Health Benefits and Uses of Holy Basil

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Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum)

Holy Basil or Tulsi, scientifically known as Ocimum sanctum, what means “incomparable one” in Sanskrit, scientifically known as Ocimum sanctum, is an aromatic, low growing, secret, much branched subshrub 30-60 cm tall, with simple opposite green or purple leaves that are strongly scented, and hairy stems. Leaves are bright green to purple, have petioles, and are ovate, up to 5 cm long, usually somewhat toothed. Flowers are purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls. Tulsi is grown as an annual herb in temperate climates that may grow to a height of 3 feet. The root grows as a branched taproot. Holy Basil have an ancient tradition rooted in Ayurvedic medication. Tulsi is one of roughly 60 species of the genus Ocimum, the Basil genus. Within the Tulsi family, there are several kinds grown in India. Most varieties are native to India, including the foothills of the Himalayas; they are also found throughout the Middle East. Tulsi plant is naturally found wild in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is thriving in warm and temperate climates, is native to India and Iran, and now also cultivated in Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, Morocco, and the USA. Holy Basil is now grown around the world. It creates a pleasing aroma which is thought to dissuade mosquitoes and for that reason, this particular variety of Basil is utilized by so many gardeners like a outdoor patio plant. Holy Basil does well as a container plant and also will make a lovely and strange accessory for the home herb or even decorative garden.

Tulsi got its name from Tulasi Devi, who was one of Lord Krishna's eternal consorts. Popularly known as the "Queen of herbs" in Ayurveda, Holy Basil is is grown throughout the world for its spiritual and medicinal uses. Highly regarded as a symbol of "Good luck charm", Holy Basil plant has myriad references in the history of world medicine. Tulsi is sacred towards the Hindu Lord Vishnu and the incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi, is also utilized in morning praying to guarantee personalized health, religious purity, as well as family well-being, has been talked about in the ancient sacred books like Rig Veda. Tulsi plant is said to symbolize Vishnupriya, the wife of Lord Vishnu and the incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi. God Vishnu is honored with the garland made with Holy Basil leaves. Strings of beads made out of the plant’s stems are utilized in meditation to provide clarity as well as protection. The ancient Ayurvedic texts, the Charaka Samhita (appx. 200 BCE) and also Sushruta Samhita (400-100 BCE) both point out the usage of this particular herb to deal with individuals with snakebites and also scorpion stings. Holy Basil is classed like a Rasayana, an organic herb which feeds a person’s development to make their own health and encourages longevity. Respected as an "elixir of life" in Ayurveda, this plant is said to pave way to absolute balance and longevity for its enormous medicinal values. For possibly 3,000 years, Holy Basil has been undoubtedly one of India’s most effective herbs. The everyday usage of this particular herb is considered to assist retain the balance of the Chakras, (energy centers) of the body. It really is commended as having Sattva (energy of purity) and also as being able to bringing on goodness, virtue, and also joy in human beings. Within the Puranas (a sacred Hindu text), everything linked to the plant is holy, which includes water provided to it and also the soil where it grows in addition to its parts, among them leaves, flowers, seed, and also roots. Few other sources state that Tulsi is trusted as a form of Goddess Tulsi and this plant is considered as a symbol of blessedness because it is believed to have grown from the ashes of Goddess Tulsi. Holy Basil plant is worshipped by the married Hindu women in India for being blessed with the faithfulness of Goddess Tulsi. Known as Bacia-nicola, meaning "kiss me Nicholas" in Italy, Holy Basil is regarded as a representation of love and luck and is said to attract man to his lady love. It was used in the ancient Greece in the crowning ceremonies of Kings for purification.

Holy Basil is a common name of a world-renowned herb Tulsi which can be found almost in very home in India. It has both therapeutic as well as general usage. Holy Basil is native throughout the Old World tropics and widespread as a cultivated plant and an escaped weed. Holy Basil is cultivated for religious and medicinal purposes, and for its essential oil. There are two main morphotypes cultivated in India, green-leaved and purple-leaved. Besides its medicinal values, Holy Basil leaves are also used for culinary purposes for its strong aroma and astringent flavor, especially in Asian cooking. The seeds and leaves of this plant are used in the preparation of an herbal tea, which is said to gift good health and fortune. The native populace of the Indian subcontinent including the Himalayan areas generally grind the leaves and seeds of Holy Basil plant and blend this with Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Katuka (Picrorhiza kurroa), Bel Fruit (Aegle marmelos), Sugandi root (Hemidesmus indicus), and Blue Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). This herbal mixture is then smoked for persuading the vision and dreams. Holy Basil is oftentimes known as “Hot Basil” or even “Pepper Basil” simply because, in contrast to sweet or even "Thai Basil", that has a taste much more similar to Licorice, this particular variety is spicy and much more just like Cloves. Its taste improves as it cooks; therefore many people choose to consume it cooked instead of raw. In Thai delicacies, the herb is frequently matched up witalong with Garlic, Hot Chilies, and fish sauce to flavor stir fries. It’s not exchangeable along with Western, or Sweet, Holy Basil in many recipes that call for the latter. Far above its cookery uses, Holy Basil is recognized as probably the most holy as well as essential herbs within the Hindu and Ayurvedic traditions.

In India, people grow Tulsi as a religious plant and are used in temples for worship purposes and also on several occasions such as marriage. The women water the plant, light up the diya near it and worship it daily. "It is the time of the Tulsi vivah (marriage). On this day Tulsi is decorated and colored as a bride". The stems, leaves, seeds and even the soil is considered as holy. According to the ancient texts Tulsi is glorified as the one who helps in bringing people closer to the divine. A Hindu house is considered incomplete without the Tulsi plant in the courtyard. Tulsi is believed to promote longevity and life long happiness. Hindus perform special Tulsi puja in the Kartik month which starts after Sharad Poornima. Even today people in India maintain a potted Tulsi plant.

Varieties of Holy Basil

Green Tulsi - Holy Basil - (Ocimum sanctum):

It is one of the most commonly available variants of Tulsi also known as Holy Basil. It is known as Holy Basil in English and Tulasi in Sanskrit. Other names used for the Tulsi are Manjari, Trittavu, and Tulshi. When people talk of Basil in India, they’re most likely referring to Holy Basil. It’s believed that Basil originated from India and then took many forms and varieties as they spread across the world. Even if you’re not fond of gardening, you’re most likely having a Tulsi plant in your home in India. Tulsi plants are said to be the holiest of the holy plants in India. The benefits of Tulsi is extensively discussed in the Ayurveda. No wonder it’s worshipped in the Hindu culture. According to religious beliefs, planting Tulsi and worshipping it brings prosperity and happiness in the family.

While Indians love to add Tulsi to our morning tea, People across the world extensively use Basil for cooking dishes as each variety has their unique taste and smell. In fact, Italian Pizza sauce will be incomplete without Basil.

Rama - Green Leaf (Ocimum tenuiflorum):

  Also known as Sri or Lakshmi Tulasi, Green Leaf Tulsi is known for its cooling, mellower taste. his variety of Tulsi is found in China, Brazil, Eastern Nepal, as well as in Bengal, Bihar, Chatgaon and the southern states of India. Rama Tulsi is the bright, greenest variant in Tulsi varieties. This shrub can grow up to 2 to 3 feett tall. This shrub has green leaves and dark green stems with white-to-purplish blossoms. The "Queen of herbs" is one of the most worshiped aromatic herb. It is the most planted Tulsi in the households. It really growns within the Indian plains, in addition to personal homes as well as gardens around India. The plant has better tolerance to winters, sun light, plant requires more watering and fertilization than the other varieties. It does not require much care and is easy to grow even in harsh sunlight or low temperature. Flowers can be used for medicines as well as cultivation and is the most commonly cultivated Holy Basil and the easiest to find in commerce. It's mainly found in Ayurvedic ashrams and even in households. This variant has its own set of healing and medicinal values.

Rama Tulsi is known for its strong aroma and sweet and calm taste. Rama Tulsi has a milder taste than Krishna Tulsi. All the parts of the plant emit a strong aroma. Rama Tulsi has a characteristic fragrance. Crushing its leaves between the palms releases a stronger fragrance than other varieties of Tulsi.

Krishna - Purple Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum):

Also known as Shyama Tulsi, the Purple leaf Tulsi is famous for its peppery, crisp taste, which makes it an unavoidable ingredient in concoctions used for cough and other respiratory conditions. It comprises purple colored leaves and dark stems and blossoms. The flowers are more delicate than the Ocimum sanctum, which makes it easier for pollination. This shrub grows up to 2 feet long. It really is grown within the Indian plains, in addition to personal homes and also gardens all-around India, and is also called after the blue skinned God since the dark purple leaves look like this color. Although it is grown in many regions in India, it is relatively more difficult to find than the green varietals.

It has more medicinal properties than the other species. Purple leaf Tulsi is known to be beneficial to treat throat infections, respiratory system, nasal lesions, earache and skin diseases.

Amrita - Tea Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum):

It is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics. It has got green leaves with purplish highlights.The plant is less commonly grown perennial, aromatic and sacred species of Holy Basil in India.

It has antimicrobial and anti-allergic property, so it is extremely useful for treating bacterial and fungal infections as well as immunological disorders like allergies and asthma. Tulsi has proven to be useful in treating heart disorders and diabetes as it helps in reducing the cholesterol level in the body.

Kapoor - Heavy Flowered (Ocimum tenuiflorum):

Kapoor is the short, annual, heavily flowered plant that was originally introduced to the US as "Holy Basil" and it is the most common type found in cultivation here in the US. It is the easiest to grow, give standard Basil culture. It has got green leaves, compact growth, and a fruity fragrance. It is the big attractor of bees.

This variant of Tulsi is more helpful in keeping insects at bay. Its strong scent, which is very similar to Camphor, acts as an insect repellent. The healing properties of Kapoor Tulsi are boosted when inhaled. This particular chemical composition calms down our central nervous system, which helps in getting better sleep. It can also be consumed, but it will leave a tingling heat effect because of its spicy flavor.

Vana - Wild Leaf (Ocimum gratissimum):

Also known as Forest type or African Basil, is renowned for its aroma. The plant has got big, green leaves and also stem, along with white blossoms. They can grow up to 6 feet in height. It is is woody type perennial, aromatic and sacred species of Holy Basil, found in grasslands and more fertile regions, in the Himalayas as well as the plains of India, where it grows as a naturalized plant. It is also cultivated and grows wild throughout Asia and East Africa. Even though it is known to be wild, harsh cold temperature conditions easily affect Vana Tulsi, making it the best variant to be cultivated annually.

Health Benefits of Holy Basil

Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Holy Basil is a blessing in disguise for the rest of the world but for most of the traditional Indian families, every day begins with the blessing of Lord Krishna through Holy Basil leaves. This holy plant is being worshipped by the Hindus in India since thousands of years and is a familiar thing to find a Tulsi plant in every home. It is known to the world of medicine as a digestive tonic, respiratory aid, anti-depressant, pain reliever, skin care agent, immune stimulant and as a symbol of divinity. Valued as an emblem of sacredness, purification, love, protection, eternity, respect and good luck, Holy Basil is used in Ayurvedic preparations for more than 5,000 years. It is lovingly called as Tulsi in Hindi and Surasa in Sanskrit and has been a vital part of Ayurvedic healing of a plethora of illnesses. Holy Basil is known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Health Benefits of Holy Basil has been found effective for cancer, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, liver support and protection, hypoglycemic conditions, ulcers, digestion, radiation poisoning etc. It also fights inflammation. Most of the benefits of Tulsi are medicinal, which means it can be used as a medicine as well. The most notable among them are nervous tension, constipation, rheumatism, whooping cough, asthma, sinus congestion, bronchitis, stress, bruises, diabetes, fever, poor memory, poisonous bites and stings, acne and kidney disorders.

Tulsi is considered a good luck charm by many folks. Planted in homes to ward against evil spirits as well as to bring peace, happiness, good health, and harmony. Planting of Tulsi in homes is not as ignorant as one might think. Tulsi has been a part of Indian culture for a great many years. It is even mentioned in the ancient Indian texts. An indispensable part of a lot of ayurvedic medicines of India, Tulsi has always been used in home remedies as well. Tulsi is very easy to obtain in India and Southeast Asia but where it is not found, it can be easily grown. Holy Basil is actually one of those herbs which is a treasure trove of health benefits. The tribal population in Australia has reported the use of Holy Basil leaves in the preparation of an herbal tea for supporting the system as a tonic for treating fever, respiratory problems and few other illnesses. The essential oil extracted from Holy Basil leaves also finds its use in the field of herbal cosmetics and in the treatment of skin disorders and numerous other illnesses.

The Holy Basil is a vital mark within the Hindu religious tradition and is also worshiped each morning as well as evening by Hindus most importantly. The Holy Basil is another herbal treatment for lots of frequent health conditions. The Tulsi plant has numerous therapeutic qualities. The foliage is a nerve tonic and also sharpens memory. They will encourage the removing of the catarrhal matter and also phlegm through the bronchial tube. The leaves enhance the stomach and also stimulate massive sweating. The seed of the plant are mucilaginous. In Indian folk medication, the leaves of the Holy Basil plant are made in the tea which is used just as one expectorant to deal with individuals with extreme bronchial mucus as well as bronchitis. The tea is also useful for individuals with upset stomach, biliouness, and also vomiting. The powdered/dried leaves happen to be utilized like a snuff for nasal congestion, and also the juice of the fresh leaf is put within the ear for earaches. A decoction produced from the root can be used to reduce malarial fevers, along with a poultice made out of the fresh roots and leaves is used to bites and also stings from wasps, bees, mosquitoes, ants, along with other insects in addition to leeches. The seeds are mucilaginous (slimy) and also have been utilized to calm the urinary tract whenever urination is tough or even painful. In Thailand, Holy Basil is known as "bai gkaprow" or "kaphrao daeng". It really is utilized like a spice in cooking and as a medicine for those who have gas, intestinal cramps, ulcers, colds, influenza, headaches, coughs, and sinusitis. This particular plant has grown to be naturalized in Suriname in northern South America, exactly where it really is utilized for most of the same problems that it was utilized for in India-snakebites, abdominal pain, and also to reduce fevers.

Tulsi is a natural resource with abundant nutrients and healing properties. It is rich in vitamin A (4 mcg), B9 (13.6 mcg), C (3.6 mg), and K (83 mcg), that stimulates the production of disease-fighting antibodies by up to 20% and contains a high abundance of antioxidants that help to prevent cell damage that can lead to cancerous conditions, calcium (35.4 mg), phosphorus (11.2 mg), iron (0.6 mg), potassium (59 mg), and magnesium are the minerals found in it. It also has traces of protein and can be considered a good fiber. The Tulsi leaves contain 5 calories of energy, 0.6g of protein, 0.3g fiber, 0.5g carbohydrates. Fresh leaves and stem of Tulsi extract are rich in various chemicals such as cirsilineol, circimaritin, isothymusin, methylchavicol, methylcinnamat, 1, 7-dimethyl, 6-octadien, apigenin and rosameric acid, and appreciable quantities of eugeno. The leaves of Ocimum sanctum are rich in 0.7% volatile oil, comprising about 71% eugenol and 20% methyl eugenol. The oil also contains a high abundance of carvacrol and sesquiterpine hydrocarbon caryophyllene. From aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi leaves, two flavonoids are found, i.e., orientin and andviceni.

Adorably called as Tulsi in India, Holy Basil is the most respected and often talked about herb in the history of Ayurveda. With its divine aroma and holiness, Tulsi is esteemed high for its healing values. These holy leaves are chewed daily in the morning after performing the ritual prayers for cleansing the system, stimulating metabolic functions, supporting the respiratory functions and strengthening the immune system. The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects.

Triticum aestivum (Family: Poaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Family: Lamiaceae), and Tinospora cordifolia (Family: Menispermaceae) are commonly known as wheatgrass, tulsi, and giloy, respectively, which are the plants used as medicines for the treatment of various diseases. All three medicinal plants possess phenolic compounds with other important chemical constituents such as polysaccharides, aliphatic compounds, and alkaloids.

In a 2022 study "Synergistic Effect of Conventional Medicinal Herbs against Different Pharmacological Activity" published in Biomed Res Int., by Huma Ali, Daoud Ali, Bader O Almutairi, Gokhlesh Kumar, Gizachew Assefa Karga, Chandran Masi, Venkatesa Prabhu Sundramurthy, the extract of these plants has been prepared and investigated for antioxidant, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antimicrobial study in order to discover potential sources for new pharmaceutical formulations. To determine the antioxidant activity, a free radical scavenging assay for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide was performed using ascorbic acid as the standard. The R2 value of the prepared extract was found to be 0.9964 and 0.990 in DPPH and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, respectively. The phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be 87.50 μl/ml and 58.00 μl/ml, respectively. The diffusion method was used to screen the antimicrobial activity of the prepared extract sample against various microorganisms. This extract showed better results for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

A 2017 comprehensive literature review "The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Tulsi in Humans" published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2017 by Negar Jamshidi and Marc McCohen reports on the clinical outcome after ingestion of Tulsi. A total of 24 studies reported therapeutic effects on metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, immunity and neurocognition. The reviewed studies reinforce traditional uses and suggests Tulsi is effective for the treatment of lifestyle-related chronic diseases including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and psychological stress.

A 2014 review "Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons" published in Journal Ayurveda Integr Med. by Marc Maurice Cohen, there is mounting evidence that Tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of Tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of Tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.


Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

A 2002 review "Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant" published in Indian J Exp Biol. by S K Gupta, Jai Prakash, Sushma Srivastava, In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy, genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present review incorporates the description of Ocimum sanctum plant, its chemical constituents, and various pharmacological activities.

Tulsi is a superb purifier. Dilute Tulsi oil as well as diffuse it in the air. Your respiratory system remains to be in good health and also the aromatic oils keep the brain as well as nervous system in top gear. Tulsi oil brings relief in anxiety, migraines, headaches, fatigue and insomnia. At the conclusion of the day, breathe in Tulsi oil or even use it dilutes in your temples, round the nose as well as throat area. The vapors will certainly soothe and calm you.

Respiratory Conditions:

Respiratory diseases or disorders such as cough, asthma, dry throat, nasal congestion, chest congestion, bronchitis, influenza, etc are used because of bacteria or unhealthy habits or exposure to extreme weather conditions. The Holy Basil has various essential oils which effectively act on respiratory system and strengthen it to fight pollution. Tulsi contains camphene, cineole, and eugenol, which when combined with its healing properties, will help with such disorders. Consuming Tulsi concoctions help with respiratory disorders. Holy Basil works wonderfully on respiratory related problems. Tulsi benefits are found in the components of its leaves, including camphene, eugenol and cineole, which help manage cough and cold, asthma, influenza, bronchitis, provide relief from congestion and other symptoms of respiratory disorders. Tulsi acts as an immune modulator, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and expectorant that helps in multiple ways to get rid of respiratory-related conditions. Holy Basil is very effective in treating cold and its related disorders. It is a boon for respiratory tract disorders. It also helps in treating all the disorders that are related to our throat. The therapeutic properties of Holy Basil oil including its anti-microbial and anti-viral attributes helps in arresting the growth of bacteria, virus and other micro-organisms that worsen cold, cough and other respiratory infections. Holy Basil oil is an effective Ayurvedic remedy for lowering excess of Kapha Dosha that aids in loosening the phlegm and mucus accumulation in the body.

Scientific studies have confirmed that Holy Basil possesses impressive anti-asthmatic abilities and may make breathing easier, which is why it’s a commonly recommended herb for respiratory issues in Ayurvedic medicine.

2 drops of Holy Basil oil and 2 drops of Eucalyptus oil added to steam inhalation can grant you instant relief from cold, cough, stiff nose, congestion, sinusitis, whooping cough and blocked nasal passages.

Cold and Flu:

The leaves of Holy Basil have been frequently praised for fighting off symptoms of the common cold such as scratchy throat, cough, congestion and fever. A decoction of Holy Basil leaves, Cloves, and common salt gives immediate relief for influenza.

A study looked at a tea formula of five common herbs from India: Holy Basil, Ashwagandha, Licorice, Ginger, and Cardamom. They gave this tea blend to volunteers aged 55 or older with a history of recurrent coughs or colds. The study showed that “regular consumption of the tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs enhanced cell activity, which is an important aspect of the (early) innate immune response to infections".

If you’ve got colds or even suffer from a viral infection, breathe in Tulsi oil by adding a few drops into a bowl of hot water. The vapor reduces congestion within your nose and lungs. Tulsi oil has got powerful anti-viral properties as well as accelerates recovery.

As a traditional remedy, Tulsi leaves are used for treating fever and the associated common cold and flu. You need to chew on a few of the leaves to get relief from the symptoms of cold and flu. Especially in the rainy season, when the risk of contracting a cold or flu is high, you can boil some Holy Basil leaves in water and drink it. And if you are suffering from severe fever, a decoction of Holy Basil leaves and a pinch of powdered Cardamom can help.


Holy Basil is an important constituent of various Ayurvedic cough syrups and expectorants. It is the best herb for treating cold and cough. In fact, all the cough and cold medicines have Holy Basil leaves as the main ingredient. It is very effective in throwing the cough out of the body. It is also helpful in asthmatic problems.

A 2005 "Study of Anti-Tussive Activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn in Guinea Pigs" in Indian Journal Physiol Pharmacol by Pratibha Nadig, Laxmi X, shows an antitussive effect probably by central action mediated through both opioid and GABA-ergic system. There was also an increase in intracellular Ca2++ in clonal cells.

In the case of dry cough, mixing a little bit of honey with cursed Tulsi and consuming it as it is will work wonders in no time. You can prepare a hot tea prepared with Tulsi leaves and Ginger to get relief from cough.

Sore Throat:

Water boiled with Holy Basil leaves can be used to relieve a sore throat. This particular water may also be used like a gargle.

Chest Congestion:

Respiratory diseases or disorders such as cough, asthma, dry throat, nasal congestion, chest congestion, bronchitis, influenza, etc are used because of bacteria or unhealthy habits or exposure to extreme weather conditions. Tulsi contains camphene, cineole, and eugenol, which when combined with its healing properties, will help with such disorders.

Consuming Tulsi concoctions help with respiratory disorders. In the case of dry cough, mixing a little bit of honey with cursed Tulsi and consuming it as it is will work wonders in no time.


Tulsi leaves come with amazing power to heal the bronchitis related problems. It’s a great healer for respiration related issues. It imparts strength and stamina to the body thereby making your body stronger against diseases.

Lung Disorders:

Along with contributing generally to respiratory system health, Holy Basil has been proven to be useful within the management of a number of severe hypersensitive, inflammatory and infectious problems affecting the lungs and associated tissues. Commonly helps healthy pulmonary function. Compounds like vitamin C, campaign, eugenol and cineole present in essential oils of Holy Basil not only treat lung infection but also fix the crowd in them. In addition, they are effective in treating lung damage due to smoking, tuberculosis, and prevent lung cancer. It also helps to treat tuberculosis due to antibiotic properties.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):

A 2020 study found that an alcohol extract of Tulsi prevented lung inflammation in mice with cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This hints that Tulsi may be of benefit in the future development of pharmaceuticals for inflammatory lung diseases.


Holy Basil was also found to treat a wide range of respiratory disorders. Asthma being one of them. Tulsi leaves are used as home remedies for treating respiratory disorders such as a cough, cold, influenza, mild asthma, and bronchitis.

A study of asthma patients found that 500 mg of dried leaves from Holy Basil taken three times daily provided relief of asthmatic symptoms within 3 days. It helps to mobilize mucus from bronchitis and asthma, making it beneficial for the healthy functioning of the respiratory tract.

For these disorders, the decoction of Holy Basil leaves and honey and Ginger is advised. In the treatment of influenza, a mixture of Holy Basil leaves, common salt, and Cloves is also used. Asthma patient should take a mixture of Holy Basil juice and Black Pepper.


Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis has developed resistance to most of the available antimicrobials. Consequently, it is difficult to cure all the patients with tuberculosis and in future, the incidence of tuberculosis by drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is likely to increase, worldwide. Therefore detection and development of new antimicrobials against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed urgently.

A 2021 study "In-vitro anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis effect of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum L. (Tulsi/Basil) leaves" published in Indian J Tuberc. by Venugopal Jayapal, C K Vidya Raj, Muthuraj Muthaiah, Vineet Kumar Chadha, Usharani Brammacharry, Stephen Selvaraj, Joshy M Easow, Essential oil from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum L (Tulsi/Basil) was obtained by hydro distillation. The anti-mycobacterial effect of essential oil was evaluated against H37Rv and nine clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the BD BACTEC MGIT instrument using different volumes of essential oil. The essential oil inhibited the growth of H37Rv and all the nine clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The minimal inhibitory concentration of H37Rv was 3 μl (2.931 μg) and those of the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis ranged from 1.5 μl (1.4655 μg) to 6 μl (5.862 μg). The Essential oil from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum L. has anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis effect in the in-vitro BD BACTEC MGIT method.

Pneumonia (Klebsiella pneumoniae):

Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most important causes of mortality in the United States. The bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae accounts for a significant proportion of community and hospital-acquired infections. Here, we determine that the Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract improves cell viability and dampens the proinflammatory cytokine response in an in vitro model of pneumonia.

A 2022 study "The Holy Basil administration diminishes the NF-Klebsiella pneumoniae expression and protects alveolar epithelial cells from pneumonia infection through interferon gamma" published in Phytother Res., by Arundhathy Suresh, Tejeshwar C Rao, Sumeet Solanki, Madathilparambil V Suresh, Bindu Menon, Krishnan Raghavendran, for this, A549, a human alveolar basal epithelial cell line, was subjected to a lethal Klebsiella pneumoniae model following a 24-hr pretreatment with basil extract. Bacteremia, cell viability, apoptosis, MTT assay, phagocytic capacity, cytokines, and Khe gene expression were assessed in these cells following pneumonia. Cell morphology analysis showed that Holy Basil protected A549 cells from Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-mediated effects by inhibiting cell death due to apoptosis. Additionally, in the presence of basil, A549 cells demonstrated significantly higher bactericidal capacity and phagocytosis. Administration of Holy Basil led to reduced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1/2a, nuclear factor kappa B, and Khe in the KP-infected cells while increasing interferon (IFN)-γ expression. Our results suggest that basil significantly reduced cell death in the setting of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, likely via attenuation of cytokine and IFN-γ mediated signaling pathways. Holy Basil is a promising therapeutic agent for managing and treating bacterial pneumonia based on its potency.


By definition, an antipyretic is a drug used to prevent or treat fever. They help in reducing the body temperature and immediately bring them back to the normal body temperature, that is, 97°F or 37°C. For example, Paracetamol. Tulsi has enough anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties to fight against any microbes that cause fever or trigger a drastic immunogenic response. The anti-viral, anti-microbial and anti-malarial properties of Holy Basil essential oil aids in reducing fever. Holy Basil is often recommended as a natural fever reliever, especially by practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine. Holy Basil leaves are thought to act as antibiotic, germicidal and disinfectant agents, which means they can protect us from bacteria and viruses. When we have a fever, it’s proof that our bodies are fighting against an infection.

Consuming crushed Tulsi or Tulsi-induced water will help you to control your body temperature. You can also add Tulsi leaves to boiling milk and consume it as it is or strain the leaves away, which will help with the fever. Drinking tea prepared with Tulsi leaves is one of the best preventive herbal treatments for all kinds of fevers in rainy season. Juice of Holy Basil leaves is also very effective in controlling the body temperatures. It is one of the best homemade medicines for people of all age groups. Extract of Tulsi leaves in fresh water should be given every 2 to 3 hours. In between one can keep giving sips of cold water. In children, it is every effective in bringing down the temperature.

Alleviates Allergy:

Holy Basil has a whole team of health benefits helping to manage symptoms of allergies. As an adaptogen, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulator, Holy Basil is a great ally for those who suffer from a variety of allergies. Holy Basil liquefies the phlegm and is effective in treating allergic bronchitis, asthma, and eosinophilic lung disease. Interestingly, Holy Basil extracts have also shown a reduction in symptoms associated with wheat allergies.

A 2017 study showed that steam inhalation with Holy Basil leaves in combination with taking the extract orally helped with symptoms of cold, flu, and allergies.

Digestive Disorders:

Holy Basil has many positive effects on the digestive system. As a slightly warming, pungent and aromatic herb, it is used to improve stagnant or stuck digestion, characterized by bloating, gas, decreased appetite, and/or nausea. It’s often paired with dried Ginger for this purpose. The benefits of Tulsi improves digestion, soothes the stomach, and relieves indigestion issues. It is one of the best and safe Ayurvedic herb that helps in stimulating the stomach to produce more mucus. Holy Basil oil has the power to increase "Agni" or the digestive fire in the system with its Pitta-enhancing attribute. Pitta Dosha symbolizes fire and is responsible for metabolic functions, including digestion, absorption and excretion. The nutrients present in Tulsi leaves feed the good bacteria in the gut and assists in treating indigestion, formation of gas in the stomach and intestines, vomiting, motion sickness, colic, sluggish digestion and intestinal spasms. The anti-microbial property of this oil helps in killing germs and harmful micro-organisms in the stomach and intestines.

Tulsi oil, if consumed in very minute quantity, enhances your digestion as well as stimulates your appetites. In case you have sluggish bowels, reactivate them with Tulsi oil.

Adding 5 drops of Holy Basil oil in warm compress or massaging your abdomen with 2 drops of Holy Basil oil, 2 drops of Lavender oil and 2 drops of Bergamot oil with 4 ml of Sesame oil can aid in promoting the secretion of bile, digestive juices and gastric acids. This assists in treating indigestion, formation of gas in the stomach and intestines, vomiting, motion sickness, colic, sluggish digestion and intestinal spasms.

Abdominal Disorders:

Holy Basil is one of the most potent herbs for abdominal disorders. These include stomach ache, flatulence, acidity, and constipation. Holy Basil is very helpful in improving the appetite. In also has some mild laxative properties therefore helps in evacuation of the bowel.

For treating stomach ache, all you need are the juice of Holy Basil leaves (10 mL) and 20 mL of Lime juice and Ginger juice (as required). Mix well and drink it up.

Upset Stomach:

Numerous stomach problems just like acidity, bowel problems as well as unwanted gas may also be healed along with Tulsi leaves. Tulsi helps digestive tract as well as allows you to really feel less bloated and much cozier. It may also help individuals struggling with vomiting as well as insufficient urge for food.


These problems are quite normal nowadays because of defective lifestyle and incorrect dietary pattern. Holy Basil seeds are having cooling and soothing effects on the stomach.

Take 1 cup of milk and 1 tbsp of Holy Basil seeds, stir it well and drink the same to lessen burning sensation within your stomach. Holy Basil seeds cooked in water can give relief from hyperacidity.

Gut Dysbiosis:

Lifestyle complications are major health concerns around the globe and are recognized as a major factor for the development of various chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, cancer, and cardiac diseases. An unhealthy diet and poor lifestyle impose a serious threat to human health. Numerous studies have suggested the role of human microbiota in human health and diseases. Microbiota resides in the human body symbiotically and the composition of microorganisms is crucial for maintaining the healthy state of an individual. A dysbiotic gut microbiome is responsible for the release of toxic metabolites such as trimethylamine, lipopolysaccharides, bile acids, and uremic toxins and is associated with impaired organ functions. Dietary and herbal intervention of dysbiosis proposes a promising strategy to counteract gut alterations and repairing of the microbial ecosystem and health.

"Study to Explore Plant-Derived Trimethylamine Lyase Enzyme Inhibitors to Address Gut Dysbiosis" published in Appl Biochem Biotechnol., 2022, by Shivani Singhal, Vibha Rani, the objective of the present comparative study was to observe the effect of therapeutic herbs in gut dysbiosis. In silico studies were performed to identify human microbiota associated with various diseases, ADME, and toxicity properties of phytoconstituents of "Tinospora cordifolia" and "Ocimum sanctum". Furthermore, co-interaction studies were performed to observe the affinity of selected phytochemicals against choline trimethylamine lyase, a critical enzyme involved in dysbiosis-induced human diseases. The antimicrobial potential of phytocompounds was done by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, our work discusses the herbal intervention of gut dysbiosis and proposes a natural, safe, and effective herbal formulation to correct microbial dysbiosis and associated diseases.

Gut Morphometry and Cecal Microbiota:

In an epoch of the growing risk of antibiotic resistance, there is a dire need to establish an effective novel feeding practice for broiler nutrition as an alternative to antibiotics.

A 2023 study "Modulation of growth performance, gut morphometry, and cecal microbiota in broilers by Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) supplementation" published in Poult Sci., by Rafiqul Islam, Nasrin Sultana, Sonali Bhakta, Ziaul Haque, Alamgir Hasan, Mahbubul Pratik Siddique, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, evaluate the impact of clove powder and tulsi extract on the growth performance, gut morphologic and morphometric indices, and cecal microbial status of broiler, as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. 60 day-old chicks of Cobb-500 strain were randomly divided into 4 groups, each having 15 birds. Chicks of the control group (T0) were fed commercial broiler feed with no additional supplementation. The treatment groups were offered commercial broiler feed and received clove powder and tulsi extract with drinking water at the rate of 0.5% + 2% (T1), 1% + 3% (T2), and 1.5% + 4% (T3), respectively. Results showed a nonlinear relationship with the dosage of clove and tulsi. All the growth parameters substantially (P < 0.05) improved in T2 while T1 and T3 showed no significant improvement compared to T0. The final body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in T2. Giblet and offal weights showed no noticeable differences except in the intestine and heart where intestine weight markedly (P < 0.05) decreased in T3 and heart weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased in T1 and T2. Clove and tulsi supplementation substantially improved the villus height and villus surface area of the small intestine in T2 while the large intestine remained mostly unaffected by the treatment. Cecal microbial status significantly improved in all the treatment groups having increased (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus spp. count and decreased (P < 0.05) E. coli count compared to T0. Based on the aforementioned findings, it can be concluded that the combination of clove and tulsi can improve the growth performance and gut health of broilers which is largely dose-dependent and might be supplied as a potential alternative to antibiotic growth promoters.

Gastric Ulcers:

Gastric ulcers are painful sores or even ulcers which form inside your stomach. Gastric ulcers, a common problem many of us face, can be caused by stomach acid, bile salts, and the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are generally used to treat inflammation and pain, can also lead to ulcers.

Holy Basil can counteract the effects of stress-induced ulcers. It naturally increases your stomach’s defense by: decreasing stomach acid, increasing mucus secretion, increasing mucus cells and extending life of mucus cells. Many drugs for peptic ulcers have side effects and can cause discomfort in some people. Holy Basil may be a preferred alternative. Research has found that both Tulsi leaves and seeds can protect your gastric mucosa (stomach lining) from becoming ulcerated.

A study treated rats with NSAIDs followed by Tulsi leaf extract. Researchers found that Tulsi protected the body’s antioxidant enzymes and prevented gastric tissue injury. Tulsi seed oil has also been found to prevent ulcers by inhibiting gastric secretions. If you’re prone to ulcers, Tulsi tea may be the key to preventing tummy trouble. It seems that Holy Basil is an efficient cure for gastric ulcers.

One animal study showed that 200 mg of Holy Basil extract reduced both the number and index of ulcers significantly in two-thirds of the animals.

Another study reports Holy Basil to be effective against canker sores. Holy Basil has vitamin A, C, calcium, zinc, and iron. Deficiency of these nutrients can lead to a variety of ulcers.

Results from a survey recovered from The Journal of Ethno Pharmacology demonstrate that Holy Basil includes powerful anti-ulcer genic and ulcer healing qualities. Other research has shown similar results. As a result, it’s possible which Holy Basil might help deal with gastric ulcer.

A 2019 clinical trial found pharmaceutical drugs for gastric ulcers were more effective when taken with a combination of Coconut oil and Holy Basil.

A 2012 study "Effect Of Ocimum Sanctum Leaf Extract On Swimming Stress Induced Ulcers In Rats" published in The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine. 2012 Vol. 10, No. 1 by R Kath, R Gupta, investigated the antiulcer effects of Ocimum Sanctum against swimming stress induced ulcers in albino rats. Results showed significant antiulcerogenic activity attributed to Ocimum sanctum antagonism of H2 receptors, antisecretory mechanism, or by antioxidant property.

Another 2010 study of methanol extract of leaves "Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications" by Priyabrata Pattanayak, Pritishova Behera, Debajyoti Das, and Sangram K. Panda, showed dose dependent ulcer protective effect against cold-restraint stress-induced gastric ulcers. Antiulcerogenic property was also studied in pyloric-ligated and aspirin-treated rats. Results suggest the anti-ulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers may be due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucus secretion.

"A Study on Gastric Ulceration and Gastric Secretion in Rats" published in Indian Journal Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 by Mandal S et al., showed the extract of Ocimum sanctum possess antiulcerogenic properties with reduction of the ulcer index, free and total acidity in rats. 7 days of treatment increased mucous secretion.

Grind Holy Basil leaves with a little amount of water and then blend it with some oil (for example, Rose oil). Apply this paste on the sores.

Relieves Constipation:

The soaked Holy Basil seeds whenever consumed helps you to cleanse the inner stomach. It guarantees easy bowel movement and helps to flush out toxin through the stomach. It is also taken along with milk before you go to bed to help ease constipation.


A 2022 study "Ocimum sanctum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper nigrum extracts and their effects on gut microbiota modulations (prebiotic potential), basal inflammatory markers and lipid levels: oral supplementation study in healthy rats" published in Pharm Biol. by Narendra Babu Kondapalli, Rajkumar Hemalatha, Satyanarayana Uppala, Srinivas Reddy Yathapu, Shujauddin Mohammed, Mullapudi Venkata Surekha, Ananthan Rajendran, Dinesh Kumar Bharadwaj, Ocimum sanctum Linn (Labiatae) (OS), Zingiber officinale Rose (Zingiberaceae) (ZO), and Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) (PN) are used in traditional medicine as immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, and bioavailability enhancer agents. Active phytoconstituents of extracts were analysed using HPLC and GC-MS. SD rats were supplemented with individual/combined extracts (OS-850; ZO-500; PN-100 mg/kg Bw) and Fructooligosaccharide (standard prebiotic-5g/kg-Bw), orally for 30 days. Haematology, lipid profile, LPS, CRP, IL-6, insulin and histology of vital organs were analysed. Caecal bacterial levels were assessed by RT-PCR. High content of phenolic compounds luteolin-7-O-glucoside (430 ± 2.3 mg/100g), gallic acid (84.13 ± 1.2 mg/100 g) and flavones (88.18 ± 1.8 mg/100 g) were found in OS, ZO, and PN, respectively. Combined extract was rich in luteolin-7-O-glucoside (266.0 ± 1.80 mg/100 g). Essential oils including methyleugenol (13.96%), 6-shogaol (11.00%), piperine (18.26%), and cyclopentasiloxane (10.06%) were higher in OS, ZO, PN and combined extract. Higher levels of caecal Lactobacillus (1.7-3.4-fold), Bifidobacterium (5.89-28.4-fold), and lower levels of Firmicutes (0.04-0.91-fold), Bacteroides (0.69-0.88-fold) were noted among extracts and FOS supplemented rats. Significant (p < 0.05) decrease in plasma lipid profile and LPS was noted in all supplemented rats. The current study could be first of its kind in exploring prebiotic potential of OS, ZO, PN and their effect on native gut bacterial population.

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD):

Tulsi is useful in curing heart related problems. It provides strength to the heart muscles and also helps in improving the blood circulation. It also helps in improving the blood supply to heart muscles. Holy Basil is best known to help people with hypertension and other cardiac disorders because it effectively prevents the formation of clots in the arteries, lowers the risk of various heart diseases, and improves the cardiac functioning system. Tulsi is found to be very effective in reducing the level of blood cholesterol thereby promising a healthier and fitter heart. It is considered to be the best medicine for those who are suffering from cardiac problems as it is very effective in reducing the weakness and regaining the lost stamina of the body.

Animal studies published in The Alternative Medicine Review also demonstrate that Holy Basil benefits include cardio-protective properties. In other words, it appears to boost heart health.

Protects the Heart (Cardioprotective):

Holy Basil has powerful antioxidant components that help protect the heart by fighting off and destroying free radicals, lowering cholesterol levels and keeping blood pressure stable. Because of its ability to do so, it is a beneficial herb for those suffering from diabetes, thyroid issues or hypertension.

A study done by D. S. Arya, M. Nandave, S. K. Ojha, S. Kumari, S. Joshi and I. Mohanty, showed Ocimum sanctum has myocardial salvaging and cardioprotective effects against ISP-induced myocardial necrosis probably through improved ventricular function, augmentation of endogenous antioxidants and suppression of oxidative stress. An alcohol extract of Tulsi leaves reduced heart tissue inflammation in a mouse model of a heart attack (myocardial infarction), possibly due to its high phenol content. A Holy Basil extract may prevent cardiovascular disease by blocking myloperoxidase (MPO), an oxidative enzyme which can cause plaque accumulation (known as atherosclerosis) in the artery.

A 2009 study "Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of Ginkgo biloba and Ocimum sanctum in rodents" published in Alternative Medicine Review by Vandana S. Panda, Suresh R. Naik, showed the combined treatment of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes and Ocimum sanctum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats demonstrated significant cardiac protection, decreased lipid peroxidation, restoration of antioxidant activities. 

Another 2006 study "Effect of Ocimum sanctum and Curcuma longa on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury" published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The Official Journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) by Ipseeta Mohanty, Dharamvir Singh Arya and Suresh Kumar Gupta, evaluated the effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function in ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) model of myocardial injury in wistar albino rats. Results showed significant cardioprotection and functional recovery by Curcuma longa which may be attributed to its anti-apoptotic property. In contrast to Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum sanctum may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the impairment of cardiac performance.

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension):

Tulsi is known to reduce or regulate blood pressure naturally as it reduces stress which is mostly the consequence of hypertension and unbalanced neurotransmitter ratios present in your body. and help in maintaining a healthy heart profile. It will be helpful with the lipid content and other cardiovascular disorders that stem from disrupted heart functions. The antioxidants present in Tulsi help in balancing the heart rhythm and regulate blood pressure.

Only three studies showing the effects of how Holy Basil can lower blood pressure have been reported so far.

All 3 studies used fresh Holy Basil leaf juice in a span of 12 days to 4 weeks. The juice consisted of 75% Holy Basil made from 15 fresh leaves of the Holy Basil plant. It was consumed two times a day before meals. A significant reduction in the blood pressure was noted in all three studies.

Cholesterol Levels:

Since Holy Basil targets metabolic stress, it can also help with weight loss and cholesterol levels. Animal studies saw significant changes in rabbits’ fat molecules when they ate fresh Holy Basil leaves. They had lower “bad” cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) and higher “good” cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol).

One animal study found that the oil in Holy Basil (eugenol) lowers stress-induced cholesterol levels. There was a reduction of total cholesterol in the kidney, liver, or heart in rats with and without diabetes after they ate Holy Basil leaf powder.

Seven clinical trials report the benefits of Holy Basil on the lipid profile in humans. The experiments used the following dosages for about 8 to 12 weeks. Tulsi leaf capsules 250 mg were taken twice a day before meals for 8 weeks. Aqueous Holy Basil leaf taken (5 ml) twice a day before meals for 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Whole plant powder 3 grams per day for 12 weeks.


Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons,

The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Tulsi in Humans: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Massaging your system with 5 drops of Holy Basil oil, 5 drops of Juniper oil, 5 drops of Myrtle oil and 2 drops of Clove oil along with 20 ml of Coconut oil, once in a week can help in controlling blood sugar, blood pressure and blood cholesterol. You can also add 2 drops of Holy Basil oil in your diffuser every day and inhale this magical aroma for enhancing your heart health.

Hematologic Diseases:

Protects Blood Vessels:

As it possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, Holy Basil can help the muscles controlling blood vessel function to contract and relax. It also helps remove the plaque in blood vessels, protecting them from damage.

Blood Clotting:

A study "Thrombolytic potential of O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica and A. occidentale" published in Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy by Irfan Newaz Khan, Razibul Habib et al., evaluated four aqueous herbal extracts viz., Ocimum sanctum, Curcuma longa, Azadiracht indica and Anacardium occidentale. Results showed significant clot lysis compared with vehicle control. Ocimum sanctum showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01±6/168%) where the standard streptokinase showed 86.2% clot lysis effect. Although all the herbal extracts exhibited in vitro thrombolytic properties, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components are yet to be discovered.

Neurological Health & Nerve Diseases:


In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, Ocimum sanctum is said to have remedial effect on hriddaurbalya (problems affecting the mind), aakshepayukta vikara (nervous disorders) and shiroroga (diseases of head). Hence, in Ayurvedic practice, it is profoundly used as an antistress medicine. Stress is known to affect neurons of functionally significant brain regions like substantia nigra. However, experimental evidence showing its effect on morphology of substantia nigral neurons is lacking. In addition, whether the Ocimum sanctum treatment attenuates stress induced substantia nigral neuronal structural changes is not known. To know the effect of stress on morphology of substantia nigral neurons and the effect of Ocimum sanctum fresh leaf extract (OSE) on substantia nigral neurons of stressed rats.

A 2022 study "Neuroprotective potential of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) leaf extract in preventing and attenuating stress induced substantia nigral neuronal damage in rats" published in Journal Ayurveda Integr Med., by Vincent Rodrigues, Muddanna S Rao, Gurumadhva S Rao, Mohandas Rao K G, Present study included three experiments. Experiment I: To study the effect of 3 and 6 weeks of foot shock stress in rats; Experiment II: To study the effect of 3 weeks of OSE treatment on 3 week-stress undergoing rats and on 3 week-stressed rats; Experiment III: To study the effect of 6 weeks of OSE treatment in 6 week-stress undergoing rats and in 6 week-stressed rats. In experiment I, stress had significant deleterious effect on dendritic arborization of substantia nigral neurons. Experiments II and III showed prevention and attenuation of the stress induced dendritic atrophy of substantia nigral neurons in both 2 ml and 4 ml OSE treatment groups. Protective effect of OSE was more pronounced in rats which are treated for a longer duration. Foot shock stress induces neuronal damage in the substantia nigra of rats. Treatment with fresh leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum could prevent and attenuate the foot shock stress induced behavioral deficit and substantia nigral neuronal damage.

Sharpens Memory:

A pretreatment along with methanol extracts of Holy Basil reduced brain damage brought on by decreased cerebral circulation. The foliage is a nerve tonic and in addition sharpen memory.


A 2022 study "Ursolic acid and its isomer oleanolic acid are responsible for the anti-dementia effects of Ocimum sanctum in olfactory bulbectomized mice" published in Journal Nat Med., by Hien Thu Nguyen, Xoan Thi Le, Tai Van Nguyen, Hoa Nhu Phung, Hang Thi Nguyet Pham, Khoi Minh Nguyen, Kinzo Matsumoto, aims to clarify the bioactive constituents responsible for the anti-dementia effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract (OS) using olfactory bulbectomized mice, an animal model of dementia. The effects of OS or its extract further fractionated with n-hexane (OS-H), ethyl acetate (OS-E), and n-butanol (OS-B) on the spatial cognitive deficits of olfactory bulbectomized mice were elucidated by the modified Y-maze tests. The effects of the major constituents of the most active OS fraction were also elucidated using the reference drug donepezil. The administration of OS and OS-E ameliorated the spatial cognitive deficits caused by olfactory bulbectomized, whereas OS-H or OS-B had no effect. Two major constituents, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, and three minor constituents were isolated from OS-E. ursolic acid (6 and 12 mg/kg) and oleanolic acid (24 mg/kg) attenuated the olfactory bulbectomized-induced cognitive deficits. ursolic acid (6 mg/kg) and donepezil reversed the olfactory bulbectomized-induced down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and choline acetyltransferase expression levels in the hippocampus. ursolic acid inhibited the ex vivo activity of acetylcholinesterase with similar efficacy to donepezil. ursolic acid inhibited the in vitro activity of acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 106.5 μM), while the effects of OS, OS-E, and other isolated compounds were negligible. These findings suggest that ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are responsible for the anti-dementia action of OS extract, whereas ursolic acid possesses a more potent anti-dementia effect than its isomer oleanolic acid. The effects of ursolic acid are, at least in part, mediated by normalizing the function of central cholinergic systems and vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression.

Hyperhomocysteinemia-Induced Vascular Dementia (VaD):

Vascular dementia is well recognized as the second most familiar form of dementia in the aged population.

A 2020 study "Ocimum Sanctum Linn: A Potential Adjunct Therapy for Hyperhomocysteinemia-Induced Vascular Dementia" published in Adv Exp Med Biol. by Jagadeesh Prasad Pasangulapati, Arun Reddy Ravula, Dinesh Reddy Kanala, Shanmukhi Boyina, Kiran Gangarapu, Hemanth Kumar Boyina, is aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum (EEOS) against hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced vascular dementia (VaD) in Wistar rats. HHcy was induced by administering L-methionine (1.7 g/kg, p.o) for 4 weeks. Donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered from the 14th day of L-methionine treatment. The behavioral impairment caused due to HHcy in rats was assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze tests using a video tracking system. Biochemical estimations and aortic ring assay were also performed followed by a molecular docking analysis of active chemical constituents present in the leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn. In this study, the ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum treatment in hyperhomocysteinemic rats has showed significant improvement in spatial learning and working memory performance. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum treatment further increased nitric oxide bioavailability and significantly altered all serum and brain biochemical parameters in a dose-dependent manner. The docking analysis revealed that among all the phytoconstituents of Ocimum sanctum compound (IX), molludistin has showed good inhibitory activity against S-adenosyl homocysteine, thus preventing homocysteine formation and may be responsible for potential effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum against HHcy-induced VaD. From our results, we conclude that ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum can be used as a promising adjunct therapy for treatment of HHcy-induced VaD and oxidative stress.

Alzheimer’s Disease:

Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease which affects more than 40 million people worldwide with progressive loss of memory and cognitive functions. It is reported, persistent Alzheimer's disease is also one of the main causes of epilepsy in elders and comorbidity of both these will contribute to worsening the health status of Alzheimer's disease patients. Recently, herbal plants with potent neuroprotective and antioxidant properties were used for increasing the quality of life in neurodegenerative disease patients.

A 2022 study "Combination of Ocimum sanctum extract and Levetiracetam ameliorates cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal architecture in rat model of Alzheimer's disease" published in Journal Chem Neuroanat., by H S Nandini, K L Krishna, Chinnappa Apattira, was conceptualized to access the protective effect of Ocimum sanctum extract and Levetiracetam and their combination (Ocimum sanctum extract + Levetiracetam) against Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy associated with Alzheimer's disease in the rat Alzheimer's disease model. Alzheimer's disease was induced in aged male Wistar albino rats with Amyloid-β by intracerebroventricular administration. The results reveal, treatment with Ocimum sanctum extract, Levetiracetam and Ocimum sanctum extract + Levetiracetam significantly reversed the memory impairment, increases the BDNF expressions and decreases AChE activity in Amyloid-β induced Alzheimer's disease animals. Expression of Amyloid-β and p-tau in the hippocampus was significantly reduced in treatment group when compared to the control animals. Treatment with Ocimum sanctum extract and Ocimum sanctum extract + Levetiracetam also restored the hippocampal architecture by ameliorating the neuronal count in CA1, CA3 and DG regions. It also observed that treatment has decreased the excitoneurotoxicity evidenced by decreased glutamate and increased GABA levels and thus provided protection against epilepsy. Treatment groups also exhibited a potent antioxidant activity when tested endogenous antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH and LPO in the brain hippocampus. Our findings provide evidence for use of Ocimum sanctum extract, Levetiracetam and Ocimum sanctum extract + Levetiracetam against Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy associated with Alzheimer's disease in Amyloid-β induced Alzheimer's disease animal model. However, further clinical studies are required to prove the use of Ocimum sanctum extract, Levetiracetam and Ocimum sanctum extract + Levetiracetam in the management of Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer's disease-associated epilepsy in human volunteers.

A 2015 study published in Phytochemistry Reviews by Veronica Gradinariu, Oana Cioanca, Lucian Hritcu, Adriana Trifan, Elvira Gille, Monica Hancianu, analyzed the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of inhaled Basil essential oil extracted from Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum in a ß-amyloid rat model of Alzheimer's disease using in vivo (elevated plus maze and forced swimming) tests. Results showed the Basil essential oils, especially the Ocimum sanctum oil, have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, and might have alternative or complementary potential in the prevention or treatment of conditions related to Alzheimer's disease.

Amelioration of Cognitive Dysfunction:

In a 2022 study "Amelioration of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive dysfunction by Ocimum sanctum L. through the modulation of inflammation and GLP-1 levels" published in Metab Brain Dis., by Bansy Patel, Devang Sheth, Amit Vyas, Sunny Shah, Sachin Parmar, Chirag Patel, Sandip Patel, Jayesh Beladiya, Sonal Pande, Ketan Modi, DPP-4 inhibitors have been shown to reverse amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease patients with cognitive impairment. Ocimum sanctum L. leaves reported the presence of important phytoconstituents which are reported to have DPP-4 inhibitory activity. To investigate the effects of petroleum ether extract of Ocimum sanctum L. (PEOS) in Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced Alzheimer's disease rats. ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) was injected bilaterally into male Wistar rats, while sham animals received the artificial CSF. The ICV-STZ-induced rats were administered with three doses of PEOS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for thirty days. All experimental rats were subjected to behaviour parameters (radial arm maze task and novel object recognition test), neurochemical parameters such as GLP-1, Aβ42, and TNF-α levels, and histopathological examination (Congo red staining) of the left brain hemisphere. PEOS significantly reversed the spatial learning and memory deficit exhibited by ICV-STZ-induced rats. Furthermore, PEOS also shows promising results in retreating Aβ deposition, TNF α, and increasing GLP-1 levels. The histopathological study also showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in amyloid plaque formation and dense granule in PEOS -treated rats as compared to the ICV-STZ induced rats (Negative control). The results show that extract of Ocimum sanctum L. attenuated ICV-STZ-induced learning and memory deficits in rats and has the potential to be employed in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease.


Tulsi might be efficient for the treatment of convulsions. Ocimum sanctum is widely used in Ayurveda medicine and is having multitude neuromodulatory effect including the anticonvulsant effect in acute seizure models as per previous studies. In India, it is used for the treatment of epilepsy as traditional medicine. However, its role in chronic seizure model and interaction with newer antiepileptic drugs has not been investigated, which will enhance its translational value.

A 2020 study "An interaction study of Ocimum sanctum L. and levetiracetam in pentylenetetrazole kindling model of epilepsy" published in Journal Ethnopharmacol by Sudhir Chandra Sarangi, Soumya S Pattnaik, Jatinder Katyal, Thomas Kaleekal, A K Dinda, investigated the effect of Ocimum on chronic seizure model and its interaction with levetiracetam, a newer antiepileptic drug. The adjuvant role of Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts 1000 mg/kg along with levetiracetam 300 mg/kg was studied in adult male Wistar rats with mean weight of 227.84 ± 21.68 g using pentylenetetrazole (30 mg/kg, i.p.) kindling (with maximum 24 injections on alternate days and challenge on 7th-day). Along with seizure score, neurobehavioral, brain tissue oxidative stress and histopathology status were assessed. Pharmacokinetic interaction was assessed between levetiracetam and Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts after 14 days of drug treatment. kindling-levetiracetam + Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts had least seizure score during kindling and on the pentylenetetrazole-challenge test (p=0.031) than other kindling groups. Seizure protection was more in K-levetiracetam + Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts (85.72%) than others (kindling-levetiracetam-42.86%, K-Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts-42.86%, and K-Control-28.58%). Ocimum treated groups had better memory retention potential as evident from Morris water maze, passive avoidance test but not in an elevated plus maze test. Oxidative-stress was lower in Ocimum treated groups than K-Control group. As per histopathology, K-levetiracetam + Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts group had the least neuronal degeneration among kindling groups. There was no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between levetiracetam and Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts, except increased Tmax in levetiracetam + Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extracts group than levetiracetam alone (p=0.009). Ocimum per se and combination with levetiracetam treatment exerted better seizure control, memory retention, oxidative stress reduction, and neuronal structure preservation than kindling control group. There was a very minimal drug interaction between Ocimum and levetiracetam. So, Ocimum as an adjuvant to levetiracetam may be shelpful in enhancing the antiepileptic effect and also in minimizing the adverse effects.

A 2010 overview "Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications" published in Pharmacogn Rev. by Priyabrata Pattanayak, Pritishova Behera, Debaiyoti Das, and Sangram K Panda, evaluated various extracts of stem, leaf, and stem callus for anticonvulsant activity using MES (maximal electroshock model) using Phenytoin as standard. Results showed the extracts were effective in preventing convulsions induced by transcorneal electroshock.

A 2003 research published within the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology about convulsions or even seizures, frequently exist in problems just like epilepsy. The research, guided by Rag Jaggi from Panjab University in India, compared the effect of Tulsi against a standard drug useful for convulsions known as phenytoin, and also the extracts of the herb’s stem and leaf were found to function in avoiding convulsions.

Schizophrenia (Catalepsy):

A 2007 study of neuroleptic drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia are known to cause extrapyramidal side effects. "Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice" published in Indian Jour of Pharmacology, Vol. 39, Issue 2 by S Pemminati, V Nair et al., showed Ocimum sanctum has a protective effect against haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Results suggest its potential use in the prevention of drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects.

Mental Health & Behavioural Conditions:


Tulsi leaves contain a high amount of vitamin C and other antioxidants like camphene, which repairs free radicals damage and minimizes the stress caused by these free radicals. Benefits of Tulsi helps to calm blood pressure, reduces stress, tension, and inflammation from nerves and muscles. The higher your cortisol levels are, the more stressed out you’ll be. Holy Basil is known to bring your cortisol levels down and make you feel relaxed. It’s essentially an adaptogen and is loaded with antioxidants that calm you down. And it’s not just psychological stress that Holy Basil relieves, it safeguards your body from physiological, metabolic, and chemical stress too.

Holy Basil includes three phytochemical compounds that help achieve these results. The first two, ocimumosides A and B, have been identified as anti-stress compounds and may lower blood corticosterone (another stress hormone) and create positive alterations in the neurotransmitter system of the brain. Tulsi can control the effects of cortisol, also known as the stress hormone. Even Though it can't affect the production of cortisol, it can enhance the production of Serotonin and Dopamine, which will compensate for the cortisol and, in turn, leaves you stress-free. Ocimumosides A and B present in Tulsi helps with balancing out the neurotransmitters.

According to an article published in Alternative and Complementary Therapies, the third, 4-allyl-1-O-ß-D-glucopyronosyl-2-hydroxybenzene, is also able to lower stress parameters in lab studies.

In Ayurveda, Ocimum tenuiflorum (Holy Basil) is referred to as "the elixir of life" and is believed to promote longevity and general wellbeing. Although limited, there are clinical trials to suggest Ocimum tenuiflorum has anti-stress effects.

A 2022 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial "Investigating the effects of an Ocimum tenuiflorum (Holy Basil) extract (HolixerTM) on stress, mood, and sleep in adults experiencing stress" published in Front Nutr., by Adrian L Lopresti, Stephen J Smith, Alexandra P Metse, Peter D Drummond, examines the effects of a standardized Ocimum tenuiflorum extract (HolixerTM) on subjective and objective measures of stress and sleep quality in adults experiencing stress. Two-arm, parallel-group, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry trial registration number ACTRN12621000609853. One hundred volunteers aged 18-65 years received either 125 mg of Ocimum tenuiflorum twice daily or a placebo. Outcome measures included the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (primary outcome measure), Profile of Mood States, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Restorative Sleep Questionnaire, and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-29. Sleep quality was also assessed using a wrist-worn sleep tracker (Fitbit), and stress changes were examined by measuring between-group differences in hair cortisol and stress responses after exposure to an experiment stress procedure known as the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Compared to the placebo, Ocimum tenuiflorum supplementation was associated with greater improvements in PSS (p = 0.003) and AIS (p = 0.025) scores; and at week 8, concentrations in hair cortisol were also lower (p = 0.025). Moreover, Ocimum tenuiflorum supplementation was associated with a buffered stress responses after exposure to the MAST as demonstrated by significantly lower concentrations in salivary cortisol (p = 0.001), salivary amylase (p = 0.001), systolic (p = 0.010) and diastolic (p = 0.025) blood pressure, and subjective stress ratings (p < 0.001). Ocimum tenuiflorum supplementation was well-tolerated with no reports of major adverse effects. The results from this trial suggest that 8 weeks of supplementation with an Ocimum tenuiflorum extract (HolixerTM) may reduce objective and subjective measures of stress, and improve subjective measures of sleep quality. However, further research using gold-standard objective sleep measures will be required to substantiate the sleep-related findings.

Clinical trial registration: - Identifier: ACTRN12621000609853p

Ayurvedic practitioners recommend drinking Holy Basil as tea using the leaves. And since it’s caffeine-free, it’s even recommended to drink daily. The act of drinking tea can be ritualistic and as calming as yoga. It fosters clear thoughts, relaxation, and a sense of well-being. But if the Basil’s bitter and spicy flavor isn’t your cup of tea, a supplement in pill form or as an alcohol extract is available. There’s less risk of contamination when taking an herb in its natural form. Regularly chewing Holy Basil leaves twice a day is an effective anti-stress home remedy.

A 2016 study "Anti-stress Activity of Ocimum sanctum: Possible Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis" published in Phytother Res. by Edwin Jothie Richard, Ramanaiah Illuri, Bharathi Bethapudi, Senthilkumar Anandhakumar, Anirban Bhaskar, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, Amit Agarwal, investigated anti-stress potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. Further, the possible mechanism of anti-stress was explored in vitro using cell and cell-free assays. Rats were administered Ocimum sanctum followed by CVS regimen for a period of 16 days. On days 4, 8, 12, and 16, body weight and immobility time in forced swim test were measured. In addition, the possible inhibitory effect of Ocimum sanctum and ursolic acid on cortisol release and CRHR1 receptor activity were studied in cell-based assays, while inhibitory effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were studied in cell-free assays. CVS group demonstrated less body weight gain and higher immobility time than Ocimum sanctum administered groups, while oral administration of Ocimum sanctum significantly increased body weight gain and decreased the immobility time. Further, Ocimum sanctum and its constituents inhibited cortisol release and exhibited a significant CRHR1 receptor antagonist activity. Also, they had specific inhibitory activity towards 11β-HSD1 and COMT activity. Thus, Ocimum sanctum was found to be effective in the management of stress effects, and anti-stress activity could be due to inhibition of cortisol release, blocking CRHR1 receptor, and inhibiting 11β-HSD1 and COMT activities.

According to a scientific article published in 2014 in The Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, “Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and antidepressant properties". Holy Basil has antidepressant and anti-stress properties comparable to Diazepam and antidepressant drugs. These studies examined the leaves.

A 2012 preclinical study "Efficacy of Ocimum sanctum for Relieving Stress" published in The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice by Lakshmana Rao Bathalla, Ch Vekateswara Rao, SM Manjunath, S Vinut, Raghu Vemulapalli, evaluated the anxiolytic effects of Ocimum sanctum in stress-induced anxiety. Results showed significant anti-stress activity but the magnitude and efficacy is less than the standard anxiolytic agent, i.e. alprazolam.

Another 2012 double-blind, placebo-controlled study "Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress" published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Ram Chandra Saxena, Rakesh Singh, Parveen Kumar, Mahendra P. Singh Negi, Vinod S. Saxena, Periasamy Geetharani, Joseph Joshua Allan, and Kudiganti Venkateshwarlu,  evaluated the efficacy of OciBest, an extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum in symptomatic control of general stress. Results showed OciBest (whole plant extract) to be 1.6 times or 39% more effective in the management of stress symptoms compared to placebo and was well tolerated by all patients over a 6-week period study. The severity of stress-related symptoms was self-evaluated by patients who scored on symptoms of forgetfulness, sexual problems, sleep problems, feeling of enthusiasm, which significantly decreased (p<0.05) Results suggest OciBest to be effective and well tolerated by all the patients.

Some other evidence of this stress-lowering effect includes the ability of Holy Basil to improve reaction times and error rates in human subjects compared to placebo. There also seems to be a positive effect of Holy Basil on cortisol levels.

Inhaling Tulsi extracts or rubbing Tulsi oil in your forehead can instantly help you calm down your entire nervous system in no time.

Occasional Stress:

Your body experiences all types of stress, whether it’s from pollution, physical exertion, extreme cold or too much noise. Exercise, good sleep and a proper diet can only go so far. Research calling Holy Basil “a herb for all reasons” reports mounting evidence that Holy Basil can help address some of these occasional stressors.

According to a study, when several people took 500 mg of Holy Basil twice daily, they reported improvements in their overall mood. Two antioxidants that this herb contains, rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid, help protect cells. These powerful antioxidants counteract free radicals and radiation, battling environmental stresses on a cellular level. People also felt more social.


To use Holy Basil for anxiety, research suggests taking its leaf extract twice daily after meals can help with managing symptoms. You can also try drinking Tulsi tea, or adding Tulsi to your meals.

In the Indian system of medicine, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Hemidesmus indicus (R.Br.), Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Ocimum sanctum (L.) has been mentioned as a remedy for the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Based on their folklore use, a polyherbal combination was derived for the management of anxiety.

A 2021 study "Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic effect of a polyherbal combination with Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal for the management of anxiety" published in Journal Ethnopharmacol, by Rajanandh Muhasaparur Ganesan, Dinesh Kumar Settu, Yogeshkumar Murkunde, Chamundeeswari Duraipandian, aimed to find the best polyherbal combination (PHC), in terms of its pharmacological action, out of two PHC, namely PHC1 and PHC3, prepared based on the previous studies conducted and to carry out the pharmacokinetic (PK) study of the best combination (PHC3). Pharmacological activities include elevated plus maze model and hole-board test for anti-anxiety screening, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABAA) measurement in brain tissues and superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione measurement for anti-oxidant screening. PHC3 (100 mg/kg) produced statistically significant (p < 0.05) effect on all the pharmacological outcome measures when compared to alprazolam standard. Therefore, it was chosen for PK study. PK study was carried out using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy technique with respect to Withaferin-A. PK parameters such as maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), 16.78 ± 5.32 ng/mL; time of maximum concentration (Tmax), 18 ± 0.12min; half-life (T1/2) 61.20 ± 9.87min; mean residual time (MRT), 7.53 h s; area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC0-1), 1678 ± 34.13 ng/mL; area under the concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞), 1705 ± 28.87 ng/mL; total clearance (CL), 290.67 ± 15.89 mL/min and volume of distribution (Vd) 0.054 L were calculated. The results of the studies revealed that PHC3 possessed significant anxiolytic, anti-oxidant activities and enhanced expression of GABAA mediated inhibition when compared to PHC1. Withaferin-A in PHC3 exhibited a rapid oral absorption in rat plasma. The findings of this study greatly help to provide useful evidence for the development of suitable formulation using PHC3. 

Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide and it affects people's health and economy. There is a relapse in alcohol intake due to alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol withdrawal anxiety-like behavior is a symptom that appears 6-24 h after the last alcohol ingestion.

Another 2021 study "A standardized polyherbal preparation POL-6 diminishes alcohol withdrawal anxiety by regulating Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabra3, Gabra4, Gabra5 gene expression of GABAA receptor signaling pathway in rats" published in BMC Complement Med Ther., by Lalit Sharma, Aditi Sharma, Ashutosh Kumar Dash, Gopal Singh Bisht, Girdhari Lal Gupta, was designed to explore the protective effect of a standardized polyherbal preparation POL-6 in ethanol withdrawal anxiety in Wistar rats. POL-6 was prepared by mixing the dried extracts of six plants Bacopa monnieri, Hypericum perforatum, Centella asiatica, Withania somnifera, Camellia sinesis, and Ocimum sanctum in the proportion 2:1:2:2:1:2 respectively. POL-6 was subjected to phytochemical profiling through LC-MS, HPLC, and HPTLC. The effect of POL-6 on alcohol withdrawal anxiety was tested using a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm model giving animals' free choice between alcohol and water for 15 days. Alcohol was withdrawn on the 16th day and POL-6 (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg, oral), diazepam (2 mg/kg) treatment was given on the withdrawal days. Behavioral parameters were tested using EPM and LDT. On the 18th day blood was collected from the retro-orbital sinus of the rats and alcohol markers ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT were studied. At end of the study, animals were sacrificed and the brain was isolated for exploring the influences of POL-6 on the mRNA expression of GABAA receptor subunits in the amygdala and hippocampus. Phytochemical profiling showed that POL-6 contains major phytoconstituents like withaferin A, quercetin, catechin, rutin, caeffic acid, and β-sitosterol. In-vivo studies showed that POL-6 possesses an antianxiety effect in alcohol withdrawal. Gene expression studies on the isolated brain tissues showed that POL-6 normalizes the GABAergic transmission in the amygdala and hippocampus of the rats. The study concludes that POL-6 may have therapeutic potential for treating ethanol-type dependence.

A 2015 study "Comparative efficacy of Ocimum sanctum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. essential oils against amyloid beta (1–42)-induced anxiety and depression in laboratory rats" published in Phytochemistry Reviews, Vol. 14, Issue 4 by Veronica Gradinariu, Oana Cioanca, Lucian Hritcu, Adriana Trifan, Elvira Gille, Monica Hancianu, was analyzed the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of inhaled Basil essential oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum basilicum in a ß-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease using in vivo (elevated plus maze and forced swimming) tests. Results showed the Basil essential oils, especially the Ocimum sanctum oil, have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, and might have alternative or complementary potential in the prevention or treatment of conditions related to anxiety and depression.


A 2021 study demonstrated significant anti-depression effects of an aqueous extract (ie. tea) of Holy Basil and Cardamom in elderly patients suffering from depression. Researchers have compared these anti-depressive effects of Holy Basil to anti-depression pharmaceuticals like Diazepam.

Natural Adaptogen:

An adaptogen is a natural substance that helps your body adapt to stress and promotes mental balance. The concept of an adaptogen is a holistic approach. Holy Basil is a natural adaptogen, which is a substance that reduces occasional anxiety and stress. Adaptogens help your body adapt to stress by boosting your immune system, increasing endurance, and balancing moods. All parts of the Holy Basil plant act as an adaptogen.

Holy Basil is often used as an adaptogen herb. Adaptogenic herbs, by definition, are herbs that are non-toxic and used to generally support the health of a person under stress in non-specific ways. Adaptogens influence the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Axis (HPA) and are used to positively address many nervous system issues, including the negative effects of excessive stress, anxiety, insomnia, depression, overwork, and more.

Ayurvedic medicine refers to Holy Basil as a rasayana, which is a Sanskrit term meaning "to lengthen the lifespan“. In the book "Adaptogens", David Winston and Steven Maimes define a rasayana as "an herb that nourishes a person’s growth to perfect health and promotes long life". People often say that they don’t want to rely on herbs for the rest of their life. In this sense, people are equating herbs with pharmaceutical drugs. However, around the world herbs are regularly taken as way to ensure vibrant health and prevent the types of long-term and chronic diseases that plague people living the stressful modern life. Adaptogenic herbs like Holy Basil are often taken daily over a long period of time to gain the protective benefits.

Scientific research shows that Holy Basil has pharmacological properties to help your mind cope with many types of stress. Several studies have also shown an improvement in cognitive function with the use of Holy Basil leaves for about four weeks. There’s evidence that Tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. One of the most well-researched Holy Basil benefits is its ability to keep hormone levels balanced naturally and to lower symptoms of anxiety.

According to an overview from 2010 “Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications" by Priyabrata Pattanayak, Pritishova Behera, Debajyoti Das and Sangram K. Panda, published in PubMed says, “Tulsi is considered to be an adaptogen, balancing different processes in the body, and helpful for adapting to stress".

Nervous System:

Holy Basil can be considered a balm to the entire nervous system. It can be taken daily to support good health or relied upon frequently to address many nervous system complaints. Visceral or the autonomic nervous system supports the generation of hormones and its resultant responses in the human system. It controls the vital functions of the system including breathing, salivation, digestion, heart rate, urination, perspiration, respiratory rate, breathing and sexual feelings. Problems in the functioning of this involuntary nervous system can result in indigestion, breathing problems, heart disorders, improper blood circulation, depression, nervousness, anxiety, headache, sexual problems and kidney disorders. Holy Basil essential oil has a balancing effect on the nervous system. This aids in treating anxiety, stress, depression, nervousness, loss of interest and negative emotions.

Herbalist Christophe Bernard describes his experience of Holy Basil as follows: “It brings me back into my body, from the overactive Vata part of me. When there is a whirlwind of ideas and planning of future projects, when I am gardening but not even there, lost in my head, it brings me back into my body. Mind clarity, yes, but a clarity of the present moment, and a sharpening of all the senses. I see and hear more sharply, I feel the sun on my skin, the weight of my body. I am more in tune with intuition. Things slow down a bit. What Matt Wood uses wood betony for, I would use Holy Basil for reconnecting with your enteric nervous system".

In a 2-month study, 35 patients with anxiety were given 500 mg of Holy Basil twice daily after meals. The final observations were that Holy Basil positively affected general anxiety levels as well as the stress and depression that accompany anxiety. The researchers concluded that “Ocimum sanctum may be useful in the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in humans and may be a promising anxiolytic agent in the near future".

Adding 2 drops of Holy Basil oil in bathing water every morning and night helps in bringing in abundant of constructive thoughts, progressive ideas, encouraging feelings and new-fangled energy to face your new day and relax for a peaceful night. 2 drops of Holy Basil oil added to your air freshener in the night can aid in granting absolute solace and calmness.

When inhaled by adding 1 drop of Holy Basil oil, 1 drop of Rose, Geranium oil and 1 drop of Lavender oil in diffuser or air freshener, can aid in alleviating stress, inspiring positive feelings, elevating the spirits, augmenting memory power and grant the strength to face challenges.

Focus and Concentration:

Dilute 2–3 drops of Basil in one tablespoon of carrier oil. Massage into your temples and back of your neck to help stimulate clarity and focus. 2 drops each of Lemon oil and Ylang-Ylang oil to a diffuser and enjoy. Keep a small bottle of undiluted Basil essential oil. Inhale through each nostril as required.

Alzheimer's Disease:

A 2021 study "The neuroprotective effect of ethanolic extract Ocimum sanctum Linn. in the regulation of neuronal density in hippocampus areas as a central autobiography memory on the rat model of Alzheimer's disease" published in Journal Chem Neuroanat., by Made Bagus Auriva Mataram, Puspa Hening, Fitria N Harjanti, Srikanth Karnati, Widya Wasityastuti, Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih, Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Hevi Wihadmadyatami, identify the effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract (OSE) on the neurons of the CA1, CA3, and DG hippocampal areas with the use of in vivo and in vitro models of Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Twenty-one two-month-old male rats were divided into three groups: untreated (Group A, n = 3), AD rats model pretreated with OSE followed by induction for Trimethyltin (TMT) on day 7 (group B, n = 9), and AD rats model treated with OSE both as pre-TMT introduction for 7 days and post-TMT induction for 21 days (group C, n = 9). AD rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, and 21, and brain samples were collected and analyzed for neuronal density and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity. To corroborate the in vivo observations, HEK-293 cells were treated with TMT and used as an in vitro model of AD. The results were then analyzed using FITC Annexin V and flow cytometry. Nuclear fragmentation was observed in cells stained with Hoechst 33342 by confocal microscopy. The results showed a significant increase in the number of neurons and NPY expression in the AD rats that were pre- and post-treated with OSE (p < 0.05). Indeed, OSE was able to retain and promote neuronal density in the rat model of AD. Further studies of an in vitro model of neurodegeneration with Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract inhibited apoptosis in TMT-induced HEK-293 cells. Moreover, OSE prevented nuclear fragmentation, which was confirmed by staining the nuclei of HEK-293 cells. Taken together, there findings suggest that OSE has the potential as a neuroprotective agent (retaining the autobiographical memory),and the neuroproliferation of neurons in the CA1, CA3, and DG hippocampal areas in the rats¡ model of neurodegeneration was mediated by activation of NPY expression.

Spiritual Benefits:

Within Ayurveda, Tulsi is known as “The Incomparable One”, “Mother Medicine of Nature”, “The Queen of Herbs”, and is revered as an “Elixir of Life” that is without equal for both its medicinal and spiritual properties. Within India, Tulsi has been adopted into spiritual rituals and lifestyle practices that provide a vast array of health benefits that are just beginning to be confirmed by modern science. This emerging science on Tulsi, which reinforces ancient Ayurvedic wisdom, suggests that Tulsi is a tonic for the body, mind and spirit that offers solutions to many modern day health problems.

According to the Ayurvedic texts, Tulsi “opens the heart and the mind and distributes the energy of love and devotion. Holy Basil is sacred to Vishnu and Krishna and strengthens faith, compassion, and clarity. Tulsi stalks are worn as garlands and strengthen the energy of attachment. Holy Basil imparts divine protection by purifying the aura and invigorating the immune system. It contains natural mercury that, as the seed of Shiva, imparts the germinative power of pure consciousness".

Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):

Holy Basil has been successfully used to relieve mental fog, cloudy thinking, poor memory, attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mild depression.

Three studies have shown that combining botanical nootropics has helped those with moodiness and chronic depression. Holy Basil is a stress relieving adaptogen, reported to improve general stress scores, and therefore promotes calm and clear thinking. Like yoga, Tulsi has a calming effect that leads to clarity of thought, along with a more relaxed and calm disposition.

In the book "Adaptogens", David Winston and Steven Maimes refer to Holy Basil as a cerebral stimulant and recommend it for people with mental fog. They say, “It can be combined with other cerebral stimulants such as rosemary, bacopa, and ginkgo to help people with menopausal cloudy thinking, poor memory, attention deficit disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and to speed up recovery from head trauma".

Reduces Addiction - Helping in Quitting Smoking:

Tulsi has quite strong anti-stress substances and is also excellent to assist one stop smoking. It will help by decreasing the stress which may be involved with attempting to stop smoking, or even stress which leads to the desire to smoke. Additionally, it features a chilling effect on the throat much like menthol drops and enables manage the desire to smoke by letting the individual to munch on something.

Ayurveda depends on Tulsi leaves like a quitting smoking device. Keep several leaves along with you and gnaw it whenever the desire to smoke arises. An additional plus is usually that the antioxidant property of the leaves may help combat all the damage which occurs out of years of smoking.

Physical Health:

Daytime Fatigue:

Tulsi tea has got the incredible advantage of growing our effectiveness against stress that basically reduces us of stress. We have observed a boost in my work stamina when I drink Tulsi tea. Unlike coffee, it is not a chemical stimulant; however it does improve the mind.

Increases Energy:

Tulsi plant has numerous therapeutic qualities. The foliage is a nerve tonic and also increases energy.

Body Weight, Body Mass Index, Vitality and Quality of Life:

A 2022 randomized control trial "Effect of Medically Supervised Prolonged Fasting Therapy on Vitamin D, B12, Body Weight, Body Mass Index, Vitality and Quality of Life" published in Nutr Metab Insights., by Gulab Rai Tewani, Karishma Silwal, Gita Sharma, Dinesh Yadav, Aarfa Siddiqui, Sucheta Kriplani, Varsha Vijay Nathani, Neha Sharma, Jyoti Keswani, Hemanshu Sharma, Pradeep Mk Nair, indicates prolonged fasting for more than 7 days is beneficial in priming the vitamin D metabolism. However, methodological limitations in previous studies, such as insufficient sample size and a lack of control group, limits its generalizability. The present study evaluated the impact of prolonged fasting (10 days) on vitamin D, vitamin B12, Body Mass Index (BMI), weight, hemoglobin, vitality and quality of life (QoL) compared to a normal diet. This randomized control trial was conducted in an in-patient private yoga and naturopathy setting between February and April 2022. A total of 52 participants (mean age 51.57 ± 13.67 years) with varying medical conditions were randomized into a fasting group or a normal diet group with 26 participants in each group. The fasting group was on a fasting diet (500 kCal/day) which included holy basil herbal tea, lemon honey water, and water (3 L). The normal diet group (1500 kCal/day) consumed a routine diet that included Indian bread, pulses, steamed rice, vegetable salads, and beverages. The fasting group has shown significant increase in the Vitamin D levels (P = .003, d = 0.475), vitality (P = .006, d = 0.425), physical QoL (P < .001, d = 0.549), psychological QoL (P = .002, d = 0.488), and environmental QoL (P = .004, d = 0.457) compared to normal diet group. No significant changes were observed in vitamin B12, weight, BMI, haemoglobin, and social QoL. A weak to moderate (ρ = 0.330-0.483) positive correlation was observed between vitality scores and QoL domains, whereas BMI scores showed an inverse correlation (ρ = -.280) with vitamin D levels. The results suggest that prolonged fasting for 10 days can improve vitamin D levels, improve vitality, and promote quality of life compared to a normal diet. Unlike previous studies, the fasting group does not differ from the normal diet group concerning weight and BMI. Nevertheless, fasting may be utilized as an effective tool to tackle vitamin D deficiency and associated health insufficiencies.

Sleep Disorders:

Improves Sleep:

You may want to start adding Holy Basil to your nighttime routine for better sleep.

After a group of researchers from India gave adults ages 18 to 65 1200 mg of Holy Basil before bed, they experienced more restful sleep and felt less tired during the day.

Hypnotic and Sleep-Prolonging Effect:

A 2003 "Studies on some psychopharmacological activities of Ocimum sanctum root extract" published in Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol.2 evaluated the effect of a petroleum ether extract of root on pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice. Results showed significant alteration in general behavioral pattern by water maze test and potentiation of pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice. Results indicate CNS depressant and tranquilizing activity.


Essential oils in Tulsi have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects. They contain beneficial substances like eugenol, caryophyllene, carvacrol, and methyl eugenol, these compounds are thought to be responsible for Tulsi’s microbe-fighting properties. As a result, Tulsi has the ability to combat fungi from the Aspergillus species, a microorganism that can cause allergic reactions and lung infections. It can also treat thrush and yeast infections caused by the Candida species. On a bacterial level, Tulsi oil can fight E. coli, S. aureus, V. cholerae (cholera), and Klebisella (urinary tract infections and pneumonia). It also works against the herpes viruses, hepatitis B virus, and adenoviruses. The latter is responsible for diseases like pneumonia, bronchitis, and diarrhea. So if you’re looking for a multi-talented defender, you can’t ask for a better fighter than the Holy Basil.


Infection by bacteria is one of the main problems in health. The use of commercial antibiotics is still one of the treatments to overcome these problems. However, high levels of consumption lead to antibiotic resistance. Several types of antibiotics have been reported to experience resistance. One solution that can be given is the use of natural antibacterial products. There have been many studies reporting the potential antibacterial activity of the Ocimum plant. Ocimum is known to be one of the medicinal plants that have been used traditionally by local people. This plant contains components of secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and alkaloids.

"A Review on Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial Activity" published in Molecules, 2022, by Hendra Dian Adhita Dharsono, Salsabila Aqila Putri, Dikdik Kurnia, Dudi Dudi, Mieke Hemiawati Satari, we will discuss five types of Ocimum species, namely Ocimum americanum, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum campechianum, and Ocimum sanctum. The five species are known to contain many chemical constituents and have good antibacterial activity against several pathogenic bacteria.

Antibacterial (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus):

In a 2022 randomized controlled trial "Antibacterial efficacy of manuka honey, ocimum sanctum, curcuma longa and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on the level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus" published in Indian J Dent Res., by Ankita Jain, Vikas Singh, Anooj Lukram, Silpi Chatterjee, Asim Mustafa Khan, Geetanshu Dawar, to assess the effects of Manuka honey, Ocimum sanctum, Curcuma longa, and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus levels. A randomized controlled trial will be conducted on dental students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad. The study participants will be divided into four groups. Each group will have a total of 20 individuals. By using a lottery system, Group A (Manuka honey mouthrinse), Group B (Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse), Group C (Curcuma longa mouthrinse), and Group D (0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse) will be chosen. To match the circadian cycle, saliva will be collected at baseline and again after 2 weeks between 10 and 10.30 a.m. The sterile container will subsequently be delivered to the microbiological laboratory and processed as soon as possible to measure Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count. For 2 weeks, participants were told to use 10 mL of mouthrinse twice daily. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) score of all the four groups showed reduction in their scores from baseline to after the study period. For both S. mutans and L. acidophilus, there was a substantial Percentage Reduction between the prerinse and postrinse samples in all four groups. Because quantitative actions play a crucial part in the caries disease process, the changes in microbial activity before and after administration of experimental mouthwashes were examined. Essential oil aqueous extracts were as efficient antibacterial mouthwashes as chlorhexidine and iodine mouthwashes.

Antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa):

Studies of various extracts of leaves showed antibacterial activity. Results showed Ocimum sanctum may be a better alternative as a preservative in food industries because it was equally effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Studies of ethanol extracts showed also antibacterial activity, greater in Gram positive bacteria than gram-negative, esp against B subtilis and S aureus

A 2016 study "Evaluation of phyto constituent and synergistic antibacterial activity of Ocimum sanctum extract against some gram-positive and gram-negative species" published in Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. by Fatema Shah, Ziaul Hasan and Kamal Uddin Zaidi, evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of Ocimum sanctum against bacterial strains associated with infectious diseases i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Various leaf extracts were used in combination with ampicillin. Synergistic antibacterial activity (FICI ≤ 0.5) was observed in combination of aqueous extract of leaves with ampicillin.

Antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis):

Another 2016 study of leaves for antimicrobial activity published in American Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2 by Sandip I. Vidhani, Vijay G.Vyas, Heena J. Parmar, Viren M. Bhalani, Mohammad M. Hassan, Ahmed Gaber, Baljibhai A.Golakiya, showed E. coli and E. faecalis were highly susceptible to methanol extract. Oil of leaves yielded comparable amount of antioxidant as ascorbic acid, flavonoid and total phenol as well as linolenic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid.

Antibacterial (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus):

A 2008 study of various extracts of leaves, published in Mycopath, showed antibacterial activity. Results showed Ocimum sanctum may be a better alternative as a preservative in food industries because it was equally effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The study showed greater in gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative, esp against B subtilis and S aureus; comparatively less than Origanum majorana.

Antibacterial (Neisseria gonorrhea):

A 2005 study "Preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhoeae" published in Sex Transm Dis. by Shokeen P, Ray K, Bala M, Tandon V, showed antibacterial screening of three plants, Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa, caused inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhea clinical isolates and World Health Organization (WHO) strains, more so than MDR N. gonorrhea.

Antibacterial (Caenorhabditis elegans):

Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and its dominant component, eugenol, tested inn vitro, exhibited potent anthelmintic activity in the Caenorhabditis elegans model.

Antimicrobial (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis):

In a 2021 study "Boiling Technique-Based Food Processing Effects on the Bioactive and Antimicrobial Properties of Basil and Rosemary" published in Molecules, by Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah, Khizar Hayat, Shaista Arzoo, Abdulhakeem Alzahrani, Mohammed Asif Ahmed, Hany M Yehia, Tawfiq Alsulambasii, Nawal Al-Badr, Bandar Ali M Al-Zaied, Mohammed Musaad Althbiti, Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are mostly used as herbal teas, made by steeping whole or ground herbs in boiling water. Hence, it is important to know the effect of boiling time on the bioactivity of these herbs. The effect of different boiling times (5, 10, and 15 min) on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and some selected phenolic compounds of these herbs was examined in this study. Experimental results revealed that Holy Basil displayed the highest total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity when it was boiled for 5 min, and the lowest total polyphenol content was obtained when it was boiled for 15 min. On the other hand, Rosemary had the highest total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant potential after being boiled for 15 min, while it had the lowest after being boiled for 5 min. There was no growth inhibition of Rosemary extracts against gram-negative bacteria, whereas higher growth inhibition was observed against gram-positive bacteria. The MIC and MBC of Rosemary ethanolic extract against Listeria monocytogenes were 5 and 5 mg/mL and against B. subtilis were 10 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. While MIC and MBC of methanolic extract against L. monocytogenes were 5 and 5 mg/mL and against Bacillus subtilis were and 5 and 5 mg/mL, respectively. Salicylic acid was the most abundant (324.7 mg/100 g dry weight (dw)) phenolic compound in the Rosemary sample boiled for 5 min, and acetyl salicylic acid was the most abundant (122.61 mg/10 g dw) phenolic compound in the Holy Basil sample boiled for 15 min.

Antimicrobial (Candida spp):

Candida albicans is the most prevalent candidal species in humans. It is the causative agent and is most commonly associated with more than 90% of serious systemic fungal infections. Even though there are numerous antifungal agents, new strains of pathogens develop resistance against these agents. In order to prevent resistance, plantbased drugs can be considered as an alternative therapy.

A 2022 systematic review on microbial studies "Anti-candidal Effect of Ocimum sanctum" published in Cureus by Chandini R, Saranya R, Khadijah Mohideen, Preethi Nandagopal, Logeswari Jayamani, Sreedevi Jeyakumaran, showed that few herbs consist of active ingredients acting against specific pathogens. The aim of the present study is to understand the anticandidal effect of Ocimum sanctum based on in vitro microbial studies. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement Criteria (PRISMA). Articles were collected from the electronic databases of PubMed and Cochrane till 2021. Antimicrobial studies on Ocimum sanctum and its action against candidal species were included. We excluded clinical trials, reviews, abstract articles, and interventional studies. The selected antimicrobial studies used various phytochemical constituents of Tulsi extract, and the anticandidal properties were measured through the zone of inhibition (ZOI). All studies demonstrated the effective anticandidal property of Ocimum sanctum, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable "adjunct" along with standard care for systemic and topical candidal infections. The main components of Ocimum sanctum responsible for anticandidal activity were likely to be eugenol and linalool. However, the mechanism of action of these constituents is unclear. Further research assessing the toxicity, durability, and other assessments followed by clinical trials is necessary to explore the potential of Tulsi in combating oral conditions.

Antifungal (Candida albicans):

Candida albicans is the most prevalent candidal species in humans. It is the causative agent and is most commonly associated with more than 90% of serious systemic fungal infections. Even though there are numerous antifungal agents, new strains of pathogens develop resistance against these agents. In order to prevent resistance, plant-based drugs can be considered as an alternative therapy.

A 2022 systematic review on microbial studies "Anti-candidal Effect of Ocimum sanctum" published in Cureus., by Chandini R, Saranya R, Khadijah Mohideen, Preethi Nandagopal, Logeswari Jayamani, Sreedevi Jeyakumaran, showed that few herbs consist of active ingredients acting against specific pathogens. The aim of the present study is to understand the anti-candidal effect of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) based on in-vitro microbial studies. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement Criteria (PRISMA). Articles were collected from the electronic databases of PubMed and Cochrane till 2021. Anti-microbial studies on Ocimum sanctum and its action against candidal species were included. We excluded clinical trials, reviews, abstract articles, and interventional studies. The selected antimicrobial studies used various phytochemical constituents of Tulsi extract, and the anticandidal properties were measured through the zone of inhibition. All studies demonstrated the effective anticandidal property of Ocimum sanctum, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable "adjunct" along with standard care for systemic and topical candidal infections. The main components of Ocimum sanctum responsible for anticandidal activity were likely to be eugenol and linalool. However, the mechanism of action of these constituents is unclear. Further research assessing the toxicity, durability, and other assessments followed by clinical trials is necessary to explore the potential of Tulsi in combating oral conditions.

Antigungal (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus, Cladpsporium sp, Curvularia lunata):

A 2014 study "Antifungal activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum sanctum on dominant fungal species of monuments"  by P. Gupta, K. S. Rana, K. Sharma, and B. S. Chhabra, evaluated an aqueous leaf extract against four common species of fungi viz., A. niger, Rizopous, Cladpsporium and Curvularia lunata isolated from archeological sites. The plant extract at 40% concentration was effective in reducing mycelial growth of A. niger, Rizzopus, and , Cladpsporium sp. while a 30% extract was effective against C. lunata.

Silver Nanoparticles:

Silver is known for its antibacterial properties since ages. As nanoparticles have smaller size and greater surface area, silver has been utilized in the form of nanoparticles to enhance its antibacterial properties. Calcium hydroxide is a well-known intracanal medicament and serves as a gold standard for root canal disinfection. Using herbal extracts as reducing agents for nanoparticle synthesis appears to be an ecofriendly approach.

A 2022 antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity study "Green synthesis of calcium hydroxide-coated silver nanoparticles using Andrographis paniculata and Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts: " published in Journal Conserv Dent., by Iffat Nasim 1, Zohra Jabin 2, S Rajesh Kumar 3, V Vishnupriya, synthesize calcium hydroxide-based silver nanoparticles using herbs as reducing agents and to test the cytotoxic levels and antimicrobial activity against oral microbes. The calcium hydroxide-based silver nanoparticles were synthesized using the leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Ocimum sanctum Linn. Various properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were also characterized by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles were analyzed using brine shrimp and MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibition. The statistical analysis was done using parametric independent t-test. P value was set at < 0.05. The calcium hydroxide-based silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and were confirmed by UV spectrophotometer analysis, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FTIR analysis and showed a minimal cytotoxic effect. They also showed a good antimicrobial activity and a remarkable antifungal activity. The green synthesis of CaOHAgNPs yielded an effective nanoparticle preparation that could be used against common oral pathogens as a potential therapeutic agent in the form of root canal irrigant or intracanal medicament in the field of dentistry.

In a 2022 study "Synergic effect of aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum and Trigonella foenum-graecum L on the in situ green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and as a preventative agent against antibiotic-resistant food spoiling organisms" published in RSC Adv., by Mohammad Changez, Mohammad Faiyaz Anwar, Said Al-Ghenaime, Sumeet Kapoor, Rayya Al Balushi, Antara Chaudhuri, the combination of Ocimum sanctum and Trigonella foenum-graecum L leaf water extract synergistically acts as a reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of narrow polydisperse silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with controlled sizes depending on the precursor (AgNO3) concentration in the plant extract. The toxicity of 40 nm-sized green synthesized Ag NPs is less than that of 10 nm-sized NPs. The Ag NP solution in Ocimum sanctum and Trigonella foenum-graecum L leaf water extract shows synergic antibacterial effect on Gram-negative bacteria by effecting the ester group of the lipids (hydrolysis) and also breaking the amide bonds of the bacterial chemical constituents, which leads to their rapid death.

Silver Nanoparticles (Candida albicans, Candida kefyr, Aspergillus niger):

A 2012 study "Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulashi) and study of their an tibacterial and antifungal activities" published in Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials Vol. 4 by Yogeswari Rout, Sikha Behera, Akshya Kumar Ojha and P. L. Nayak, reports on a cost effective and environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum as reducing agent. The nanoparticles were shown to possess effective antifungal property against C. albicans, C. kefyr, and A. niger.

Silver Nanoparticles (Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium, Bacillus subtilis):

Another 2012 study "Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity" published in Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. Vol. 91 by Rupali S Patil, Mangesh R Kokate, Samjay S Kolekar, reports on the bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic, ecofriendly biological material of Ocimum tenuiflorum. leaf extract against three different strains of bacteria i.e. gram negative E. coli, Gram positive Corneybacterium, and spore forming Bacillus subtilis.


Tulsi also has antibiotic, bactericidal and fungicidal properties. Tulsi, therefore, can be used to cure skin infections and itching etc. Tulsi can also be used to cure eczema and acne. Washing hair by water which has been boiled with Tulsi leaves can cure scalp infections.

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV):

Alcohol extracts of Holy Basil have also demonstrated antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses. With the emergence of resistance to acyclovir, a common pharmaceutical used to help manage symptoms of HSV, traditional therapies are being increasingly considered in treating HSV. These traditional therapies include many medicinal plants including common herbs like rosemary and sage. Holy Basil’s ability to help increase immunity is also helpful in fighting viral infections.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 - Corona Virus):

The recent pandemic due to the COVID-19 virus has caused a global catastrophe. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are recognized as key targets for viral entry into the host cells. The pandemic has led to the utilization of many synthetic drugs; however, due to various side effects, there is still no effective drug available against the virus. Several natural approaches have been devised, including herbal and ayurvedic medicines, that have proven to be effective against the COVID-19 virus.

In a 2023 study "In Silico Studies of Phytoconstituents from Piper longum and Ocimum sanctum as ACE2 and TMRSS2 Inhibitors: Strategies to Combat COVID-19" published in Appl Biochem Biotechnol., by Divya Jindal, Vibha Rani, the effect of phytocompounds of Piper longum and Ocimum sanctum on ACE2 and TRMPSS2 proteins has been studied. The in silico study is done using computational tools of networks of protein-protein interaction, molecular docking, and drug assessment in terms of physicochemical properties, drug-likeness, lipophilicity, water solubility, and pharmacokinetics. Out of selected phytoconstituents, vicenin 2, rosmarinic acid, and orientin were found to have the highest efficacy in terms of molecular interaction and drug-likeness properties against ACE2 and TMPRSS2 host receptor proteins. Our in silico study proposes the therapeutic potential of phytocompounds from Piper longum and Ocimum sanctum in modulating ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression. Targeting ACE2 and TMPRSS2 against the SARS-CoV2 by phytomolecules can serve as a rational approach for designing future anti-COVID drugs.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has compelled the scientific community to search for an effective drug that can cure or a vaccine that can prevent the disease. Alternatively, symptomatic treatment and traditional immunity boosters are prescribed. Holy Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) has been known as an ancient remedy for cure of common cold and respiratory ailment. Several reports have come on virtual screening of phytochemicals including those of Tulsi against various enzymes of the virus.

In another 2023 study "In silico screening and covalent binding of phytochemicals of Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19) main protease" published in Journal Biomol Struct Dyn., by Pranab Kishor Mohapatra, Kumar Sambhav Chopdar, Ganesh Chandra Dash, Abhay Kumar Mohanty, Mukesh Kumar Raval, We undertook in silico analysis of the ethanol extracted phytochemicals of Tulsi as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) main protease with an approach to look into the possibility of covalent ligand binding with the catalytic residue Cys145, which makes the report unique. The results suggest that the flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds of Tulsi, have potential to covalently bind to the catalytic residue Cys145 of main protease and irreversibly inhibit the viral enzyme. Luteolin-7-O-glucuronide is specially considered for its optimum properties, namely, low toxicity (LD50 5000 mg/kg body weight), high drug-likeness score (0.71), the active site binding free energy (ΔGbind) -19.19 kcal/mol by GBSA method and covalent binding energy -24.23 kcal/mol. Further experimental validations are required to establish the theoretical findings.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many consumers increased their use of supplements that claimed to support immune health, including Ayurvedic preparations.

A 2023 study "Labeling compliance and online claims for Ayurvedic herbal supplements on the U.S. market associated with the purported treatment of COVID-19" published in Food Control., by Chevon R Jordan, Calin M Harris, Miranda I Miranda, Diane Y Kim, Rosalee S Hellberg, analyze labeling compliance and online claims for Ayurvedic herbal supplements associated with the purported treatment of COVID-19. The physical product labels for 51 herbal supplements labeled as Ginger, Tulsi/Holy Basil, Amla, Vacha/Calamus root, Guduchi/Giloy, Cinnamon, Ashwagandha, Tribulus, or Turmeric were assessed for U.S. regulatory compliance. Disease claims, structure/function claims, and general well-being claims were also examined. The online listings for products purchased online (n=42) were examined for claims and for the presence of the required legal disclaimer. Collectively, 61% of products had at least one instance of noncompliance on the physical label. The most common violations included missing/noncompliant disclaimer (33%), noncompliant "Supplement Facts" label (29%), noncompliant statement of identity (27%) and noncompliant domestic mailing address or phone number (25%). Structure/function claims occurred more frequently in the online product listings (average of 5 claims per product) compared to the physical labels (average of 2 claims per product). Disease claims were observed for 38% of online product listings and on 8% of physical labels. The use of disease claims on herbal supplements is a significant concern for public health because it may lead consumers to delay seeking professional treatment for life-threatening diseases. Overall, this study revealed a lack of labeling compliance among Ayurvedic herbal supplements and a need for greater scrutiny and monitoring of online product listings.

COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) is a transmissible disease initiated and propagated through a new virus strain SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) since 31st December 2019 in Wuhan city of China and the infection has outspread globally influencing millions of people. Here, an attempt was made to recognize natural phytochemicals from medicinal plants, in order to reutilize them against COVID-19 by the virtue of molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study.

A 2022 molecular docking study "Targeting COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease through active phytochemicals of ayurvedic medicinal plants - Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi)" published in Journal Biomol Struct Dyn. by Priya Shree, Priyanka Mishra, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Radha Chaube, Neha Garg, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi, showed six probable inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (Main protease), two from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) (Withanoside V [10.32 kcal/mol] and Somniferine [9.62 kcal/mol]), one from Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) (Tinocordiside [8.10 kcal/mol]) and three from Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) (Vicenin [8.97 kcal/mol], Isorientin 4'-O-glucoside 2″-O-p-hydroxybenzoagte [8.55 kcal/mol] and Ursolic acid [8.52 kcal/mol]). ADMET profile prediction showed that the best docked phytochemicals from present work were safe and possesses drug-like properties. Further MD simulation study was performed to assess the constancy of docked complexes and found stable. Hence from present study it could be suggested that active phytochemicals from medicinal plants could potentially inhibit Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and further equip the management strategy against COVID-19-a global contagion. HighlightsHolistic approach of Ayurvedic medicinal plants to avenge against COVID-19 pandemic. Active phytoconstituents of Ayurvedic medicinal plants Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) predicted to significantly hinder main protease (Mpro or 3Clpro) of SARS-CoV-2.Through molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation study, Withanoside V, Somniferine, Tinocordiside, Vicenin, Ursolic acid and Isorientin 4'-O-glucoside 2″-O-p-hydroxybenzoagte were anticipated to impede the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.Drug-likeness and ADMET profile prediction of best docked compounds from present study were predicted to be safe, drug-like compounds with no toxicity.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), presents an unprecedented challenge to global public health with researchers striving to find a possible therapeutic candidate that could limit the spread of the virus.

In a 2022 computational investigation "Anisotine and amarogentin as promising inhibitory candidates against SARS-CoV-2 proteins" published in Journal Biomol Struct Dyn., by Pallab Kar, Vijay Kumar, Balachandar Vellingiri, Arnab Sen, Nishika Jaishee, Akash Anandraj, Himani Malhotra, Subires Bhattacharyya, Subhasish Mukhopadhyay, Masako Kinoshita, Vivekanandhan Govindasamy, Ayan Roy, Devashan Naidoo, Mohana Devi Subramaniam, employed an in silico molecular interaction-based approach to estimate the inhibitory potential of the phytochemicals from ethnomedicinally relevant Indian plants including Justicia adhatoda, Ocimum sanctum and Swertia chirata, with reported antiviral activities against crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins. SARS-CoV-2 proteins associated with host attachment and viral replication namely, spike protein, main protease enzyme Mpro and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are promising druggable targets for COVID-19 therapeutic research. Extensive molecular docking of the phytocompounds at the binding pockets of the viral proteins revealed their promising inhibitory potential. Subsequent assessment of physicochemical features and potential toxicity of the compounds followed by robust molecular dynamics simulations and analysis of MM-PBSA energy scoring function revealed anisotine against SARS-CoV-2 spike and Mpro proteins and amarogentin against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as potential inhibitors. It was interesting to note that these compounds displayed significantly higher binding energy scores against the respective SARS-CoV-2 proteins compared to the relevant drugs that are currently being targeted against them. Present research findings confer scopes to explore further the potential of these compounds in vitro and in vivo towards deployment as efficient SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors and development of novel effective therapeutics.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

People living with HIV are more exposed to the adverse health effects of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic's health and social repercussions may promote drug abuse and inadequate HIV management among this demographic. The coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) has caused unprecedented disruption worldwide in people's lives and health care. When the COVID-19 epidemic was identified, people with HIV faced significant obstacles and hurdles to achieving optimal care results. The viral spike protein (S-Protein) and the cognate host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are both realistic and appropriate intervention targets. Calanolides A, Holy Basil, Kuwanon-L, and Patentiflorin have anti-HIV effects.

A 2022 study "Can plant-derived anti-HIV compounds be used in COVID-19 cases?" published in Med Hypotheses., by Diptimayee Das, Atala Bihari Jena, Antara Banerjee, Arun Kumar Radhakrishnan, Asim K Duttaroy, Surajit Pathak, investigated that these compounds all had interaction binding scores related to S protein of coronavirus of -9.0 kcal /mol, -7.1 kcal /mol, -9.1 kcal /mol, and -10.3 kcal/mol/mol, respectively. A combination of plant-derived anti-HIV compounds like protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogs, which are commonly used to treat HIV infection, might be explored in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2 infection associated respiratory disease- COVID-19 has evolved into a pandemic but, being a new form of virus, pathogenesis of disease causation is not fully understood and drugs and vaccines against this virus are still being tested so that no effective drugs or vaccines have been advised by regulatory authority. In this context, the Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India has recommended 'Ayush Kwath' to improve the immunity and combat the infection.

A 2022 Review "Immunity against COVID-19: Potential role of Ayush Kwath" published in Journal Ayurveda Integr Med., by Shankar Gautam, Arun Gautam, Sahanshila Chhetri, Urza Bhattarai, review the role of immunity in pathogenesis of COVID-19 and role of Ayush Kwath against the virus and regulation of immunity. Current review was conducted using a search of available literature on COVID-19 and immunity, Vyadhikshamatwa, Ayurveda and COVID-19, Rasayana, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, immunomodulatory effects of medicinal plants; Tulsi/Holy Basil/Ocimum sanctum, Dalchini/Cinnamon/Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Sunthi/Ginger/Zingiber officinale and Marich/Black Pepper/Piper nigrum. Ayurveda, being an ancient science have both medicinal and cultural values and had stimulated our kitchen and influenced what we ate in different seasons and the remedies we used for common ailments. Herbs such as Tulsi, Marich, Sunthi, Dalchini are the most commonly used and easily available drugs in home. Thus, Ayush Kwath due to its immune-modulatory, antiviral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anti-atherosclerotic, hepato-protective, reno-protective properties; seems to be effective in immuno-regulation for controlling viral infections like COVID-19. Further pre-clinical and clinical trials need to be done for the evaluation of safety and efficacy of this polyherbal formulation.

Specific treatment for COVID-19 is still an unmet need. Outcomes of clinical trials on repurposed drugs have not been yielding success. Therefore, it is necessary to include complementary approaches of medicine against COVID-19.

"Randomized placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial on the efficacy of ayurvedic treatment regime on COVID-19 positive patients" published in Phytomedicine, 2021 by Ganpat Devpura, Balvir S Tomar, Deepak Nathiya, Abhishek Sharma, Deepak Bhandari, Swati Haldar, Acharya Balkrishna, Anurag Varshney, was designed to evaluate the impact of traditional Indian Ayurvedic treatment regime on asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 infection. It is a placebo controlled randomized double-blind pilot clinical trial. The study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (vide Registration No. CTRI/2020/05/025273) and conducted at the Department of Medicine in National Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jaipur, India. 1 g of Giloy Ghanvati (Tinospora cordifolia) and 2 g of Swasari Ras (traditional herbo-mineral formulation) and 0.5 g each of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Tulsi Ghanvati (Ocimum sanctum) were given orally to the patients in treatment group twice per day for 7 days. Medicines were given in the form of tablets and each tablet weighed 500 mg. While, Swasari Ras was administered in powdered form, 30 min before breakfasts and dinners, rest were scheduled for 30 min post-meals. Patients in the treatment group also received 4 drops of Anu taila (traditional nasal drop) in each nostril every day 1 h before breakfast. Patients in the placebo group received identical-looking tablets and drops, post randomization and double blinded assortments. RT-qPCR test was used for the detection of viral load in the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples of study participants during the study. Chemiluminescent immunometric assay was used to quantify serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on day 1 and day 7 of the study. By day 3, 71.1 % and 50.0 % patients recovered in the treatment and placebo groups, respectively. Treatment group witnessed 100 % recovery by day 7, while it was 60.0 % in the placebo group. Average fold changes in serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in treatment group were respectively, 12.4, 2.5 and 20 times lesser than those in the placebo group at day 7. There was 40 % absolute reduction in the risk of delayed recovery from infection in the treatment group. Ayurvedic treatment can expedite virological clearance, help in faster recovery and concomitantly reduce the risk of viral dissemination. Reduced inflammation markers suggested less severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the treatment group. Moreover, there was no adverse effect observed to be associated with this treatment. 

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a highly pathogenic virus, is responsible for a respiratory disease termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes various structural and non-structural proteins, which are necessary for viral entry and replication. Among these proteins, papain-like protease (PLpro), 3C-like protease (3CLpro), RNAdependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), helicase, serine protease, and spike protein are potential targets of herbal remedies and phytocompounds for inhibition of viral infection and replication. There is, at present, no confirmed cure for the COVID-19. Various plants and their components have been introduced against SARS-CoV-2. A number of review articles have also been published on them. This article is focused on the mechanistic aspects of these plants and their derivatives on SARS-CoV-2.

A 2021 review "Mechanistic Aspects of Medicinal Plants and Secondary Metabolites against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" published in Curr Pharm Des., by Khojasteh Malekmohammad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, was prepared from significant scientific databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar. Different medicinal plants and their phytocompounds interact with important structural and nonstructural of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Natural compounds form strong bonds with the active site of SARS-CoV-2 protease and make large conformational changes. These phytochemicals are potential inhibitors of structural and non-structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins such as Spike protein, PLpro, and 3CLpro. Some important anti- SARS-CoV-2 actions of medicinal plants and their metabolites are: inhibition of the virus replication or entry, blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor and "Transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), regulation of inflammatory mediators, inhibition of endothelial activation, toll-like receptors (TLRs) and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Some of these important natural immune boosters that are helpful for the prevention and cure of various symptoms related to COVID-19 include Allium sativum, Nigella sativa, Glycyrrhiza glabra Zingiber officinalis, Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, and Scutellaria baicalensis. Also, Kaempferol, Quercetin, Baicalin, Scutellarin, Glycyrrhizin, Curcumin, Apigenin, Ursolic acid, and Chloroquine are the best candidates for treating the symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Medicinal plants and/or their bioactive compounds with inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2 support the human immune system and help in fighting against COVID-19 and rejuvenating the immune system.

Coronil is a tri-herbal formulation containing extracts from Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum. Recently, it was shown that Coronil rescued humanized zebrafish from SARS-CoV-2 induced pathologies. Based on reported computational studies on the phytochemicals present in Coronil, it could be a potential inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cell and associated cytokines' production.

In a 2021 study "Coronil, a Tri-Herbal Formulation, Attenuates Spike-Protein-Mediated SARS-CoV-2 Viral Entry into Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production by Inhibiting Spike Protein-ACE-2 Interaction" published in Journal Inflamm Res., by Acharya Balkrishna, Swati Haldar, Hoshiyar Singh, Partha Roy, Anurag Varshney, through an ELISA-based biochemical assay, effects of Coronil on interaction between ACE-2 and different mutants of viral spike (S) protein, crucial for viral invasion of host cell, were evaluated. Additionally, using recombinant pseudoviruses having SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in their envelopes and firefly luciferase reporter in their genomes, effects of Coronil on virus entry into human alveolar epithelial cells were evaluated through luciferase assay. UHPLC profiled Coronil also modulated S-protein mediated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in A549 cells, like interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as evaluated through RT-qPCR and ELISA. Coronil effectively inhibited the interaction of ACE-2 not only with the wild-type S protein (SWT) but also with its currently prevalent and more infectious variant (SD614G) and another mutant (SW436R) with significantly higher affinity toward ACE-2. Treatment with Coronil significantly reduced the increased levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in A549 cells incubated with different S-protein variants in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, it also prevented the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVppSARS-2S) mediated cytokine response in these cells by reducing entry of pseudoviruses into host cells. Coronil prevented SARS-CoV-2 S-protein mediated viral entry into A549 cells by inhibiting spike protein-ACE-2 interactions. SARS-CoV-2 S protein induced inflammatory cytokine response in these cells was also moderated by Coronil.

Skin & Hair Condition and Care:

Skin Care:

Holy Basil use has incredible benefits for the skin. With its antioxidant and detoxifying properties, Tulsi acts as an excellent skin cleansing and nourishing agent that gifts your skin with a flawless beauty and younger look. The antioxidant contained in Tulsi allows you to appear younger and also fresher. Tulsi is extremely healthy for the skin. The rich presence of Vitamins A and C nourish the skin from within and help in exploring and retaining its natural glow.

Tulsi paste face pack is a well-liked pack to eliminate scar marks and also get a clean and even skin tone. Skin whitening results of Tulsi lightens the appearance of scars and black marks as well as Tulsi eliminates the bacteria that cause acne. Rubbing finely powdered dry Tulsi on the face just like a loose powder helps make the face glow as well as eliminates dark spots through the face.

You may also create a toner by boiling Tulsi leaves in water. Allow it to cool for 15 minutes and after that use around the acne affected areas. This particular remedy doesn’t only assist remove pimples but probably provide an immediate shine on the skin and can clean the skin out totally.

Skin Problems:

Skin disorders will likely be avoided together with the daily usage of this particular oil. It’s got effective antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and analgesic (painkilling) ingredients which will kill harmful microbes which will damage the skin and result in skin problems. It can help kill bacteria that can cause breakouts and skin infections, so it’s a great natural remedy for wounds, plus a home remedy for acne and other skin irritations. It’s believed to benefit the skin and treat skin infections both internally and externally. Tulsi is a darling remedy when it comes to the protection of skin from various infections and disorders. The antifungal and anti-microbial properties of this oil acts as a shield against microbes and aids in the treatment of acne, eczema, scabies, itches, ringworm, athlete’s foot and infectious wounds. Tulsi is very effective on eczema, acne, psoriasis, which help reduce itching and redness, as well as pimples and several cosmetic companies utilize Tulsi just as one component in skin ointments because of its anti-bacterial qualities. The primary active compound of Tulsi oil is eugenol, also the active ingredient in the powerful antimicrobial Clove oil, which is widely believed to help combat many skin disorders. Holy Basil also contains other therapeutic components, including gamma-caryophyllene and methyl eugenol. People struggling with scabies and also eczema need to consume Tulsi juice to assist heal it. The nourishing compounds within the oil will certainly calm irritated skin, sunburns as well as skin rashes. Tulsi is effective onto the skin, whether you consume raw leaves or even use a paste on the face. Whenever consumed raw, it cleans the blood from harmful toxins and also helps prevent appearance of acne and pimples. Tulsi leaves include anti-bacterial as well as anti-fungal compounds. Tulsi has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal properties, which can help your glow and stay healthy when consumed. Taking a shower with Tulsi-infused water can leave your skin unharmed from strong bacterias to a certain extent.

The book "Ocimum sanctum: The Indian Home Remedy In Current Medical Scene" have talked about various studies, where the essential oil of Holy Basil “has been found to inhibit in-vitro growth of E. coli, B. anthracis and P. aeruginosa proving its anti-bacterial activity”. It is also said that this oil contains anti-viral and anti-fungal properties.

In one study, one group of participants was given a facial cream containing 3% ethanolic extract of Holy Basil along with other ingredients and the other group was given the same cream with same formulation without Holy Basil extract in it. The formulation with Holy Basil significantly enhanced moisture content, decreased roughness and suppressed wrinkling. It has also been shown to be beneficial for ringworm and other skin disorders like leucoderma.

Massaging your skin with 2 drops of Holy Basil oil blended with 1 drop of Lemon oil, 1 drop of Bergamot oil and 1 drop of Lavender oil along with 2.5 ml of Olive oil helps in removing the dead skin cells, reducing pimples, black heads and fading away marks left behind by wounds and acne. You can also apply this blend on wounds, eczema, psoriasis, athlete’s foot, ringworm, scabies, wounds and itches for quicker healing.

A paste made from Tulsi leaves together with Sandalwood paste and Rose water can be applied on the face since it really helps to avoid inflammation.

Itching may also be soothed by utilizing a combination of Tulsi and fresh Lemon juice.

Another excellent treatment for dealing with all kinds of skin illnesses is boiling Tulsi in mustard oil until the oil turns black. Allow it to cool, then strain the oil and also use all around the body throughout winters. This particular encourages fast healing. Use of Tulsi juice on the boils is effective and provides relief as well.

Skin Aging (Wrinkles):

This particular essential oil offers the essential vitamins A and C, in addition to phytonutrients which will safeguard the skin from aging. It’ll combat free radical damage that will result in wrinkles, lines as well as crow’s feet. This helps encourage skin renewal, which can make the skin more even toned, smoother and also have a brighter complexion.

Skin Cleaning:

Tulsi leaves are one of the best herbs for purifying blood and imparting a clean texture to your skin. Consuming teas made with these wonderful leaves helps you fight skin diseases and allergies.

Skin Nourishing:

Holy Basil is a natural powerhouse when it comes to skincare. It is loaded with antioxidants and other nutrients that aid in maintaining a hydrated, beautiful, glowing complexion.

Skin Infections:

Holy Basil also possesses antibiotic properties, which play a role in treating infections. The leaves restrict the growth of bacteria like Bacillus anthracis and Escherichia coli that cause skin infections.

Dilute Tulsi oil along with almond oil or sesame oil and put it on the skin. Tulsi oil has got effective antibiotic, antibacterial and disinfectant properties to maintain your skin free of infections besides keeping you cool.

A simple concoction prepared by grinding and boiling 250 grams of Holy Basil leaves along with Sesame oil in an equal quantity can help treat infections like itching.


Acne is brought on by an excessive amount of sebum production, as well as acne breakouts are frequently made worse by the bacteria which thrive in skin pores. Probably the most well-known skincare usage of Holy Basil essential oil is within the management of acne. Holy Basil leaves purify your blood by removing toxins. The antibacterial and antifungal agents in the leaves help you achieve this. Including the essential oil in your skin cream or even applied straight to your acne (in diluted form) can help dry out acne and you’ll notice a considerable decrease in a week’s time. Constant use may help avoid new breakouts and keep the skin smooth and blemish-free.

Research published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science shows that when used with Coconut oil as a carrier, Holy Basil absorbs into the skin even better and could be even more effective against acne.

In a study conducted in India, one group of acne patients was given a standard treatment for acne and the other group was instructed to manually crush fresh Holy Basil leaves, smear the resulting juice on the facial acne lesions, and leave this covering overnight until washing with mild soap the next morning. Both groups continued this treatment for 8 weeks. The responses of the acne lesions (comedones, papules, pustules, and cysts) to treatment indicated that the Holy Basil treatment was just as effective as the standard acne drug.

Apply a paste made from Holy Basil leaves (along with Sandalwood paste or Rose water) on your face. Leave it on for about 20 minutes, post which you can wash your face with cold water. Using Tulsi tea for this purpose can help treat acne. You can consume Tulsi tea as well. This remedy can also help remove blackheads, scars, marks, and pimples.

Create a face pack using one egg white as well as Tulsi leaves paste. Then rub a combination carefully on the face especially on the infected areas of the skin. Clean off the face pack right after 20 minutes scrubbing up it gently. The egg white utilized will certainly tighten up the pores whilst the Tulsi paste will certainly disinfect the skin and stop infections that lead to pimples and acne.


Tulsi has antimicrobial and antifungal properties, which help prevent numerous other skin infections. There are several Ayurvedic medicines as well that contain Tulsi and have been effective against ringworm.

Another simple mixture of Holy Basil leaves and an equal amount of Lemon juice can help treat ringworm.

Vitiligo and Eczema:

Regular intake of Holy Basil leaves can improve the symptoms of vitiligo. It can have similar effects on eczema as well. Research articles speak of how the antioxidant activity of Tulsi can help treat eczema. But since research is ongoing, we recommend you consult your doctor before using Holy Basil for this purpose as the concentration of the herb matters.

Urticaria (Hives):

The essential oil of Holy Basil has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Apply a paste of Holy Basil leaves on the affected area.

Sarcoptes scabiei (Scabies):

The mite Sarcoptes scabiei is responsible for scabies, a pruritic and contagious skin disease in humans. S. scabiei is also responsible for mange in a wide range of animal species. The treatment of S. scabiei infection is hampered by an under-effectiveness of the few available drugs. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro acaricide activity of a large number of plant essential oils against S. scabiei. essential oils were selected mainly on the basis of traditional treatments for dermatological infections in Madagascar.

In a 2022 study "In vitro efficacy of essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei" published in Sci Rep., by Valérie Andriantsoanirina, Jacques Guillot, Michel Ratsimbason, Ghozlene Mekhloufi, Faliarivony Randriamialinoro, Lalasoanirina Ranarivelo, Frédéric Ariey, Rémy Durand, the sarcoptes originating from a porcine animal model were tested at concentrations ranging from 10 to 0.1%. The viability of sarcoptes was assessed by stereomicroscopic observation at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min and then every hour until 6 h after treatment. Estimates of lethal time and lethal concentration producing 50% mortality were generated using a probit analysis. The survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. A total of 31 essential oils from different plants were tested. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) oils were the most active for all concentrations tested. They may be included in in vivo studies, in order to further assess their potential interest as topical treatments.

Hair Care:

Tulsi leaves are loaded with multiple nutrients that nourish the scalp, supplies proper required nutrients to the hair follicles, eliminating itching, boost blood circulation to the scalp, stimulating hair growth, leads to healthy and shiny hair, eliminates dandruff, and provides multiple health benefits. Holy Basil eliminates dandruff. It may also help reduce hair loss too. Tulsi features a complicated constitution which includes immunity booster, adaptogens as well as anti-oxidants. Therefore, Tulsi juice whenever used each week maintains our scalp healthy and also hydrated. Holy Basil has been an important ingredient in numerous Ayurvedic and other herbal preparations for hair care.

Take 5 drops of Holy Basil oil, 5 drops of Rosemary oil, 2 drops of Lime oil along with 10 ml of Almond oil and heat this mixture slightly.

A paste of Tulsi, Hibiscus as well as Neem leaves can be applied on the hair to help keep it healthy as well as itch free. Regular massage of Tulsi oil within your scalp energizes both you and your hair.

Massaging your scalp with this herbal blend helps in promoting the growth of hair by strengthening the hair follicles, reducing dandruff, moisturizing dry scalp and rough hair, controlling itching and enriching the scalp.

Promotes Hair Growth (Hair Loss):

Holy Basil leaves pack a lot of nutrition and nourish your scalp. Holy Basil essential oil is really a natural stimulant that can help in increasing blood flow whenever utilized externally. One of the major reasons of the loss of hair is dandruff as well as dry scalp. Tulsi helps you to enhance the blood flow and also keeps your scalp cool decreasing itchiness as well as dandruff and encourages new hair growth. Besides supplying your hair follicles with the required nutrients, the paste has hydration properties too and moisturizes your hair. It really is great at promoting hair growth and leading to strong and shiny hair, whenever combined with oils just like Rosemary and Lavender. Tulsi is used as an effective remedy for hair loss. It is considered an important ingredient in herbal hair loss treatment. The herb works by strengthening the hair roots, thereby curbing hair fall

Making a paste of Holy Basil leaves and mixing it with your hair oil can work wonders for your hair. Apply it to your scalp and leave it on for about 30 minutes and then shampoo as usual. This mixture rejuvenates your hair follicles, keeps your scalp cool, and promotes circulation to your scalp.

Include a tiny amount of Tulsi oil to normal carrier oil just like Coconut oil as well as massage well in your scalp. You may also use Tulsi paste which will keep the scalp, roots clean and keeps the dandruff away.

Soak Holy Basil leaves powder and also Gooseberry powder in water over night. In the morning strain that water and also clean your hair by using it. This can avoid hair loss in addition to graying of hair.

Premature Greying:

The benefits of Tulsi for hair are evident. If you’re worried about your hair greying too fast, here’s a natural remedy that works like a charm.

Take a few fresh Holy Basil leaves and mix it with Amla (Indian Gooseberry) powder in water overnight. Make the paste the night before and apply it in the morning before you wash your hair for good results. This remedy helps prevent premature graying of hair and treat hair fall. This is one reason Tulsi is considered an essential ingredient in herbal hair treatments.

Oily Hair:

Just include a few drops of Holy Basil essential oil in your normal shampoo. Alternately, prepare homemade hair treatments simply by mixing this particular anti-bacterial oil along with baking soda or ACV to manage the creation of oil.


Tulsi has been found to be effective in controlling four types of fungal strains that may cause dandruff. Holy Basil improves blood circulation and reduces dandruff and the scalp itchiness that accompanies it. This remedy also treats dry scalp. This effect of Tulsi offers other benefits like improved hair smoothness and hair shine, along with ease of combing and reduced frizz. It also shows inhibitory effects against Malassezia, the yeast that’s associated with dandruff. So, massage a few drops of Tulsi oil diluted with Coconut oil into your scalp for thick, glossy, dandruff free mane.

Simply add a small amount of Holy Basil oil to your regular hair oil and massage it thoroughly into your scalp. If you add Coconut oil to Holy Basil leaves and massage your scalp regularly, it’ll eliminate dandruff too.

Bone & Muscle Related Disorders:

Bone Health:

Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone health. One cup of Tulsi leaves has more than your daily recommended value of vitamin K, making it a perfect source to prevent vitamin K deficiency. Plus, vitamin K can be beneficial to your bone density.

Musculoskeletal Pain:

Holy Basil has been shown to be a COX 2 inhibitor, similar to many pharmaceutical pain medications, making it useful against arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Basil is high in eugenol, a volatile constituent also found in Cloves, which is helpful in decreasing pain.

Gouty Arthritis and Joint Pain:

Imagine being able to tackle stress, anxiety, and inflammation with a relaxing cup of tea made with the leaves of Holy Basil. As an adaptogen with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, Holy Basil provides all of these benefits. It can even help people with arthritis or fibromyalgia.

According to a study, using 10 drops of tincture from Holy Basil thrice a day for 12 weeks will reduce the levels of uric acid in the body and reduce gouty arthritis.



Holy Basil leaf extract can also be used to heal wounds quickly (in addition to cuts and burns). It can especially heal wounds post surgery and also protect them from any potential infection. Holy Basil is antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and analgesic (a painkiller). Extracts made from its leaves are thought to boost wound healing speed and strength. Some people even use Holy Basil after surgery to heal and protect their wounds. Holy Basil increases your wound’s breaking strength, healing time, and contraction. Breaking strength refers to how much pressure or weight a wound can take before it breaks.

Research shows that Holy Basil may work against infections and wounds, such as: mouth ulcers, keloids or raised scars. Studies showed the ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum promotes wound healing significantly and able to overcome the wound healing suppressing action of dexamethasone.

Dry Tulsi leaves in the shade, include alum, grind and sieve well and keep the powder inside a clean glass bottle. Use the powder on wounds and cuts. Pain because of burns could be relieved by utilizing equivalent quantities of Tulsi juice and Coconut oil mixed in it.

Pain & Inflammation:

Tulsi plant works just like a COX-2 inhibitor and also benefits individuals with unpleasant medical problem. Several Substances present in Tulsi helps you to relieve inflammatory as well as neurological pain and it has no negative effects in any way. Tulsi is additionally utilized in the management of ulcers, cuts as well as wounds due to its advantageous germ killing as well as recovery qualities. This works by spreading heat in the painful areas with its heating energy, induce frequent urination where the excess water deposits and toxic remains in the system are eliminated.

"An Experimental Study of Analgesic Effect of Medicinal Plant Tulsi" published in Ethno Med, 2013 by Reema Rathore and Shashi Jain, evaluated the analgesic effect of leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum in adult albino rats using the rat tail method. Results showed significant analgesic activity (p<0.01) in all three test doses, with better efficiency seen at higher concentration. Study of an alcoholic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum on glacial acetic-acid writhing and radiant heat-induced tail flick test showed analgesic activity.

Gently massaging the painful and affected parts with 3 drops of Basil oil, 3 drops of Eucalyptus oil and 3 drops of Camphor oil with 5 ml of coconut oil aids in treating pain, rheumatic conditions, arthritis, headache, stiff joints and back pain.

Headache and Migraine:

Tulsi is helpful in relieving headache. It is because it’s got pain reducing as well as decongestant qualities, that assist reduce the pain sensation as well as resolve the root reason for the problem. Practitioners of Ayurveda recommend Holy Basil as a natural headache remedy that can help relieve migraine pain. They believe the herb balances the three doshas, which are energies in the body. Holy Basil is also used in Ayurveda to relieve the body tension that creates headaches. Studies have found that patients who regularly take Holy Basil supplements experience fewer headaches. Research suggests also, this is due to its ability to relieve inflammation, sinus pressure and muscular tension due to stress. Try diffusing Holy Basil essential oil or making Tulsi tea to reduce headache symptoms.

Ground Holy Basil leaves can be used with Sandalwood paste and applied on the forehead. Breath of dried leaves of Holy Basil is easier with a migraine and headache. Use a decoction of Holy Basil leaves daily.

Make a bowl of water which has been boiled along with crushed Tulsi leaves or even Tulsi extract. Cool the water until it really is room temperature or even bearably hot. Put a tiny towel within it, wring out the excessive water and put this in your forehead to deal with a headache.

On the other hand you can dip a towel in plain warm water and include a few drops of Tulsi extract to the towel for fast pain relief.

Reduces Inflammation:

Due to its anti-inflammatory properties and compound known as eucalyptol, it works amazingly in relieving pain, inflammation, tenderness, stiffness, redness. It improves blood circulation, stimulates the production of fluids in the joints, and lubricates them making it a natural analgesic. Tulsi is considered a good herb that has the anti-inflammatory properties. It is very effective in suppressing any kind of edema that happens in the body. Tulsi oil reduces inflammation and swelling with its kapha reducing attribute. Kapha dosha represents the water element in the body and excess of which leads to the amassing of water deposits, built up of toxic substances, uric acid and salts in the system. The chemical compounds found in Holy Basil can help to decrease pain and swelling caused by inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was equivalent to Ibuprofen, Naproxen, and Aspirin at 10-, 100-, and 1000-micrometric concentrations respectively.

A study showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in human cells, which validates its traditional use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The net outflow of fresh leaves and Holy Basil strains produced the following compounds with eugeneol’s commendable amount: cancerylinol, kirkimiritin, isothimassin, isostamonin, epigenin and rosemerinic acid.

Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum tenuiflorum are two basil species widely used medicinally as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and cardioprotective agent. This study focuses on the chemical characterization of the majoritarian compounds of both species and their anti-inflammatory potential. Up to 22 compounds such as various types of salvianolic acids, derivatives of rosmaniric acid and flavones were identified in both plants.

In a 2022 study "Metabolomic profile and computational analysis for the identification of the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of the traditional medicinal plants Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum tenuiflorum" published in Food Chem Toxicol., by Andrea Beltrán-Noboa, John Proaño-Ojeda, Mabel Guevara, Blanca Gallo, Luis A Berrueta, Francesca Giampieri, Yunierkis Perez-Castillo, Maurizio Battino, José M Álvarez-Suarez, Eduardo Tejera, the identified compounds were very similar between both plants and are consistent with previous finding in other studies in Portugal and Italy. Based on the identified molecules a consensus target prediction was carried out. Among the main predicted target proteins, we found a high representation of the carbonic anhydrase family (CA2, CA7 and CA12) and several key proteins from the arachidonic pathway (LOX5, PLA2, COX1 and COX2). Both pathways are well related to inflammation. The interaction between the compounds and these targets were explored through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Our results suggest that some molecules present in both plants can induce an anti-inflammatory response through a non-steroidal mechanism of action connected to the carbon dioxide metabolism.

A 2015 study found that due to Holy Basil’s high polyphenol content, an alcohol extract of Holy Basil leaves was effective in reducing inflammation in heart tissue. Accordingly, it may be useful in helping to prevent heart attacks, one of the leading causes of health worldwide.

A 2014 study "Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn in albino rats" published in International Journal Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. by Mrutyunjay M Mirje , Sameer Uz Zaman , and S. Ramabhimaiah, evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum sanctum alone or in combination with indomethacin in carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Reduction of edema by Ocimum sanctum was better than indomethacin. Co-administration with indomethacin marginally improved the anti-inflammatory activity. Activity was attributed inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism.

A 2013 review with experimental studies "Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application" published in Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets by Amir A 'lam Kamyab, Ahad Eshraghian, have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum.

Another 2005 study "Rationale for Immunomodulatory and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ocimum sanctum" by H.R. Jadhav, A. Singh and K.K. Bhutani, about methanolic extract of aerial parts showed strong antioxidant activity which may be partly due to its reported immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Findings suggest the alcoholic extracts may be helpful in treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

Diabetes Mellitus:

The essential oil of Holy Basil has anti-diabetic properties that aids in the treatment of diabetes by controlling the level of blood sugar. With its diuretic properties, Tulsi promotes frequent urination through which the toxic elements in the system are flushed out and helps to stay energized. The decoction extracted from the whole plant has been recommended in Ayurveda for lowering the level of blood glucose in case of diabetes mellitus. The presence of eugenol and other therapeutic constituents in this oil are also effective in reducing blood cholesterol and blood pressure. With its antioxidant properties, Holy Basil oil is also known for protecting the heart from the effects of harmful free radicals.

A 2022 study "Phyto-Computational Intervention of Diabetes Mellitus at Multiple Stages Using Isoeugenol from Ocimum tenuiflorum: A Combination of Pharmacokinetics and Molecular Modelling Approaches" published in Molecules, by Reshma Mary Martiz, Shashank M Patil, Deepika Thirumalapura Hombegowda, Abdullah M Shbeer, Taha Alqadi, Mohammed Al-Ghorbani, Ramith Ramu, Ashwini Prasad, the anti-diabetic potential of Ocimum tenuiflorum was investigated using computational techniques for α-glucosidase, α-amylase, aldose reductase, and glycation at multiple stages. It aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which phytocompounds of Ocimum tenuiflorum treat diabetes mellitus using concepts of druglikeness and pharmacokinetics, molecular docking simulations, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy studies. Isoeugenol is a phenylpropene, propenyl-substituted guaiacol found in the essential oils of plants. During molecular docking modelling, isoeugenol was found to inhibit all the target enzymes, with a higher binding efficiency than standard drugs. Furthermore, molecular dynamic experiments revealed that isoeugenol was more stable in the binding pockets than the standard drugs used. Since our aim was to discover a single lead molecule with a higher binding efficiency and stability, isoeugenol was selected. In this context, our study stands in contrast to other computational studies that report on more than one compound, making it difficult to offer further analyses. To summarize, we recommend isoeugenol as a potential widely employed lead inhibitor of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, aldose reductase, and glycation based on the results of our in silico studies, therefore revealing a novel phytocompound for the effective treatment of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus.

A 2019 review "Enzymes inhibitors from natural sources with antidiabetic activity" published in Phytother Res. by Fiaz Alam, Zainab Shafique, Sayyeda Tayyeba Amjad, Mohammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asad, natural products have been extensively investigated for antidiabetic therapy. Many of the natural products have direct or indirect effect in diabetes pathways as enzyme inhibitors. The most involved mechanisms are inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase, lens aldose reductase, oxidative stress protection, inhibition of formation of advanced glycation end products, inhibition of aldose reductase, lowering plasma glucose levels, altering enzyme activity of hexokinases and glucose-6-phosphate, synthesizing and releasing of insulin, postprandial hyperglycemia inhibition, stimulation of GLUT-4, decreasing activity of G6P, lowering the level of skeletal hexokinases, etc. The following medicinal plants products or extracts showed promising effects as enzyme inhibitors: Abelmoschus moschatus, Alangium salvifolium, Azadirachta indica, Bidens pilosa, Boerhaavia diffusa, Capsicum frutescens, Cassia alata, Eclipta alba, Embellica officinalis, Ficus carica, Gentiana Olivier, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Gymnema sylvestre, Hordeum vulgare, Ipomoea aquatica, Juniperus communis, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Punica granatum, and Zingiber officinale. Some of the group of phytochemicals isolated with enzyme inhibition activities are Alkaloids, sesquiterpene and saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, dietary fibers, ferulic acid, tannins, limonene, and oleuropeoside. This review will provide very useful material to enhance the efficiency of rational antidiabetic drug design.

A 2018 study of active crude extract methanol) and its active fractions (ethyl acetate and butanol) "Phytochemical and bioactive compounds identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves of methanol extract and its fraction with an anti-diabetic potential" published in International Journal of Food Properties by Leila Mousavi, Rabeta Mohd Salleh, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, showed the presence of polyphenolic active constituents such as 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, diometin, luteolin, kaempferol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and genistein that control the blood glucose in diabetic rats. Isolation of active components may pave the way for development of new agents for the treatment of diabetes and its complications.

"Interaction study between Ocimum sanctum and Glimepiride (sulfonylurea derivative) in diabetic rats" published in Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences 2015 Vol. 24 Issue 3, by Mohd Fasih Ahmad, Raj K. Keservani*, D J Mani Babu, investigated the interaction between aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum and Glimepiride, a sulfonylurea derivative used in the treatment of T2DM, in diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect observed with the combination of the aqueous extract and glimepiride was significant and more when compared to either drug alone. The interaction necessitates dose readjustment of Glimepiride and frequent monitoring of glucose levels.

Massaging your system with 5 drops of Holy Basil oil, 5 drops of Juniper oil, 5 drops of Myrtle oil and 2 drops of Clove oil along with 20 ml of Coconut oil, once in a week can help in controlling blood sugar, blood pressure and blood cholesterol. You can also add 2 drops of Holy Basil oil in your diffuser every day and inhale this magical aroma for enhancing your heart health.

Blood Sugar:

If you have prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, all parts of the Holy Basil plant can help reduce your blood sugar. Animal and human studies have shown that Holy Basil can help prevent symptoms of diabetes such as: weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, or excess insulin in the blood, high cholesterol, insulin resistance and hypertension. Herbalists also often recommend Holy Basil as a way to support general cardiac health, and we know that heart disease is a common simultaneous symptom of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes. In Ayurveda, a famous formula for protecting the heart includes Holy Basil, Arjuna, and Hawthorn. It seems likely that Holy Basil’s action on blood sugars and blood lipids is also protective against cardiovascular disease. Holy Basil benefits appear to include the ability to control blood glucose levels as demonstrated by several test tube and animal experiments, as well as human clinical trials.

In the early animal study cited, rats that received Holy Basil extract saw a 26.4% decrease in blood sugar after 30 days. Blood sugar in rats that were fed Holy Basil leaf powder also decreased after a month. Talk to your doctor before adding Holy Basil to your diet. If you’re already taking medications to control blood sugar, it may lower your blood sugar levels even more.

An experiment was conducted in which dietary supplementation of fresh Tulsi leaves for 30 days led to significant lowering of blood glucose levels. Regular usage of Ocimum sanctum also led to significant increase in levels of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and total thiols, but there was marked reduction in peroxiodised lipid levels as compared to untreated control group. It was found in the experiment that Tulsi leaves possess both superoxide and hydroxyl free radical scavenging action. The present observations establish the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum leaves in lowering blood glucose levels and antioxidant property which is predominantly responsible for hypoglycemic effect.

A one-month study of 27 patients with non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes showed a significant lowering of blood glucose and a significant reduction in total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very-low-density–lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides.

In a study, when people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes took 2.5 g (2,500 mg) of Holy Basil leaves every day for 4 weeks, they experienced more normal blood sugar levels. It can lead to substantial reductions in fasting blood glucose levels and blood glucose levels. If this is something you're trying to get under control, read our article on natural ways to lower blood sugar.

A randomized placebo-controlled, single blind trial of Holy Basil leaves points toward Holy Basil’s anti-diabetic activity. In this trial, patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes experienced decreases in fasting blood sugar levels, postprandial (after a meal) blood sugar levels, urine blood sugar levels as well as mean total cholesterol levels during the Holy Basil treatment period. Overall, the researchers conclude Holy Basil may be prescribed as part of a treatment plan for people with mild-to-moderate non-insulin dependent diabetes.

Nine clinical studies done on the effect of Holy Basil on blood glucose reported a significant reduction in the blood glucose level. The duration of the course and dosage of course varied. Some studies lasted for 13 weeks, while one study reported its result within two weeks of Holy Basil use. Tulsi leaves capsules apparently available as a product from Himalaya Pharmaceuticals, India. These tablets were used for over 6 weeks at a dose of 3 grams per day before a meal. Holy Basil leaf powder taken from 1 gram per day to 2.5 grams per day for at least two weeks. In one trial it was used for 12 weeks. The powder is also taken before meals. Fresh leaves were eaten by patients three times a day for five weeks in another study. A decoction made from Holy Basil leaves was used in another experiment for 12 weeks.

A 2005 study published in The Journal of Indian Physiology and Pharmacology says “eugenol in Holy Basil oil have been found to reduce raised blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol levels and activities of LDH, GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase in blood serum explaining the therapeutic potentials of Ocimum sanctum as antidiabetic, cardio-protective, hypolipidaemic and hepatoprotective agent". The decoction extracted from the whole plant has been recommended in Ayurveda for lowering the level of blood glucose in case of diabetes mellitus. The presence of eugenol and other therapeutic constituents in this oil are also effective in reducing blood cholesterol and blood pressure. With its antioxidant properties, Holy Basil oil is also known for protecting the heart from the effects of harmful free radicals.

A 2003 study "Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats" published in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 84, Issue 1, one of 24 of 30 medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum showed significant blood glucose lowering activity.

In accordance with a 1996 research, led by Dr. Pragya Agarwal from Azad University of Agriculture and Technology in India, released within the “International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics”. Researchers discovered that there is an 18% reduction in blood sugar levels of the participants who ingested Tulsi every day in comparison with the placebo group. The study’s results claim that Holy Basil leaves might be recommended along with dietary therapy as well as drug treatment in mild to reasonable noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Increased Insulin Secretion:

Holy Basil has been shown to have positive benefits for people with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

A 2016 study showed that young people taking 250 mg of Holy Basil extract twice a day on an empty stomach for eight weeks had significant improvements in lipid profiles and insulin levels.

A 2006 study "Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts stimulate insulin secretion from perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic ß-cells" published in Journal of Endocrinology by J M A Hannan, L Marenah, L Ali, B Rokeya, P R Flatt and Y H A Abdel-Wahab, evaluated the effects of ethanol extract and five partition fractions of Ocimum sanctum leaves on insulin secretion and mechanism of action. Results showed stimulation of insulin secretion from perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islets, and clonal rat ß-cell line in a concentration dependent manner. Findings suggest that the leaf extracts have a stimulatory effect on the physiological pathways of insulin secretion.

Liver Disorders:

Liver Protection (Hepatoprotective):

The liver and kidneys are the most sensitive organs to lead exposure. Drugs that inhibit the actions of lead in the liver and kidneys are required to protect them from such an exposure.

A 2021 study "The protective effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mice (Mus musculus)" published in Vet World, by Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Nina Krismaharani, Priska Ciptaningsih, Kristania Celia, Kharisma Dwi Veteriananta, Anwar Ma'ruf, Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto, investigates the protective effect of the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum against lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mice. A total of 20 male mice were divided into five equal groups for the 24-day testing period. The negative control group was administered Tween-80 1% orally for 24 days. The positive control group was administered Tween-80 1% orally for 24 days and, starting on day 4, 20 mg/kg BW lead acetate orally once a day for 21 days 1 h after the administration of Tween-80 1%. The other three treatment groups were administered BW Ocimum sanctum leaf extract orally in the amount of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg once a day for 24 days and, starting on day 4, 20 mg/kg BW lead acetate orally for 21 days 1 h after the administration of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract. On day 25, the mice were sacrificed to assess the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) as well as the histopathological changes. The Ocimum sanctum leaf extract caused a decrease in the scores for hepatocyte degeneration and portal inflammation (p<0.05) but not for hepatic necrosis (p>0.05) in mice exposed to lead. Similar patterns were observed in the effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on the renal morphofunction. The Ocimum sanctum leaf extract decreased the scores for hydropic degeneration, tubular necrosis, and glomerular necrosis. The levels of MDA, SGOT, SGPT, BUN, and creatinine decreased in the lead-exposed mice treated with Ocimum sanctum leaf extract (p<0.05). The administration of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract has a protective effect against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice.

A 2011 biochemical study of Ocimum sanctum against carbon tetra chloride Induced hepatic damage was evaluated in Conference on Life Science and Technology IPCBEE vol.3, fresh Holy Basil leaves give you hepatoprotective benefits. They stimulate the production of the Cytochrome P450 enzyme which helps with detoxification and removing metabolic wastes (and toxic chemicals) from the body. Thus, Tulsi prevents liver damage. The qualitative analysis of the extracts from the leaf sample of Ocimum sanctum also showed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as tannins, saponin, flavonoids, terpenoid, cardiac glycerides etc. 

Kidney Disorders:

Kidney disorders occur due to the imbalance in uric acid and impurities present in our bloodstream which in turn crystallizes and hinders the normal functioning of kidneys. Tulsi detoxifies the bloodstream and helps in preventing diseases like kidney stones and even glomerulonephritis. It also balances the production of uric acid, which will help in healthy kidney functions.

Kidney Stones:

Over the years, kidney stone has become quite a common problem. Juice of Holy Basil leaves mixed with honey is an easy and effective cure for kidney stones. It is believed that regular consumption of this juice for 6 months expels the stone from your system via urine. Drinking a Tulsi juice with honey for a period of six months helps in eliminating kidney stones (calcium oxalate) through the urinary tract. Holy Basil acts like a detoxifier, which reduces uric acid levels in the body. It also prevents the formation of calcium oxalate in the kidneys. Calcium oxalate and uric acid are responsible for the formation of kidney stones. Since Holy Basil has painful effects, it also reduces the effect of pain due to stone in the kidney. Thus, Holi Basil’s home remedies can be used as a treatment for the expulsion of kidney stone, yet it takes time to show the desired effect in it.

Genito-Urinary System:

It will help for treating the problems of genito-urinary system like bladder infection, vaginal infection and gonorrhea.

Tumors & Cancers:

In general, Holy Basil may not only possibly work as a natural cancer treatment, but another of the many Tulsi benefits include that it may also help to prevent it. Research shows that people who regularly consume Tulsi are less likely to be immunocompromised and less susceptible to developing cancer cells.

According to research published in The Journal Nutrition and Cancer, Tulsi and its phytochemicals (including eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, myretenal, luteolin, β-sitosterol and carnosic acid), in some cases, may help prevent chemical-induced lung, liver, oral and skin cancers because they increase antioxidant activity, alter healthy gene expressions, induce cancer cell death, prevent blood vessel growth contributing to cancer cell growth and stop metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from one organ to another. In fact, an interesting review was published outlining the important research involving Tulsi’s ability to help fight against cancer that we’ve seen in the past several years. The doctors involved in this research agree that conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments used during the past three decades haven’t been able to contain the disease, plus they have serious side effects. Many natural agents, especially holy basil leaves and extracts from other plants, prove to be non-toxic, easily available and have potential anti-cancer properties.

Cancer is still the leading cause of death worldwide, burdening the global medical system. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is among the first secondary metabolites discovered and it is a bioactive compound identified in plants such as Boraginaceae and Nepetoideae subfamilies of the Lamiaceae family, including Thymus masticmasti chinaythia koreana, Ocimum sanctum, and Hyptis pectinate.

A 2023 review "Rosmarinic acid and its derivatives: Current insights on anticancer potential and other biomedical applications" published in Biomed Pharmacother., by Shumaila Ijaz, Javed Iqbal, Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi, Zakir Ullah, Tabassum Yaseen, Sobia Kanwal, Tariq Mahmood, Sandugash Sydykbayeva, Alibek Ydyrys, Zainab M Almarhoon, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Christophe Hano, Daniela Calina, William C Cho, highlight the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, thus providing valuable clues for the potential development of some complementary drugs in the treatment of cancers. Relevant information about rosmarinic acid's chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects and its derivatives were collected from electronic scientific databases, such as PubMed/Medline, Scopus, TRIP database, Web of Science, and Science Direct. The results of the studies showed numerous significant biological effects such as antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, antioxidant and antiangiogenic effects. Most of the studies on the anticancer potential with the corresponding mechanisms are still in the experimental preclinical stage and are missing evidence from clinical trials to support the research. To open new anticancer therapeutic perspectives of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, future clinical studies must elucidate the molecular mechanisms and targets of action in more detail, the human toxic potential and adverse effects.

In most cases, cancer develops due to abnormal cell growth and subsequent tumour formation. Due to significant constraints with current treatments, natural compounds are being explored as potential alternatives. There are now around 30 natural compounds under clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Tulsi, or Holy Basil, of the genus Ocimum, is one of the most widely available and cost-effective medicinal plants. In India, the Tulsi plant has deep religious and medicinal significance. Tulsi essential oil contains a valuable source of bioactive compounds, such as camphor, eucalyptol, eugenol, alpha-bisabolene, beta-bisabolene, and beta-caryophyllene. These compounds are proposed to be responsible for the antimicrobial properties of the leaf extracts. The anticancer effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.) have earned it the title of "Queen of Herbs" and "Elixir of Life" in Ayurvedic treatment. Tulsi leaves, which have high concentrations of eugenol, have been shown to have anticancer properties. In a various cancers, eugenol exerts its antitumour effects through a number of different mechanisms.

A 2023 review "An Update on the Therapeutic Anticancer Potential of Ocimum sanctum L." published in Molecules, by Mohammad Raghibul Hasan, Bader Saud Alotaibi, Ziyad Mohammed Althafar, Ahmed Hussain Mujamammi, Jafar Jameela, focuses on the anticancer benefits of Tulsi and its primary phytoconstituent, eugenol, as apotential therapeutic agent against a wide range of cancer types. In recent years, Tulsi has gained popularity due to its anticancer properties. In ongoing clinical trials, a number of Tulsi plant compounds are being evaluated for their potential anticancer effects. This article discusses anticancer, chemopreventive, and antioxidant effects of Tulsi.

Adaptogens were initially recognized as stress-resistance inducing compounds.

A 2022 mini review "Systemic and Anticancer Potential of Adaptogenic Constituents Isolated from Traditional Herbs" published in Anticancer Agents Med Chem., by Mahaboob Khan Sulaiman, Jaganathan Lakshmanan, reveal that adaptogens are pleiotropically-acting chemical constituents that can be isolated from traditional herbs. They are gaining increasing attention in cancer chemotherapy. This review summarizes the physiological action of adaptogens isolated from the 9 most widely used traditional herbs implicated in cancer therapy viz., Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Rhodiola rosea, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Bacopa monnieri, Asparagus racemosus, Ocimum sanctum, and Panax notoginseng. The studies were identified through a systematic search of major computerized databases such as Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Inflibnet, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Individual names of each herb and biological action were the search terms employed. In this review, we have enlisted the chemical constituents and their mechanism of action in a few organ systems as well as in cancer cells. Studies indicate that the adaptogens isolated from these herbs can be broadly arranged into 2 classes based on their chemical structure. These molecules exert a positive influence on several organ systems such as respiratory, nervous, cardiovascular, immune, and gastrointestinal tracts. It is also clear that adaptogens act as effective chemopreventive agents alone or in combination with chemo drugs in multiple cancers by targeting multiple intracellular target proteins. Therefore, we conclude that adaptogens are versatile ligands capable of eliciting many systemic effects. Their biological functions are complex, varied, and context-dependent in various cancers. This offers great scope for personalized treatment and cancer chemoprevention in the future.

A 2021 study "Ocimum Sanctum: An All-Round Treatment for Cancer?" published in Altern Ther Health Med. by Pulkit Kumar, Dhaniket Patel, was to bring traditional therapy back, which can prove to be economically beneficial and may be helpful to many patients with cancer with few to no adverse events. Ocimum sanctum, commonly known as Holy Basil or Tulsi, is a very important medicinal herb in parts of India and Southeast Asia. Ocimum sanctum has been found to lower blood pressure and cholesterol, reduce the risk for heart attacks and may also be effective for treating depression and anxiety. It also protects the body from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, exposure to cold and excessive noise, but its anti-tumorigenic effect remains largely unexplored. A few studies have observed that extracts of Ocimum sanctum have inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anti-stress, and immunomodulatory activities. A few cell culture and animal studies have also shown that some of its phytochemicals like eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, myretenal, luteolin, β-sitosterol and carnosic acid prevent chemical-induced skin, liver, oral and lung cancers and mediate these effects by increasing antioxidant activity, altering gene expression, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. They are also shown to prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. This review details the different chemoprotective and radioprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum and also gives an idea for future research.

Buccal mucosa carcinoma is a significant cause of death in developing nations. Vicenin-2 is a significant bioactive compound found in Ocimum sanctum Linn or Tulsi that possesses several pharmacologic properties.

A 2021 study "Anticancer activity of Vicenin-2 against 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced buccal pouch carcinoma in hamsters" published in Journal Biochem Mol Toxicol., by Yijun Li, Yi Zheng, Huibo Wang, Our focus is to understand the possible impact of Vicenin-2 on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters. Buccal carcinoma was induced by treatment with carcinogenic 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, three times a week for 14 weeks. We determined 100% tumor incidence, abnormal tumor volume, inclined tumor burden, and deduced body weight in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma hamsters. The upregulation of cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]) was observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma hamsters. Moreover, dysplastic, hyperplastic, and squamous cell carcinoma was identified in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma hamsters. The diminished activities of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic/nonenzymatic antioxidants were observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamsters. Furthermore, the high expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Cyclin-D1, and Bcl-2, and attenuated Bax expression were observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamsters. Our study results explored that Vicenin-2 (30 mg/kg) treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-brushed hamsters averted tumor incidence, improved the antioxidant status, and inhibited lipid peroxidation. Moreover, Vicenin-2 inhibited the immunohistochemical expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Cyclin-D1, and Bcl-2, and significantly restored apoptotic Bax levels. The Vicenin-2 treatment prevents the lesion formation in the oral epithelium of the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamsters. The Vicenin-2 treatment potentially halts the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) production in oral squamous cell carcinoma hamsters. Thus, we proved that Vicenin-2 prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced buccal carcinogenesis in hamsters via improving antioxidants by modulating apoptotic and cytokines signaling pathways.

A review published in 2013 looked at whether Basil and Holy Basil, could prevent cancer. The authors concluded that the phytochemicals in Basil may help prevent certain types of skin, liver, oral, and lung cancers. They appeared to do this by increasing antioxidant activity, changing gene expression, triggering cell death, and slowing cell division. However, the studies in this review were preclinical or performed in animals. Confirming the effects will require further research.

A 2013 study "Holy Basil leaf extract decreases tumorigenicity and metastasis of aggressive human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: potential role in therapy" published in Cancer Letter by Shimizu T, Torres MP, Chakraborty S, Souchek JJ, Rachagani S, Kaur S, Macha M, Ganti AK, Hauke RJ, Batra SK, showed extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion, and induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. There was down-regulation of genes involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion. Results suggest the leaves of Ocimum sanctum can be a potential source of novel anticancer compounds.

Another 2013 review "Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer" published in Anticancer Drugs by Piyali Bhattacharyya, Anupam Bishayee, have shown that Ocimum sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in Ocimum sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of Ocimum sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of Ocimum sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of Ocimum sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer.

The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine in 2012 "Effect Of Ocimum Sanctum Leaf Extract On Swimming Stress Induced Ulcers In Rats" by R Kath, R Gupta, showed administration of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum to mice with sarcomatous tumor resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume and increase in lifespan. Review amalgamates various scientific studies on the anti-cancerous activity of Ocimum sanctum in various cancers, lung, skin, oral, cervical, gastric, breast, and prostate.

Human Cancer Cell Lines (Cytotoxicity):

An in-vitro and in-silico analysis "Active Compounds from Tulsi Inhibits Benzo (A)Pyrene Mediated Cytotoxity" published in Thesis-Master of Science in Life Science by Subhalakshmi Samal, about environmental pollution is a major problem of daily life. Pollutants consist mainly of organic pollutants and particulate matter. PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are groups of organic pollutants ubiquitously present and resistant to degradation i.e., mutagen, carcinogen and tetratogen. An example of a PAH is benzo[a]pyrene, with toxicity that results from bioactivation of B[a]P to diolepoxides by monooygenase enzymes. These compounds are inhibited by active compounds extracted from Black Tulsi viz., eugenol, carvacrol, elemene, caryophyllene and linalool. In this study, the active compound of Tulsi bind to cytochrome P450 enzyme active site and inhibit them from binding B[a]P, in both in-silico studies and in-vitro analysis.

Another 2009 study "Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells" published in Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 23, Issue 12 by Nabanita Halder, Sujata Joshi, Tapas Chandra Nag, Radhika Tandon, Suresh Kumar Gupta, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major oxidant involved in cataract formation. Study investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells. Results showed a protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The activity may be via reduction of H2O2 through its antioxidant property, supporting the concept that the extracts can penetrate HLEC membrane.

Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines:

A 2023 study "Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf modulates oxidative stress, cell cycle and apoptosis in head and neck cancer cell lines" published in Heliyon, by Kusumawadee Utispan, Sittichai Koontongkaew, Nattisa Niyomtham, Boon-Ek Yingyongnarongkul, aimed to examine the impact of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on oxidative stress, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in cell lines of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Isogenic primary (HN18/HN30) and metastatic (HN17/HN31) HNSCC cell lines were used. Preparation of the ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf (EEOS) was carried out. HNSCC cell lines were exposed to varying concentrations (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) of EEOS for a duration of 72 h, and the MTT assay was utilized to determine the cytotoxic doses. To assess the impact of EEOS on HNSCC cells, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde were measured using a fluorometric method. Flow cytometry was utilized to evaluate effects of EEOS on the cell cycle, DNA damage, and apoptosis in HNSCC cells. Caspase-3 and -9 levels in the EEOS-treated HNSCC cells were measured by ELISA. The chemical components in EEOS were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. EEOS exhibited cytotoxicity against the HN18, HN17, HN30 and HN31 cells at minimum concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/ml, respectively. Treatment with EEOS resulted in a significant increase in ROS levels in HN18 and HN17 cells. Additionally, EEOS significantly induced the levels of malondialdehyde in HN18 and HN31 cells. Moreover, EEOS arrested the cell cycle in HN30 and HN31 cells, and significantly induced DNA damage and apoptosis in the HN18, HN30, and HN31 cells. EEOS selectively increased caspase-9 in the HN18 cells. However, caspase-3 was activated without apoptosis in the EEOS-treated HN17 cells. The constituents of EEOS were identified as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, and apigenin. In conclusion, EEOS exhibits various prooxidative and apoptotic effects between HNSCC cells.

Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy:

Tulsi offer safety from Radiation Cancer Therapy, even though more scientific studies are required just before a defined conclusion can be created in regards to the treatment method. In accordance with The University of Maryland Medical Center, make a tea through the Tulsi root simply by steeping 1 tsp. in serious trouble for 10 to 15 minutes and take in the tea 3 times each day to aid from the effect. Make use of Tulsi with care if you take medicines that thin the blood for instance warfarin or aspirin. The herb may possibly enhance your chance for unrestrained bleeding.

Holy Basil benefits also appear to help protect the body from radiation poisoning and help minimize damage from radiation treatment, according to research published in 2016 in The Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. It selectively protects the normal tissues against the destructive effects of radiation.

A 2013 review "Ocimum sanctum L (Holy Basil or Tulsi) and its phytochemicals in the prevention and treatment of cancer" published in Nutr Cancer by Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Rosmy Jimmy, Karadka Ramdas Thilakchand, Venkatesh Sunitha, Neeta Raghavendra Bhat, Elroy Saldanha, Suresh Rao, Pratima Rao, Rajesh Arora, Princy L Palatty, have shown it to possess antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antistress, and immunomodulatory activities. Preclinical studies have also shown that Tulsi and some of its phytochemicals eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, myretenal, luteolin, β-sitosterol, and carnosic acid prevented chemical-induced skin, liver, oral, and lung cancers and to mediate these effects by increasing the antioxidant activity, altering the gene expressions, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. The aqueous extract of Tulsi and its flavanoids, orintin, and vicenin are shown to protect mice against γ-radiation-induced sickness and mortality and to selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. The other important phytochemicals like eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and carnosic acid are also shown to prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. This review summarizes the results related to the chemopreventive and radioprotective properties of Tulsi and also emphasizes aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility in cancer prevention and treatment.

Breast Cancer:

A 2018 study "The anticancer effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves" in Food Research of Lam, S.N., Neda, G.D. and Rabeta, M.S., investigated the anticancer activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum. It showed anticancer activity against MCF-7 (a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line). Crude extracts showed lower IC50 (<100 µg/ml) against cancer cell lines without effect of HS-27.

A 2006 study "Inhibition of breast cancer progression by a medicinal herb Ocimum sanctum" published in Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Volume 47 by Pratima Nangia-Makker, Larry Tait, Victor Hogan, Fred Miller and Avraham Raz, investigated the inhibitory effect of Ocimum sanctum on breast cancer lines, MDA-MB-435 and MCF 10A cells. Results showed inhibition of tumor growth attributed to reduced cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Study suggested a potential for a breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent.

Skin Cancer (Melanoma):

Whilst the sun allows life on earth, it may also harm your skin. Extended exposure to the sun leads to sun burn, skin wrinkles, and also cancer of the skin. Melanoma, which is generally brought on by extreme sunlight exposure, is regarded as probably the most hazardous kind of skin cancer. Thankfully, Holy Basil might be an achievable cure for radiation injuries and also skin cancer.

A survey through The Pharmaceutical of Biology Journal demonstrates that Ocimum sanctum has got anti melanoma as well as radio protective qualities. Again, this particular doesn’t suggest that Holy Basil plants are a cure for cancer of the skin. However, the general consensus appears to show that it safeguards the skin from dangerous radiation.

Oral Cancer:

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most commom cancer in the world. If remain untreated for several years, it may be fatal. Hence, it is important to prevent and treat oral squamous cell carcinoma at an early stage.

"An in vitro study of Ocimum sanctum as a chemotherapeutic agent on oral cancer cell-line" published in Saudi Journal Biol Sci., 2021, by A M Luke, R Patnaik, S T Kuriadom, M Jaber, S Mathews, the effect of aqueous and dry leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum was observed on Ca9-22 cell line, which is an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. For this, Ca9-22 cell line was cultured and maintained. After 24 h, the cells were treated with aqueous and dry leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum plant. Viability of the cancerous cells were studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations, lethal concentration25 (LC25), lethal concentration50 (LC50) and highest permissive concentration was calculated by probit computational method. Experimentally, the minimum inhibitory concentrations value was 5 mg/L, whereas the highest permissive concentration was 30 mg/L of the plant extract in aqueous state. For the dry extract the minimum inhibitory concentrations was 5 mg/L whereas the highest permissive concentration was 35 mg/L for both MTT and NRU assays. For MTT assay LC values: 7.41 (LC25), 14.79 (LC50) and 26.91 mg/L (LC75) for aqueous extract and 12.58 (LC25), 20.89 (LC50), 29.51 mg/L (LC75) for dry extract. For NRU assay LC values were 10.23 (LC25), 14.79 (LC50) and 20.89 mg/L (LC75) aqueous extract, and 16.59 (LC25), 23.44 (LC50), 30.19 mg/L (LC75) dry extract of the plant. From the above study it was concluded that, Ocimum sanctum have anti-cancerous activity. It can further be used for therapeutic purposes.

Stomach Cancer - Gastric Cancer:

In a 2021 study "An In Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Essential Oil by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line" published in Medicina (Kaunas), by Wongwarut Boonyanugomol, Kamolchanok Rukseree, Pornpan Prapatpong, Onrapak Reamtong, Seung-Chul Baik, Myunghwan Jung, Min-Kyoung Shin, Hyung-Lyun Kang, Woo-Kon Lee, the effects of Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil against gastric cancer remain unknown and merit investigation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the anti-cancer activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil was examined in a human gastric cancer cell line (AGS). After Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil treatment, AGS cell viability was determined by an MTT assay, and inhibition of metastasis was determined by cell migration and invasion assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes in treated AGS cells was determined by qRT-PCR. Results: Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil significantly decreased AGS cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 163.42 µg/mL) and effectively inhibited cell migration and invasion. Morphological examination demonstrated that Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation, which are considered typical morphologies of apoptotic cell death. Pro-apoptotic genes (TP53, BAX, and BAK) were significantly up-regulated, while anti-apoptotic genes (BCL-2 and BCL-xL) were significantly down-regulated after treatment with Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil. In addition, significantly increased gene expression was detected for CASP8, CASP9, and CASP3 in AGS cells exposed to Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil. GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the major compound of Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil was caryophyllene (25.85%) and α-pinene (11.66%). Conclusions: This in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil has potential anti-gastric cancer activity and may induce apoptosis in AGS cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

Lung Cancer:

Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has been identified as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The mortality rate from lung cancer has been estimated to be 18.4%. Until now, conventional treatments have not yielded optimal results, thus necessitating an investigation into the use of traditional herbal plants as potential candidates for its treatment.

A 2021 study "In silico molecular docking and in vitro analysis of ethanolic extract Ocimum sanctum Linn.: Inhibitory and apoptotic effects against non-small cell lung cancer" published in Vet World, by Ulayatul Kustiati, T S Dewi Ratih, N Dwi Aris Agung, Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Hevi Wihadmadyatami, aimed to determine the inhibitory and apoptotic activity of the ethanolic extract from Ocimum sanctum Linn. (EEOS) by in silico molecular docking and through in vitro studies using NSCLC cells (A549 cell line). Dried simplicia of Ocimum sanctum was converted into EEOS using the maceration method. Spectrophotometry was then employed to analyze the EEOS compound. The known main active compounds were further analyzed for inhibitory and apoptotic effects on gene signaling using in silico molecular docking involving the downloading of active compounds from PubChem and target proteins from the Protein Data Bank; the active compounds and proteins were then prepared using the Discovery Studio software v. 19.0.0 and the PyRX 0.8 program, interacted with the HEX 8.0.0 program, and visualized with the Discovery Studio Visualizer v. 19.0. Finally, an in vitro analysis was performed using an antiproliferative-cytotoxic test (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in the NSCLC A549 cell line). The analysis revealed that the active compounds in the ethanolic extract were dominated by quercetin (flavonoids) (47.23% b/b) and eugenol (phenolic) (12.14% b/b). These active compounds interacted with the active sites (residual amino acids) of the αvβ3 integrin, a5b1 integrin, caspase-3, caspase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Hydrogen bonds and Pi-cation and Pi-alkyl interactions were involved in the relationships between the active compounds and the active sites and thus may reveal an antioxidant property of the extract. Furthermore, in vitro analysis showed the inhibitory and antiproliferative effects of the EEOS against non-small cell cancer (A549). Taken together, our data showed the ability of EEOS as an inhibitor and apoptotic agent for lung cancer; however, further research is needed to determine the exact mechanism of EEOS as an herbal medication.

Lung Adenocarcinoma:

Ocimum sanctum is a herbal plant, which is easy to find and is widely used as an alternative medication. The previous studies have shown that several species of Ocimum sanctum extract have therapeutic properties, and in some cases, antitumor properties. Furthermore, several data have shown the antiproliferative effects of Ocimum sanctum extract in cases of breast cancer, human fibrosarcoma, and oral cancer. Lung adenocarcinoma is a major cause of male cancer worldwide; however, the effect of Ocimum sanctum (of Indonesian origin) on the metastasis of human alveolar pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the antiangiogenic effects of Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

A 2020 study "Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract inhibits angiogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma (a549) cells" published in Vet World by Hevi Wihadmadyatami, Puspa Hening, Ulayatul Kustiati, Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Teguh Triyono, Supriatno Supriatno, an angiogenesis assay was performed by seeding A549 cells on extracellular matrix solution and observing tube formation using an inverted microscope. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for αvβ3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 was performed by analyzing the cell lysate after a given treatment. Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract significantly inhibited tube formation of A549 cells and suppressed the expression of integrin αvβ3, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our findings indicate that Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract disrupts angiogenesis of A549 cells, which may result from the disruption of cell migration and proliferation as a consequence of downregulation of αvβ3, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Taken together, Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract may represent a good therapeutic candidate for the treatment of metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma. Further studies are warranted to further establish the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.

Women's Health Issues:


Particularly Holy Basil, is definitely an herb pregnant women are inspired to stay away from. Holy Basil is utilized for causing labor, therefore only when your pregnancy is delayed, you might have Holy Basil or even Holy Basil tea. Even though studies have not even proven it finally, it’s best that pregnant women keep away from Holy Basil. There are actually herbal treatments which use Holy Basil as well as Holy Basil in programs for infertility therefore answers are still mixed. However, these types of home remedies might have contraindications so do consult with your physician before you do use this particular herb.


A study on leaves of Ocimum sanctum, are said to be abortifacient in women. The benzene and petroleum ether extracts of leaves have been reported to produce 80% to 60% antifertility activity in female rats. In male rats, benzene extract of leaves has been reported to reduce spermatogenesis by retarding sertoli cell activity.

Buttocks and Vagina Infection:

Cook Holy Basil in a large volume of water. After the water comes to room temperature, sit in the water for some time.

Menstrual Cycle (Amenorrhea) and Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea):

To assist manage menstrual cycle and for menstrual pain and cramps, utilize 2-3 drops inside a diffuser frequently. 1 oz Olive oil along with 6 drops of Holy Basil and Geranium essential oil. Apply at lower abdomen three times each day.

Men's Health Issues:

Contraceptive Agent:

Some preliminary research in animals actually shows the compound called ursolic acid found in Holy Basil may reduce fertility by damaging sperm. This has led some researchers to believe that Holy Basil may be used as an effective male contraceptive agent.

A 2014 study "Posological Considerations of Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi) as per Ayurvedic Science and Pharmaceutical Sciences" published in Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences by D.B.A. Narayana, R. Manohar, Anita Mahapatra, R.M. Sujithra, A.R. Aramya, reported that the administration of 2 grams of Ocimum sanctum leaves for 30 days in male albino mice showed adverse effect on sperm count and male hormones. Posological report clearly showed that Ayurvedic uses of Ocimum sanctum are in doses significantly lower than the dose at which antifertility effects were observed. Study suggests the issued ban against products containing Ocimum sanctum as an ingredient is not logical and needs to be reviewed. An advisory may be issued in warning against potential antifertility effect when consumed in substantially high doses.

Another 2010 study "Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits" published in International Journal Ayurveda Res. by Jyoti Sethi, Mridul Yadav, Sushma Sood, Kiran Dahiya, and Veena Singh, evaluated fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum for its effect on reproductive function in male albino rabbits. Results showed a significant decrease in sperm count with marked increase in serum testosterone and significant reductions in FSH and LH. Results suggest a potential use as a male contraceptive agent.

Pediatric Health Issues:

Tulsi is known to cure many health diseases in both adults and kids. Most of us are aware that Tulsi leaves has medicinal properties. Tulsi has several healing benefits and is considered extremely useful particularly in Ayurveda and Naturopathy. It has innumerable benefits and you should make sure to include it in your child’s routine. Holy Basil is widely found in the tropical regions of the South East Asian countries, and the Indian subcontinent. It is one of the safest herbs, and can be easily used to treat coughs, colds, and sore throats in infants. It can be safely given to kids infused in herbal tea, infusions, and tonics. Older children can even consume the leaves, for their health benefits. It has a refreshing taste, and makes for a refreshing, and detoxifying drink for your kids. There are many health benefits of Holy Basil, for your baby. It is the number one home remedy for curing coughs, and colds in kids, in India for generations. If pustules of chicken pox delay their appearance, Holy Basil leaves taken along with saffron will speed up them. Holy Basil is very important for children as it acts like as weapon against respiratory conditions, diarrhea, vomiting etc.

Source of Vitamin K:

Holy Basil is a great source of vitamin K. This is essential for the proper growth and development of healthy bones in your little one. Vitamin K is also responsible for a healthy heart. It helps maintain brain function and healthy metabolism of your child. Regular use of Holy Basil in your child’s diet will ensure he or she gets adequate amounts.

Boosts Immune System:

Holy Basil is known to promote immunity in your babies. It has powerful healing and medicinal properties.

Letting your child have 5-6 fresh Holy Basil leaves with water and let your child drink this every morning. It is a safe way to boost their immune system. Alternately, you can also boil some Holy Basil leaves in water, and let your child drink this herbal tea, first thing every morning. It is especially good for infants, who have very low immunity. It can be a safe way to boost their immune system.

Digestive Health:

Holy Basil is great for boosting your kid’s digestive health. It works as a great natural appetizer. Holy Basil helps in the secretion of digestive enzymes, that are responsible for promoting digestion. It is also rich in antioxidants. These help in purifying your little one’s digestive system. It has a cleansing effect on the body.

Respiratory Health:

Trusted by generations as a great natural treatment for respiratory dieases, regular consumption of leaves or tea of Holy Basil can help in keeping your kid’s respiratory system healthy. It can prevent and cure respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis. Research has shown Holy Basil to be effective in treating both acute, as well as chronic cases. It is also helpful as a natural remedy, if your child is suffering from asthma. Tulsi leaves repair the respiratory system very effectively. It aids in healing almost all kinds of respiratory disorders.

Cures Fever Naturally:

Holy Basil is a great natural remedy for treating fever in your baby. There are absolutely no harmful side effects, that come with over the counter drugs. It is a great disinfectant and germicide. Holy Basil can help protect your child from viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. With its infection fighting property, it fights fever and gets your child’s health back to normal quickly. This makes it extremely effective in treating fever in your child quickly.

Dental Health:

Your child’s mouth is a great breeding place for germs and bacteria. Holy Basil has powerful antibacterial properties, that can help fight against germs that can cause harm to your little one’s teeth. Regular consumption of Holy Basil will effectively prevent dental issues, if not treated on time, leads to tartar, plaque, bad breath and cavities. If your child suffers from frequent bouts of mouth ulcer, Holy Basil is a great natural treatment for these. They not only help treat mouth ulcers in your baby, but also prevent them from reappearing. Regular usage of Tulsi will save your child from suffering from these problems.

Promotes Eye Health:

Holy Basil is great for maintaining good eye health in your kids. It is effective in preventing eye problems such as boils and conjunctivitis. Holy Basil also helps keeping your little one’s eyes clean. It soothes inflammation of eyes, and also helps reduce stress on your kid’s eyes.

Let your child wash their eyes with water, in which few leaves of Holy Basil have been soaked. Regular use will prevent many eye problems from happening.

Heals Skin Problems:

If your baby is suffering from a skin problem or has a minor wound, you can easily treat them at home with the help of Holy Basil. The powerful antibacterial and antiseptic properties of the herb, make it great for treating skin issues and minor wounds in babies at home. Many skin creams for babies have Holy Basil in them. Holy Basil and Aloe Vera is used by many mothers for their babies' rashes. It soothes the skin and relieves rashes.

All you need to do is crush a few leaves of Holy Basil, and apply the paste on the affected areas. Your child will get instant relief, without the harmful side-effects of harmful chemicals.

Mixing Holy Basil with bathing water or by simply washing your child’s face with it, will keep your child away from all kinds of skin infections. Bathing with Tulsi water is good enough to disinfect a child’s skin. Just by rubbing Holy Basil leaves on your child’s body will save him or her from mosquito bites and even make other insects stay away.

Precautions for giving your Baby Holy Basil:

  • Excessive use of Holy Basil, or an over-dosage may cause a burning sensation in your baby. Even though it is usually one of the safest herbs for use in children, it is always better to check for specific allergies for your baby.
  • Also remember to wait three days between introducing new foods to your baby. This way, if your baby is allergic to any one of them, you will know which one caused it.
  • If your baby has a condition of high pitta, or nasal bleeding, you should avoid giving Holy Basil to him or her.
  • Remember not to give your child milk soon after he or she has consumed Holy Basil. This is because Holy Basil is hot, and milk is a coolant. Exposing your baby to such a combination can result in skin disorders.
  • Prolonged usage may not be recommended in children. Make sure to consult your doctor before you introduce Holy Basil to your baby.

Endocrine Diseases:

Weight Loss:

Did you know that Tulsi leaves contain a magic ingredient, ursolic acid, that can help with weight loss? Tulsi is a natural ingredient that aids weight loss. If you’re wondering how to burn fat in a quick way without any side effects, then you need to opt for drinking Tulsi tea. Two cups a day will make a difference. Holy Basil tea boosts the functioning of the digestive system and digestive juices. All this supports a quick absorption of proteins and carbohydrates. On the other hand, fats are broken slowly, preventing hunger pangs. It also promotes satiety and supports the loss of excess fats. Also, you need to keep in mind that drinking Tulsi tea will act more efficiently only if you work out. Of course without exercising Tulsi tea can slim you down, but exercising will make the process faster.

In one study, rats fed a high-fat diet and treated with ursolic acid in their drinking water were compared to those who were not treated with ursolic acid. It was found that those treated with ursolic acid showed much lower body weights and abdominal fat. While further research can help firm this up, there’s no harm in adding Tulsi leaves to your diet to lose those extra pounds.

Another study revealed the usage of Tulsi in helping support weight loss. This is because of its cholesterol and blood glucose regulation effects, both of which end up influencing the Body Mass Index (BMI). In the study, patients who were supplemented with 250 mg of Holy Basil noted a reduction in their BMI and lipid profiles.

Immune Diseases:

Boosts Immune System:

Tulsi is a naturally occurring immunity booster. It contains vitamin C and zinc, which helps to boost your immunity. The Helper T cells, also known as CD4+ cells, are responsible for maintaining the health of your immune system. These cells are a variant of white cells that act as mediators for almost all types of immune functions carried out in your body and prevents a person from seasonal ailments. Regular intake of Tulsi leaves extract increases the T helper cells and natural killer cells activity. Holy Basil keeps infections at bay. It protects against nearly all infections from bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, etc.

Numerous animal studies have found Holy Basil leaf to have potent immunomodulatory effects. The extract also showed promise in improving immunity in bovine (related to cattle) models. According to research and studies, Tulsi targets these cells and helps in those functionalities. Also, the anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties of Tulsi will also heal any type of infection and inflammation and protect your body from further infections. Since 2020, there have been many studies examining the potential role of Holy Basil in combating COVID-19 due to its scientifically proven ability to strengthen the immune system.

Seven clinical studies have shown that Holy Basil has a positive effect on immunity. The use of 300 mg to 1 gram of ethanolic Tulsi leaf extract showed enhanced immunity, less fatigue and improved immune response to viral infections.

A 2016 study "Therapeutic aspects of Tulsi unraveled" published in Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine & Radiology by Naveen Srinivas, Ketki Sali, Atul A Bajoria, of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum in rats and Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research in 2011 showed dose-dependent increase in antibody production, enhancing the production of WBC, RBC, and hemoglobin. Extract of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum exhibited an alteration in humoral immunoresponse in experimental model on albino rats. Mechanisms may be due to antibody production, liberation of agents that cause hypersensitivity reactions, and action on target organs. The immune response was attributed to enhancement of both cellular and humoral immunity by boosting cell-mediated immune responsiveness and GABAergic pathways.

Massage your chest, back and throat with 1 drop of Holy Basil oil and 1 drop of Eucalyptus oil mixed with your vaporizing ointment for supporting quicker relief. This oil also helps in strengthening the immune system and helps in fighting against infectious and communicable diseases.


Holy Basil helps to strengthen and modulate the immune system. It can be taken to both prevent and address active/acute upper respiratory viruses like colds or influenza. As an expectorant herb, it also has an affinity for supporting the body to remove mucus from the lungs, so it can be used for bronchitis as well as pulmonary weakness. As an anti-microbial herb, Holy Basil can be used topically or internally to treat bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. It has been shown to be effective against the fungus Candida albicans in vitro. It is frequently used for viral herpes simplex (HSV) sore outbreaks and can also be applied externally to ringworm (fungal) infections and eczema reactions.

Numerous in vitro studies have shown Holy Basil’s positive effects against various cancers. Human clinical trials will be able to shed more light on this potential use.

A 2016 review of aqueous extract of Ocimum Sanctum in rats "Therapeutic aspects of Tulsi unraveled" published in Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Vol. 28, Issue 1 by Naveen Srinivas, Ketki Sali, Atul A Bajoria, showed dose-dependent increase in antibody production, enhancing the production of WBC, RBC, and hemoglobin. (21) Extract of fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum exhibited an alteration in humoral immunoresponse in experimental model on albino rats. Mechanisms may be due to antibody production, liberation of agents that cause hypersensitivity reactions, and action on target organs. The immune response was attributed to enhancement of both cellular and humoral immunity by boosting cell-mediated immune responsiveness and GABAergic pathways.


A 1988 study "A preliminary study evaluating its immunoregulatory profile in albino rats" published in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 24, Issues 2-3 by Savitri Godhwani, J.L. Godhwani, D.S. Was, in albino rats of a methanol extract and aqueous suspension of leaves for its immunoregulatory profile to antigenic challenge to Salmonella typhosa and sheep erythrocyte agglutination tests showed immunostimulation of humoral immunologic response shown by an increase in antibody titer as well as a cellular immunologic response. The immunostimulant capability was attributed to the plants adaptogenic action.

Alkalize and Vitalize your Body:

Like many other herbs, Holy Basil is alkaline forming. In fact, so much so that it is a traditional herb used during fasting so that the body doesn’t become too acidic during the temporary cleansing process. Alkalizing your body is important to keep it healthy and strong enough to fend off life-threatening diseases. Holy Basil is also high in antioxidants and helps your body detox.

Studies show that Holy Basil can protect your body against toxic chemicals. It may also prevent cancer by reducing the growth of cancerous cells. Holy Basil can be found in supplement form, consumed as a tea, baked with or used topically.

Add Holy Basil to Your Self-Care:

Supplements of Holy Basil extract are available in pill or capsule form. The suggested dosage ranges from 300 mg to 2,000 mg per day for general preventive purposes. When used as a treatment, the recommended dosage is 600 mg to 1,800 mg taken in multiple doses throughout the day. All parts of the plant might be used in supplements and topical ointments. Essential oil of Holy Basil is distilled from leaves and flowers of the plant. You can also make Holy Basil tea using the leaves, flowers, or dried leaf powder. The herb can also be used to make freshly brewed tea by placing 2-3 teaspoons of Holy Basil in a cup of boiling water and letting it steep for 5-6 minutes. The leaves are also commonly used in cooking, though some people eat the leaves raw. Holy Basil tastes spicy and bitter.

Healing Power:

Tulsi plant has numerous therapeutic qualities. The foliage is a nerve tonic and also sharpens memory. They will encourage the removing of the catarrhal matter and also phlegm through the bronchial tube. The leaves enhance the stomach and also stimulate massive sweating. The seed of the plant are mucilaginous. Holy Basil is recognized as an adaptogenic herb, which suggests it really is considered to assist the body adjust to many forms of both mental and physical stress. There are several proofs that the plant is most effective in reducing blood sugar levels, so scientific studies are analyzing its possibilities just as one assist in dealing with diabetes. This type of Holy Basil is typically made into remedies for headaches, heart disease, colds, asthma and bronchitis, gastrointestinal disorders, as well as inflammation related health problems. Additionally it is utilized to fight particular types of poisoning in addition to malaria and dengue fever. Medicinal substances utilize the leaves and also essential oil in many forms, which includes tea, powder, and fresh leaves. Holy Basil is undoubtedly purifying to both body and mind, and it’s also regarded as an important part of religious households within the Hindu custom. Since this herb is regarded as not simply a therapeutic or even cookery herb but in addition a sacred herb, its care and maintenance is very carefully dealt with.

Alleviates Allergy:

It has also been shown to be helpful in alleviating allergic rhinitis (hay fever) symptoms associated with seasonal pollen allergies.

Use Holy Basil to treat with allergic rhinitis and allergies to animal dander and mold. Combined with Reishi and a solid extract from Blueberries, it can reduce the symptoms of hay fever and allergic asthma.

Common Eye Disorders & Diseases (CDC):

Improves Eyesight:

We know how vulnerable our eyes are. Our eyes are susceptible to viral, bacterial and fungal infections that can be very dangerous. Thankfully, Holy Basil benefits include helping to fight these detrimental infections. Tulsi is commonly prescribed in Ayurveda to fight against conjunctivitis, also commonly known as pink eye, thanks to its anti-inflammatory and soothing properties. It can also help in reducing various degenerative diseases of the eyes such as vision defects, opthalmia, glaucoma, macular degeneration and cataract etc.

Tulsi leaves juice along with Triphala is used from ancient times as an Ayurvedic eye drops mainly recommended for conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and other painful and severe eye diseases. Holy Basil juice is an efficient treatment for sore eyes as well as night-blindness, which is generally brought on by shortage of vitamin A. A couple of drops of Holy Basil juice are put in the eyes every day at night. Traditionally, practitioners used Holy Basil eye drops for a variety of conditions, including cataracts, glaucoma, or conjunctivitis. Eye drops containing the leaf extract have soothing antioxidant activity that reduces redness and irritation and improves eye health.

According to Dr. S.K. Gupta of The All India Institute of Medical Sciences, topical administration of an herbal eye drop mixture containing turmeric and Holy Basil extracts helps to counter the oxidative stress and insoluble protein formation that lead to cataracts.

In daily routine, the use of Tulsi oil along with honey, is supposed to improve eyesight.


Holy Basil can play an important role in treating cataracts and other vision issues. Study of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum showed potential anti-cataract activity against selinite-induced experimental cataractogenesis.

A 2009 study "Attenuation of Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cytotoxic changes in Human Lens Epithelial Cells" in Phytotherapy Research by Nabanita Halder, Sujata Joshi, Tapas Chandra Nag, Radhika Tandon, Suresh Kumar Gupta, investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells. Results showed a protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The activity may be via reduction of H2O2 through its antioxidant property, supporting the concept that the extracts can penetrate HLEC membrane. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major oxidant involved in cataract formation.

Oral Diseases:

Tulsi may protects everything from those pearly whites to the gums, fight bacteria in your mouth that can lead to dental issues, such as cavities, plaque, tartar and bad breath. It’s also found to be useful in other more serious conditions including mouth ulcers and oral cancer. It serves as a natural mouth freshener and cleanser because compounds found in the leaves kill bacteria and germs hiding in your mouth.

For natural dental care, try adding a drop of Tulsi essential oil to your toothpaste or drinking one cup of Tulsi tea every day. Gargling and washing your mouth with a decoction of Tulsi leaves can help in keeping your teeth white and shiny as Tulsi or Holy Basil not only destroys almost all the bacteria present in the mouth, thereby keeping your breath fresh all day long, but it also prevents plaque formation.

Bad Breath (Halitosis):

Remarkably, Tulsi may be used effectively in toothpaste. This particular valuable herb has been utilized for hundreds of years in Ayurveda like a germ-fighting as well as healing supplement for teeth and also the mouth. Swishing the tea within your mouth is considered to assist combat bad breath and cavities. Its anti-bacterial qualities turn it into a great option for dental health.

Mouth Infections:

Tulsi is additionally utilized like a mouth wash to ease toothache. Tulsi is a wonderful mouth freshener as well as oral disinfectant and damages 99% of bacteria and germs perfectly located at the mouth. These types of leaves are extremely powerful for a number of mouth infections just like ulcer. The leaves are quit powerful for the ulcer as well as infections within the mouth. A couple of leaves chewed will certainly heal these types of problems. Holy Basil has been extensively studied for its ability to support oral health. Holy Basil benefits include helping to diminish ulcers in the mouth, and in vitro studies demonstrate it may stop the growth of oral cancer cells.

An in vitro study showed that a Holy Basil extract was effective against periodontal pathogens.

Another study found that a Holy Basil extract mouthwash was more effective at reducing the bacteria that causes cavities than a mouthwash using sodium fluoride.

A third study performed on volunteer medical students found that Holy Basil mouthwash was equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as the disinfectant chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). Those using the Holy Basil mouthwash didn’t experience the same negative effects associated with chlorhexidine gluconate. The researchers concluded, “The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding".

An in vitro study also showed that Holy Basil has potential against oral cancer cells. Human clinical trials are needed to further assess this action.

Dental Caries Microorganisms (Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus):

Dental caries is still a major oral disease in children which affects their quality of life. It is important to come up with an alternative oral hygiene aid which is easily available and with lesser side effects and maximum benefits by acting against caries causing microbes. Thus aqueous extract of commonly available tulsi is studied to know its effect on caries causing microorganisms.

A 2022 in vitro study "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous Extract of "Ocimum Sanctum-Queen of Herb" on Dental Caries Microorganisms" published in Int J Clin Pediatr Dent., by K Reshma Pai, Lakshmi K Pallavi, Sham S Bhat, Sundeep K Hegde, evaluate the efficacy of three different concentrations of Ocimum sanctum aqueous extract against various caries causing microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with milli Q water, to obtain 3 different concentrations [2%, 3%, and 4%] of the extract. Glycerol 6%v/v and tween-80, 0.1%v/v were also added to get a stable suspension. About 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and milli Q water was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the three different concentrations of extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. Ocimum sanctum aqueous extract demonstrated maximum antimicrobial activity against microorganisms responsible for dental caries at the 4% concentration level although 3% and 2% were also effective. Maximum activity was seen against S. mutans and S. sanguis with 4% extract. Ocimum sanctum aqueous extract was effective against all caries causing the microorganisms.    

Oral Submucous Fibrosis:

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic insidious oral potentially malignant disorder characterized by increased collagen deposition and reduced collagen degradation causing burning sensation and difficulty in mouth opening.

A 2022 clinical study "Efficacy of topical tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) paste for the management of oral submucous fibrosis" published in Indian Journal Dent Res., by Deepti Biswas, Zameera Naik, S Lokesh Kumar, Namratha Patil, Anjana Bagewadi, included a total of 60 oral submucous fibrosis patients categorized into three Groups A, B and C (20 in each) depending on the severity according to Lai DR et al. classification. The patients were advised for topical Tulsi paste application and were evaluated for the reduction in the burning sensation and improvement in mouth opening every month for 3 subsequent months using the numeric pain rating scale and a Vernier calliper, respectively. The baseline and 3-month recordings were subjected to inter- and intra-group statistical analysis using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U, one-way analysis of variance, Tukey's multiple post-hoc and Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests. There was a reduction in the burning sensation and improvement in the mouth opening in all three groups. The reduction in the burning sensation was statistically significant among all the groups (P < 0.05) and the numeric pain rating scale scores after 3 months among the three groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in the improvement of mouth opening between Group A and B; A and C; but not between B and C. Tulsi paste showed a significant reduction in the burning sensation and improvement of the mouth opening thereby proving to be a safe and promising medicament for oral submucous fibrosis.

Prevent Plaque Accumulation:

Controlling the growth of biofilm on orthodontic material has become a difficult challenge in modern dentistry. The antibacterial efficacy of currently used orthodontic material becomes limited due to the higher affinity of oral microbial flora for plaque formation on the material surface. Thus it is crutial to device an efficient strategy to prevent plaque buildup caused by pathogenic microbiota.

In a 2023 study "Bioactivation of an orthodontic wire using multifunctional nanomaterials to prevent plaque accumulation" published in Biomater Adv., by Bibin G Anand, Kiran P Shejale, R Rajesh Kumar, Ramar Thangam, Kailash Prasad Prajapati, Karunakar Kar, R Mala, we have fabricated a bioactive orthodontic wire using titanium nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs were synthesized from the extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Solanum surattense, and Syzygium aromaticum, while the TiO2NPs were synthesized by the Sol-Gel method. The nanoparticles were characterized by various biophysical techniques. The surface of the dental wire was molded by functionalizing these AgNPs followed by an additional coating of TiO2NPs. Functionalized dental wires were found to counteract the formation of tenacious intraoral biofilm, and showed an enhanced anti-bacterial effect against Multi-Drug Resistant bacteria isolated from patients with various dental ailments. Data revealed that such surface coating counteracts the bacterial pathogens by inducing the leakage of Ag ions which eventually disrupts the cell membrane as confirmed from TEM micrographs. The results offer a significant opportunity for innovations in developing nanoparticle-based formulations to modify or fabricate an effective orthodontic material.


Tulsi has various properties like anti bacterial, anti inflammatory, anti oxidant for curing diseases. It is a plant with known medicinal value in Indian system of medicine. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum with Chlorhexidine (CHX) which is a standard material for the treatment of gingivitis.

A 2021 study "Comparative clinical data for gingivitis treatment using gels from Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) and chlorhexidine (CHX)" published in Bioinformation by B A Deepika, Jaiganesh Ramamurthy, Nadathur Duraisamy Jayakumar, S Rajesh Kumar, used 30 gingivitis subjects divided into 2 groups. Group I used Tulsi gel (n= 15) and Group II used CHX gel (n = 15) for treatment. Tulsi and CHX gel use was advised for 1 month. The Clinical parameters assessed were gingival Index (GI), plaque Index (PI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) assessed at a time interval of 30 days. Statistical analysis was completed using the SPSS software 23.0. Data showed that GI and PD for Tulsi and CHX in pre and post groups are not significant with p > 0.05. Moreover, PI is not significant with p>0.05 among pre Tulsi, pre CHX and post CHX. However, data is significant with p<0.05 for Tulsi group. CAL is significant with p<0.05 among pre/post Tulsi groups. However, this is not significant with p>0.05 among pre/post CHX groups. Data shows that 2% of Tulsi is effective in reducing gingival bleeding and inflammation. Thus, clinical data shows that Tulsi gel is promising for the treatment of gingivitis.

A 2019 randomized controlled comparative clinical study "Efficacy of Ocimum sanctum, Aloe vera and chlorhexidine mouthwash on gingivitis" published in Ayurveda by Gautami S Penmetsa, Sudha Rani Pitta, documenting the effect of Ocimum sanctum and Aloe vera in treating gingivitis are rare. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two herbal mouthwashes in comparison with chlorhexidine mouthwash on gingivitis. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, wherein sixty patients were randomly allocated into three study groups. Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 20), Aloe vera mouthwash (n = 20) and Chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20). All groups were treated with scaling and asked to rinse with respective mouthwashes twice daily for 1 month. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and sulcus bleeding index (BI) were recorded at baseline, after 15 days and after 30 days, respectively. Results of the study showed that Ocimum sanctum, Aloe vera and chlorhexidine are equally effective in reducing plaque, gingival, and bleeding indices at 30-day interval. However, no significant reductions in PI, GI and BI in 15-day interval in group 1 and group 2 when compared with chlorhexidine were evident. The results in the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum and Aloe vera may prove to be as effective as chlorhexidine mouthwash in its ability in reducing all the three indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding when used in the long-term follow-up.

Using a mouthwash containing Holy Basil leaf extract twice daily seems to help reduce plaque and the risk for developing gingivitis.

Teeth Disorder:

The foliage is additionally beneficial in dealing with teeth problems. Tulsi leaves dried as well as powdered may be used for cleaning teeth. It retains the health of the gums and helps to combat foul breath, pyorrhea along with other dental issues. This particular tooth paste may also be applied around the gums to prevent gum swelling.

It may also be combined with Mustard oil and could be utilized like a tooth paste.

Root Canal Treated Teeth:

A 2023 in vitro study "Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance among conventional versus herbal irrigants in root canal treated teeth" published in Aust Endod Journal., by Dakshita Joy Sinha, Priyanka Rani, Swapnil Vats, Kunal Bedi, Nidhi Sharma, Honap Nagesh Manjiri, evaluate the efficacy of conventional irrigants and herbal extracts materials which helps to resist fracture of endodontically treated teeth. 75 maxillary human permanent incisor teeth instrumented using ProTaper rotary files till apical size(F4). Instrumented samples divided into 5 groups with n=15 based on various irrigants used. Group I: normal saline, Group II: 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), Group III: 2% chlorohexidine, Group IV: 10% Azadirachta indica (neem extract) and Group V: 10% Ocimum sanctum (tulsi extract).After that, root canals were proceeded to be filled by using single gutta-percha cone and Sealapex sealer. Specimens were then prepared and loaded until root fracture occurred. Maximum mean flexural strength of dentin (fracture resistance) was obtained from group treated with 2% chlorohexidine and 10% neem extract. Least fracture resistance was observed with 5% NaOCl. Herbal irrigants can be used as an alternative to NaOCl as they exhibit high fracture resistance.

Ear Diseases:


If you have an earache, Holy Basil may help. A drop of juice from the leaves can apparently soothe and improve earache symptoms in both kids and adults. If you have release from the ear, proceed this for many days. This might be related to its ability to reduce pain sensitivity as well as swelling and irritation in the body.

Include a drop of Holy Basil essential oil to 3 drops of carrier oil as well as massage it around, over and behind your ear. Use a drop or even two of Holy Basil oil in your finger. Use the oil possibly behind the ear on the mastoid bone or perhaps in the outer ear. Usually do not place the oil within the ear canal. You may also include 3 or 4 drops of Holy Basil on the cotton ball and put it within the outer ear, but make certain it doesn’t get within your ears.. Repetitive usage of Holy Basil oil may help quit reoccurring ear infections in kids.


A 2020 study "Phytochemical and antioxidant profiling of Ocimum sanctum" published in Journal Food Sci Technol. by Abha Chaudhary, Sanjay Sharma, Ashwani Mittal, Sanjeev Gupta, Anita Dua, the leaves of Ocimum sanctum were extracted in methanol (OsM) and sequentially fractionated with n-hexane (OsH), ethylacetate (OsE) and butanol (OsB) to find the best extraction solvent for antioxidants from the herb known for its medicinal values. OsB was rich in both total polyphenolic content (TPC) (212.26 ± 6.3 mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) (54.51 ± 3.5 mg QE/g extract). OsE also had significantly high TPC (202.71 ± 5.5 mg GAE/g extract). The EC50 based on DPPH (3.91 ± 0.3 μg/ml), ABTS (1.6 ± 0.1 μg/ml) and phosphomolybdate (2.31 ± 0.1 μg/ml) for OsB; hydroxyl (5.3 ± 0.4 μg/ml), superoxide (7.32 ± 0.9 μg/ml) radicals for OsM and DPPH (8.61 ± 0.6 μg/ml), phosphomolybdate (2.43 ± 0.1 μg/ml) and ABTS (5.3 ± 0.4 μg/ml) for OsE were lower than ascorbic acid showing potential antioxidant properties. EC50 values of different fractions for DPPH anion, ABTS cation free radical scavenging and phosphomolybdate reducing property were significantly and positively correlated with TPC and TFC. LC-MS analysis of OsB and OsE showed the presence of luteolin, apigenin, rosmarinic, chlorogenic, caffeic acid and their derivatives. Quercetin is extracted in ethylacetate fraction. Overall data revealed that O. sanctum leaf extracts in butanol and ethylacetate with high polyphenolics and flavonoids, had strong antioxidant potential.

Another 2020 study "Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effect and cytotoxicity of Ocimum sanctum intra oral gel for combating periodontal diseases" published in Bioinformation by Jaiganesh Ramamurthy, Nadathur Duraisamy Jayakumar, is of interest to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant effect and cytotoxicity of Ocimum sanctum (an Indian herb, Thulsi) intra oral gel in combating periodontal diseases. Hence, 2% of Ocimum sanctum gel was prepared with Carbopol940 soaked in purified water containing 0.2% w/v sodium benzoate overnight. Hydroxy proplyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) solution was mixed with propylene glycol using using tissue homogenizer. Anti-oxidant effect was analyzed using DPPH radical assay and anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using the inhibition of albumin denaturation assay. Ocimum sanctum gel with various dilutions from10 micro litres to 50 micro litres showed exponential increase in percentage of inhibition from 60.9 to 72.2 exhibiting antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory effect of Ocimum sanctum gel showed comparatively equivalent effect with standard diclofenac gel with values ranging from 76.6 for 50 micro liters of Ocimum sanctum gel and 89.6 for standard gel at 50 micro liters. Ocimum sanctum showed less toxicity towards brine shrimp nauplii. Thus we show that Ocimum sanctum gel showed potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect and less toxic to brine shrimp nauplii as a promising agent for the treatment of periodontal diseases.

A 2005 study "Rationale for Immunomodulatory and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ocimum sanctum: Radical Scavenging Potential and Effect on Nitric Oxide Production" published in Acta Hort Proc. WOCMAP III. Vol. 4: Targeted Screening of MAPs, Economics & Law Eds. C. Franz, Á. Máthé, L.E. Craker and Z.E. Gardner by H.R. Jadhav, A. Singh and K.K. Bhutani, methanolic extract of aerial parts showed strong antioxidant activity which may be partly due to its reported immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Findings suggest the alcoholic extracts may be helpful in treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

Free Radicals:

With regards to the human genome, Holy Basil also shows radio-protective benefits in that it helps to shield the body against the DNA-damaging effects of ionizing radiation. Cumulative exposure to radioactive elements from things like mobile phones, wireless routers, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, and other sources can cause prolonged damage to cells, which absorb and store it as inflammation. Holy Basil is also considered to be a powerful prophylactic (life-extending) herb. Among its many researched benefits in the longevity department are stress reduction, cholesterol modulation, blood sugar balance, and liver protection.

It works even better when combined with other plants and herbs of a similar nature such as Chamomile and Rose. This concept is what’s known as nutritional or therapeutic synergy, or the combining of multiple substances to produce a more pronounced effect.

Oxidative Stress:

In a 2022 study "Eugenol Elicits Prolongevity by Increasing Resistance to Oxidative Stress in C. elegans" published in CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, by Nikhat Parween, Amber Jabeen, Birendra Prasad, was to To analyze the efficacy of eugenol on longevity by assessing its antioxidant effect using Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model. Eugenol is a major polyphenolic component of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) which attributes wide pharmacological activities and can serve as a biomarker. However, the possible effect of eugenol on longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans has not been reported. The objective of this investigation was to provide the first scientific based results about the effect of eugenol on longevity, slowing down of paralysis in Alzheimer's model and the mechanism behind it in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model system. The phenolic components of methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Worms were exposed to different concentrations of extract and one of its components - eugenol. Lifespan, health span, survival in CL4176 Alzheimer's model and molecular mechanism were analyzed. Extract of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol increased lifespan and provided indemnity against pro-oxidants. It also significantly improved healthy ageing and slowed the progression of neurodegeneration in CL4176 Alzheimer's model of the worm by increasing survival against prooxidants and slowing down the paralysis. Longevity effect was independent of the DAF-16 as observed by using DAF-16::GFP and daf-16 null mutant strains. These results implicate eugenol as a potent therapeutic compound that may curtail ageing and age related disorders like- Alzheimer's disease. The present work demonstrated eugenol as a potential anti-ageing compound that may curtail ageing, improve heath span by enhancing resistance to oxidative stress and exerts its effect independent of DAF-16 pathway. So, it can be assumed that eugenol can be beneficial to humans as well, albeit further research is necessary before declaring it for human consumption.

Insects & Pests:

Insect Bites and Stings:

This particular herb additionally helps prevent insect stings as well as bites. A teaspoon of fresh juice needs to be applied to the impacted areas as well as repetitive after a couple of hours. A paste of fresh roots is additionally great at case of bites of insects as well as leeches. Use a paste of Tulsi leaves and also roots ground collectively on the sting of the scorpion. It’ll totally remove the negative effects of poison. And in such cases, smashing several leaves of Tulsi as well as combining it along with lemon helps too. Use it on the area of the sting and it’ll treat the situation. The pain brought on by the sting could be decreased by consuming Tulsi juice and also by using it around the sting.

Massage your foot soles with 2 drops of Holy Basil oil and 2 drops of Lavender oil blended with 2 ml of Coconut oil for reducing fever.

Repels Insects and Bugs:

You can make an easy bug repellent using the same method above. However, omit the sweetener and pour the finished tea into a spray bottle. Add about a tablespoon of vodka to discourage mold growth. To use, shake well and use on bugs in the garden or around the home. Spray counter tops and around windows. Flies will be deterred by the cinnamon and clove scent. Because the essential oils will evaporate, you may need to spray every few hours.

Numerous research studies have reported that Holy Basil oil contains 100% insecticidal and larvicidal activities especially against Culex mosquitoes.

Adding 2 drops of Holy Basil oil in your air-freshener or diffuser can be of great assistance in keeping away from insects with its insect-repellant properties.

Repels Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes (Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya):

Odorant receptors (ORs) are important class of proteins involved in olfactory behaviour of insects. These are GPCR-like heptahelical transmembrane proteins with inverted topology compared to GPCR and require a co-receptor (ORco) for their function. OR function can be modulated through small molecules and negative modulation can be beneficial in case of disease vectors like Aedes aegypti. OR4 of A. aegypti is implicated in host recognition through human odour. Aedes aegypti is a vector for viruses that spread diseases like dengue, Zika and Chikungunya.

A 2023 study "Structure modelling of odorant receptor from Aedes aegypti and identification of potential repellent molecules" published in Comput Struct Biotechnol Journal., by Vikas Tiwari, R Sowdhamini, we have attempted to model the full-length structure of OR4 and the ORco of A. aegypti due to lack of experimental structure. Further, we have screened a library of natural compounds (>0.3 million) along with known repellent molecules against ORco and OR4. Many natural compounds, including those from plants like Ocimum tenuiflorum (Holy Basil) and Piper nigrum (Black pepper), were found to have better binding affinity towards ORco compared to known repellents like DEET providing an alternative to existing repellent molecules. For specific inhibitor of OR4, several natural compounds (including those from plant like Mulberry) were identified. Further, we have utilized multiple docking approaches and conservation analysis to understand the interaction between OR4 and ORco. It was observed that the residues from the seventh transmembrane helix of OR4 and pore forming helix of ORco could play an important role along with known intracellular loop 3 residues in mediating the heteromer formation of OR and ORco.

Repels Termites (Heterotermes indicola):

A 2011 study published in Pakistan Journal of Science Vol. 63 No. 1 by F. Manzoor, W. Beena, S. Malik, N. Naz, S. Naz and W. H Syed, about various crude extracts of flowers, leaf, root and stems were studied against the termite species, H. indicola. All extracts showed moderate toxic effects. Maximum repellency was seen in the methanol root extracts while water extracts showed minimum repellency.

Spider Bites and Scorpion Stings:

It is a curative and preventive herb for insect bites and stings. Applying fresh Tulsi leaves juice on affected areas brings instant relief. These are only general guidelines for Tulsi as a first aid. You are advised to seek guidance of physician before using this amazing herb. Paste prepared from Holy Basil seeds can heal spider bites and scorpion stings. Some other studies also recommend using the paste of the leaves or roots of Holy Basil.

Pet Health:

Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis:

In a 2023 review "Bioprospective Role of Ocimum sanctum and Solanum xanthocarpum against Emerging Pathogen" published in Molecules, by Manthena Nava Bharath, Saurabh Gupta, Garima Vashistha, Sayeed Ahmad, Shoor Vir Singh, Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic, contagious, and typically life-threatening enteric disease of ruminants caused by a bacterium of the genus Mycobacterium, but it can also affect non-ruminant animals. MAP transmission occurs through the fecal-oral pathway in neonates and young animals. After infection, animals generate IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10, resulting in a Th2 response. Early detection of the disease is necessary to avoid its spread. Many detection methods, viz., staining, culture, and molecular methods, are available, and numerous vaccines and anti-tuberculosis drugs are used to control the disease. However, the prolonged use of anti-tuberculosis drugs leads to the development of resistance. Whereas vaccines hamper the differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals in an endemic herd. This leads to the identification of plant-based bioactive compounds to treat the disease. Bioactive compounds of Ocimum sanctum and Solanum xanthocarpum have been evaluated for their anti-MAP activity. Based on the MIC50 values, Ursolic acid (12 µg/mL) and Solasodine (60 µg/mL) were found to be suitable for anti-MAP activity.


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