcuminoids of Curcuma domestica L. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and eight compounds which are prevalent constituents of their rhizome oils were investigated in an effort to correlate human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidant activity with the effect of the herbs and their components. The antioxidant activity was examined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) assay with human LDL as the oxidation substrate. The methanol extracts and rhizome oils of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuma domestica showed strong inhibitory activity on copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the methanol extracts of both plants, exhibited stronger activity than probucol (IC(50) value 0.57 μmol/L) as reference, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.15 to 0.33 μmol/L. Xanthorrhizol, the most abundant component (31.9%) of the oil of Curcuma xanthorrhiza, showed relatively strong activity with an IC(50) value of 1.93 μmol/L. The major components of Curcuma domestica, ar-turmerone (45.8%) and zerumbone (3.5%), exhibited IC(50) values of 10.18 and 24.90 μmol/L, respectively. The high levels of curcuminoids in the methanol extracts and xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone and zerumbone in the oils, and in combination with the minor components were responsible for the high LDL antioxidant activity of the herbs.

A 2011 study "Antioxidant, total phenolic content and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected Malaysian plants" ublished in Molecules by Suhailah Wasman Qader, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Lee Suan Chua, Nigar Najim, Mazatulikhma Mat Zain, Salehhuddin Hamdan, Aqueous and ethanol extracts of different traditional Malaysian plants (Polygonum minus, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Momordica charantia and Strobilanthes crispus) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that ethanol extracts contain high antioxidant activities compared to aqueous extracts. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, all the plant extracts showed non-toxic effects against a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (Hs888Lu). Although traditionally aqueous extracts are used, we determined that ethanol extracts usually achieved better activity in the assays.

Free Radicals:

Aerobic metabolism in the human body could produce free radicals (e.g., nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and other reactive species (e.g., peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid). Free radical reactions can cause harmful degenerative illness including degenerative eye disorder, senile dementia, asthma, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and inflammatory joint sickness. Antioxidants are compounds that exert synergistic actions in scavenging free radicals by inhibition of oxidation reaction.

Some studies reported the potential natural antioxidant activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract. The antioxidant ability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza has been evaluated using various methods including the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihydazi), superoxide anion, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal bonding activity.

The antioxidant properties of Curcuma xanthorrhiza greatly contribute to its traditional uses. For example, traditionally, Curcuma xanthorrhiza has been utilized as an arthritis medication where one of its major causes is the inflammation reaction within the joint caused by the free radical reaction. The antioxidant ability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza in scavenging free radicals could treat this inflammatory joint sickness as reported traditionally. Furthermore, the traditional efficacy of Curcuma xanthorrhiza for skin treatment is also inseparable from this antioxidant ability. The antioxidant activity has been reported to have connected with the prevention of skin aging.

However, although the potent antioxidant capability of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was evaluated, it still leaves the fundamental question of whether all free radical scavenging activities are a reflection of the extracts and chemicals being tested and should be further evaluated using a more reliable antioxidant assay method. One of them is by using a more comprehensive in vitro cell-based antioxidant assay approach because it can detect metabolites that play a direct role in the antioxidant pathway and safeguarding cells against oxidative harm.

Insects & Pests:

Pure xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract has also reported anti-insecticidal properties against Spodoptera littoralis following its topical application. This discovery opens its future potential for treating agriculture pests.

Repels Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes (Dengue):

Essential oil content of Javanese Turmeric has the use of inhibiting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to get closer to your body. This will cause you to avoid the danger of dengue fever because this type of mosquito is a carrier of dengue virus.

Uses of Javanese Turmeric

Medical Uses of Javanese Turmeric:

  • Rhizomes are used in Indonesian folk medicine as cholagogues, aromatic stomachic, analgesics, and a rheumatic remedy.
  • Rhizomes of Java turmeric have been traditionally used for medicinal purposes in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.
  • Rhizomes are used as a tonic in many jamus in Indonesia.
  • It is used for the topical treatment of acne and skin inflammations in Thailand.
    Rhizome is used to relive stomach ache in Thailand.
  • It is administered for indigestion and rheumatism, as a tonic after childbirth and as an emmenogogue in amenorrhea.
  • Rhizome is used in Indonesian traditional medicine for various therapeutic purposes such as anti-hypertensive, anti-rheumatic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, etc.
  • It is the most popular Indonesian herbal for hepatitis remedy and other liver disorders.
  • It is considered a broad spectrum hepato protective agent useful in the treatment of liver injuries and can protect the liver from various hepato-toxins, encourage bile discharge and prevent the formation of gallstones and stomachic to treat various abdominal complaints and normalize digestion.
  • Decoction of the rhizome is used for fever and constipation and taken by women as a galactagogue and to reduce uterine inflammation after childbirth.
  • Recently, it has been used in supplement beverages to increase appetite and to refresh stamina.
  • It was also reported to prevent avian flu.
  • Rhizome is used in dyspeptic complaints and as stomachic and carminative.
  • Turmeric, Javanese Turmeric and Cassumunar Ginger are widely used in Traditional Indonesian Medicines (TIM).
  • It heals Inflammation and boosts longevity.
  • Root or rhizome of the herb is widely used for medicinal purpose.
  • It is very effective in treating a number of diseases.
  • It is good for the health of heart and liver.
  • It is a very effective remedy for Arthritis, gastrointestinal problems and kidney disorders.
  • It reduces the blood fat and lowers the cholesterol level in the body.
  • It inhibits the growth of prostate cancer.
  • It increases flow of milk during breast feeding.
  • It fights premature aging.
  • It treats constipation.

Edible Uses of Javanese Turmeric:

  • Young rhizome tips, inflorescence and centers of spurious stem are aromatic with a strong odor and bitter taste and are eaten as vegetables raw or cooked.
  • Heart of the spurious stems is eaten raw or cooked as lalab.
  • Young tops of the lateral rhizomes are also eaten fresh as lalab, and the inflorescences are eaten cooked with rice, usually as "sayur" or "urab".
  • In Java a soft drink called "bir temu lawak" or "wedang temu lawak" is prepared by cooking dried pieces of the rhizomes which impart a yellow color and flavor and mixing with Javanese sugar.
  • Rhizomes yield starch meal which is used in making porridge; pudding; delicacies like "dodol temu lawak", "jenang temu" and "jenang pati"; and drinks in Java.
  • Rhizome is an important ingredient in various "jamu".
  • Starch obtained from the roots is used for porridge and as a pudding.
  • Flowers are cooked and eaten with rice.

Ayurvedic Uses and Health Benefits of Javanese Turmeric

  • Asthma: Prepare ½ Rhizome of Javanese Turmeric, and then wash clean. Peel and slice Javanese Turmeric. Boil 5 cups of water and combine Palm sugar to taste. Boil until the water becomes half. Take this herbal drink three times a day.
  • Boils: Clean and then peeled. Boil 2 cups of water with Javanese Turmeric and little Palm sugar. Cook up to half the water and lift. Add one spoke. Wait for it cool slightly, then strained and drunk all at once.
  • Hepatitis: Prepare the 2 Javanese Turmeric, then wash and Peel. Sliced and boiled with ½ liter water and add a little Palm sugar. Boil until the water becomes half. Drink this concoction twice a day.
  • Kidney Pain: Washed clean and peeled. Prepare 4 glasses of water and then with a handful of Javanese Turmeric cook Java tea leaves and a handful of meniran leaves. Boil until the water is left half. This stew is taken three times a day.
  • Muscular Fatigue: Javanese Turmeric is also effective to help cope with muscular fatigue, especially for those of you who do exercise serious time fitness.
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